The national focal point in Lithuania is situated within the Drug, Tobacco and Alcohol Control Department of the Government of the Republic of Lithuania. The main responsibilities of the department include implementation of the national drug programme, information gathering and dissemination. The department operates under the direct leadership of the Prime Minister, and is responsible for relations with international organisations, including the EMCDDA.
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Last updated: Wednesday, May 25, 2016
Three national general population surveys on drug use in Lithuania were carried out in 2004, 2008 and 2012. The 2008 and 2012 surveys were carried out in line with the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA) guidelines, and were conducted in 2008 among 4 777 and in 2012 among 4 831 randomly selected people aged 15–64.
The results indicate that cannabis remains the most frequently used illicit substance in Lithuania. Among younger adults (aged 15–34) the lifetime prevalence of cannabis use fell from 21.2 % in 2008 to 17.1 % in 2012. Last year prevalence of cannabis use also declined, from 5.6 % in 2008 to 2.3 % in 2012 for all respondents, and among younger adults from 9.9 % in 2008 to 5.1 % in 2012. Last month prevalence of cannabis use was reported by 1.2 % of all respondents in 2008, and fell to 0.7 % in 2012; among younger adults it was 2.6 % in 2008 and 1.6 % in 2012. Males were four times more likely to report lifetime use of cannabis; however, the gender gap narrowed in younger age groups. Ecstasy and amphetamines were respectively the second and the third most prevalent drugs in both surveys. Similarly to cannabis, reported prevalence for these substances was also lower in 2012 compared to 2008.
Lithuania has participated in the European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs (ESPAD) since 1995. With the exception of lifetime prevalence rates of inhalants use and heroin, experimentation with illicit drugs increased among students in Lithuania between 1995 and 2007, and the most recent (2011) survey found a further increase in lifetime prevalence rates for cannabis and inhalants use. Data from the 2011 ESPAD survey showed lifetime prevalence of cannabis use, the illicit drug 15- to 16-year-olds most frequently experimented with, was 20 % (18 % in 2007; 13 % in 2003; 12 % in 1999). Results also showed 13 % for last year prevalence of cannabis use (12 % in 2007; 11 % in 2003; 10 % in 1999), and 5 % for last month prevalence (5 % in 2007; 6 % in 2003; 4 % in 1999). Inhalants were the second most frequently reported substance, with lifetime prevalence rates at 7 % (3 % in 2007; 5 % in 2003; 10 % in 1999), followed by amphetamines at 3 % (3 % in 2007; 5 % in 2003; 2 % in 1999). With regard to ecstasy, hallucinogens, cocaine and heroin, the results of the most recent survey indicated a lifetime prevalence of 2 %. Males were almost twice as likely to report lifetime use of cannabis as females.
A study in nightclub settings in five main cities from 2013 indicates that the use of illicit substances among clubbers might be higher than among the general population. More than a third of clubbers have used an illicit substance in the past. Cannabis continues to be the most popular drug among clubbers, followed by cocaine, ecstasy and amphetamine.
The Lithuanian Drug Strategy prioritises the prevention of drug use in the family, among children and youths. In 2011 the ‘Resolution of the Parliament of the Republic of Lithuania, on targeted policy of prevention and control of drugs, tobacco and alcohol consumption’ prioritised the development of mature values and building of skills for a healthy life among children and young people through integrated and evidence-based prevention programmes. Drug prevention projects are focused mainly on universal prevention in local communities and schools, aiming to protect young people from drug use.
The Ministry of Education and Sciences implements the universal prevention programme Prevention of Use of Alcohol, Tobacco and Psychoactive Substances, which was instigated in 946 schools in 2014. The programme is adapted to each age group, and covers pre-school, primary, basic and secondary education. Framework programmes on human security and health education, approved in 2012, also attempt to improve pupils’ capacity to make sound decisions and to develop the abilities, skills and principles required for the adoption of a healthier lifestyle. In 2014 a total of 840 schools implemented the human security programme and 688 schools carried out the health education programme. However, nearly a hundred other different life skills-based drug prevention programmes are used across all educational settings, and a number of methodological materials and training activities for teachers are also available on this topic. The Zip’s Friends programme, an early prevention and socio-emotional development course targeting pre-school and first-year schoolchildren, was implemented in 314 educational settings throughout the country in 2014. Sixty-two schools started to implement Apple Friends, a continuation of the Zip’s Friends programme. The internationally recognised Unplugged programme, which increases children’s social communication skills and critical thinking, continued to be implemented in 90 schools. A number of schools offer a special programme to children whose parents use psychoactive substances. In 2012 a special procedure for the certification of prevention programmes was adopted, and nine programmes have been successfully certified, including Zip’s Friends and Apple Friends. Universal prevention activities are carried out in youth centres or places where young people congregate, mainly through providing alternative leisure activities and engaging young people in educational programmes. Several programmes for parents are available through school settings, and these mainly focus on improving parenting and communication skills. Environmental prevention activities focus on ensuring a safe living environment, and in 2014 nearly 2 000 safe neighbourhood groups were established in Lithuania.
Selective prevention activities in Lithuania have been targeted mainly at recreational settings such as nightclubs, bars and cafes, and at children from at-risk families through the social day centres, open youth centres and spaces. In recreational settings prevention activities are primarily initiated by the police, while nightclubs tend to apply measures such as safety checks at the entrance, limiting the entry of under-aged young people and maintaining a safe physical environment. A Lithuanian version of the FreD goes net project was launched in 2013, in cooperation with the police of Kaunas city. By the end of 2014 a total of 67 juveniles had participated in the programme. Mass media campaigns and information provision (leaflets, etc.) still play a significant role in prevention activities.
In 2012 the methodological recommendations ‘Development of psychoactive substance control and prevention programmes in the municipalities of Lithuania’ were issued to promote evidence-based development and the evaluation of municipality-based prevention programmes.
Up to 2012 the EMCDDA defined problem drug use as injecting drug use or long duration/regular use of opiates, cocaine and/or amphetamines. However, in 2012 a new concept of ‘high-risk drug use’ was adapted. The new concept includes ‘problem drug use’, but is broader (mainly in its inclusion of high-risk use of more substances). Details are available here.
In 2010 a capture–recapture study based on data from the Ministry of Health, Ministry of Justice and Ministry of Interior was implemented to estimate the number of high-risk opioid users between 2005 and 2007. According to the study, in 2007 there were around 5 458 high-risk opioid users in Lithuania (range: 5 314–5 605), a rate of 2.4 per 1 000 population aged 15–64.
In 2007 a monitoring information system of people who apply to healthcare institutions for mental and behavioural disorders and the use of narcotic and psychotropic substances was established with an Order of the Minister of Health of the Republic of Lithuania. However, due to technical, financial and legal delays, the computerised monitoring system was developed in 2012, and data collection started in 2013 according to the EMCDDA treatment demand indicator (TDI) protocol v. 2.0. Health service providers are required to complete a statistical form and submit data electronically to the State Mental Health Centre, which is responsible for data analysis and for providing information to the national focal point. The national focal point then provides data to the EMCDDA.
In 2014 healthcare institutions reported 2 159 individuals entering treatment and registered with a diagnosis of dependence disorders caused by drugs and psychotropic substances. Of these, 341 were new clients entering treatment for the first time. Data indicate that 88 % of all and 67 % of new treatment clients entered treatment because of primary use of opioids, especially heroin. Other substances had a minor role in the primary problems reported by new treatment clients. Injection as the main route of drug administration plays an important role, especially among heroin and amphetamines clients. In 2014 the majority of all clients entering treatment were 30 to 34 years old, while majority of clients who entered the treatment for the first time were 25 to 29 years old. With regard to gender distribution, 79 % of all and 77 % of new treatment clients were male.
In Lithuania the Centre for Communicable Diseases and AIDS at the Ministry of Health (CCDA) collects aggregated nationwide diagnostic data on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), acute hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections. The most recent bio-behavioural seroprevalence study of HIV, HBV and HCV among people who inject drugs (PWID) was carried out in 2007–08. HIV prevalence rates among subgroups of PWID increased to more than 1 % in 1997, yet remained consistently below 5 % until 2001. Testing of clients of harm reduction programmes in 2010 indicated significant geographical variations in HIV prevalence rates, ranging from 0.0 % to 21.4 %, while in 2014 HIV prevalence among 200 tested clients in the harm reduction programmes of three cities was 12.5 %. In 2014 the number of newly reported HIV positive cases was 141, which was fewer than in 2013 (177 cases). Of these, 38 in 2014 and 64 in 2013 were PWID.
In 2014, according to European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control data, 26 people with acute HBV were registered, and none of these cases were linked to injecting drug use. Thirty-four people with acute HCV were registered in 2014, and there were five registered acute HCV cases with a known transmission route among PWID. However, for both HBV and HCV the transmission route for a significant proportion of cases remained unknown. Due to the high proportion of cases with unknown causality, the surveillance data (notifications) on HBV and HCV transmission among PWID in Lithuania should be treated with caution. In 2014 HCV prevalence among 200 tested clients in harm reduction programmes from three cities was 77 %, while 10.5 % were positive for HBV (surface antigen).
Since 2010 data on drug-induced deaths have been submitted by the General Mortality Register (GMR) of the Institute of Hygiene. Drug-induced deaths are those lethal cases where the direct cause of death recorded on the death certificate is the use of narcotic and psychotropic substances. The national focal point receives full data from the GMR and is able to extract and report data according to EMCDDA definitions and recommendations.
In 2014 some 87 drug-induced deaths were recorded (Definition ‘B’), which indicates a continuing increase starting from 2012 (70 cases in 2012; 54 cases in 2013), and follows a period between 2007 and 2011 when a decreasing trend in deaths was registered (76 and 45 cases respectively). Most of the cases in 2014 were male (76 cases) and the mean age at death was 34.5 years. Toxicological analyses were reported for all but one case in 2014. Opioids were the primary substances involved in 54 of the cases (three of which reported methadone) with known toxicology results, while 28 deaths were due to mixed or unknown substances.
The drug-induced mortality rate among adults (aged 15–64) was 44.2 deaths per million in 2014, compared to an European average of 19.2 deaths per million.
Drug treatment in Lithuania is provided mostly by public and private agencies. Coordination, implementation and provision of drug treatment are conducted at the local level. The main funding bodies of the different treatment services are the national budget, national health insurance and municipal budgets. Four regional counties and one municipality have established specialised treatment centres (Centres for Addictive Disorders) at the regional level
Outpatient drug treatment is provided by 282 primary healthcare institutions and through private medical institutions that have obtained a special licence. Outpatient drug treatment is also provided in Centres for Addictive Disorders. There are five regional public specialised Centres for Addictive Disorders, which are located across the country and provide outpatient and inpatient services. These centres offer treatment of one to three months by group psychotherapy, acupuncture and counselling, and they also provide methadone maintenance treatment. Inpatient treatment, such as withdrawal treatment and residential treatment, is delivered by the hospital-based residential drug treatment units and therapeutic communities, while detoxification services are available through toxicological units in general hospitals or in private toxicology centres. Special treatment programmes are available for children who are dependent on psychoactive substances, including two long-term rehabilitation communities. In addition, 22 long-term rehabilitation centres and seven day centres are operating across the country.
Opioid substitution treatment (OST) with methadone has been implemented since 1995, and treatment commenced in three cities in 1996. Buprenorphine treatment has been available since late 2002 throughout specialised mental healthcare institutions, and buprenorphine- and naloxone-based medication is also registered in the country. The provision of OST is guided by Order No. 702 of the Ministry of Health, which restricts the implementation of methadone and buprenorphine treatment to treatment centres. In 2011 the Order from the Ministry of Health further amended Order No 702, clarifying criteria and procedures for the application of OST, and proposed a procedure for an annual assessment of OST’s effectiveness for clients. OST has been prescribed by a decision of a consultative commission since its initiation in Lithuania; however, in 2014 a decree was adopted to allow psychiatrists to issue a prescription for the treatment based on indications. OST is integrated with the addiction treatment at the Centres for Addictive Disorders and all mental health centres. In 2014 some 585 clients received OST, of which 479 were in methadone maintenance treatment and 106 received buprenorphine-based treatment. Methadone maintenance is continued for clients in police custody; however, it is discontinued if a client is transferred to prison. OST is not available in Lithuanian prisons.
In 1997 the Vilnius Centre for Dependence Diseases, in cooperation with the Open Society Foundation in Lithuania, was the first to commence low-threshold programmes for PWID. A special decree of the Ministry of Health, adopted in 2006, provided a background for the expansion of the programmes and also sets the minimum criteria for services. In 2014 there were 11 low-threshold units (three mobile), including three mobile outreach needle/syringe distribution and exchange points, operating in eight cities in Lithuania. These programmes were mainly financed by state and municipal budgets, but also received support from other sources of funding. Some programmes were temporarily closed due to budgetary cuts in recent years; however, they have subsequently re-opened.
Minimum service criteria for low-threshold units have been established, which set out that PWID may exchange needles and syringes, and obtain condoms, disinfectant tissues, bandages and educational/informational material. At these facilities clients may also have a short consultation with a social worker, obtain information about the availability of healthcare and social assistance or take a rapid test for infectious diseases. Furthermore, the overdose reversal drug naloxone has been available in the mobile units since 2015. In terms of service provision, information and counselling have remained the primary focus of the services, while syringe provision plays a minor and declining role. The number of syringes distributed through the centres — in 2014 around 155 000 — are markedly fewer than the approximately 239 000 syringes distributed in 2008. Although pharmacies are a significant source of sterile injecting equipment in many countries, a 2008 study showed high levels of intolerance among Lithuanian pharmacy staff toward PWID, a reason why no special harm-reduction programmes have been implemented in cooperation with pharmacists as yet. Universal vaccination against HBV has been provided since 1998 to infants and 12-year-old children, while special HBV immunisation programmes for PWID do not exist in the country.
Lithuania is considered a transit country for the trafficking of illicit substances between west European, east European and Scandinavian countries, mainly by land. Methamphetamine is the most common illegal drug produced locally, although no laboratories were seized in 2014. In 2013 three methamphetamine illicit production sites were detected. Lithuanian-produced amphetamines are transported by road or ferries to Scandinavian countries, Belarus, Russia and the United Kingdom. Small quantities of cannabis are also cultivated in the country, predominantly under artificial conditions. Cannabis products arrive in Lithuania from the Netherlands or Spain, mainly in transit. Some synthetic stimulants, particularly ecstasy tablets in recent years, have been imported from the Netherlands, Belgium and Poland. Heroin is smuggled from Central Asian countries through Russia and Belarus. Testing indicates deteriorating purity in the heroin seized in the past few years. Klaipeda, a sea port, remains one of the main entry points for cocaine, although other ways of smuggling the substance by land, postal service and air are increasingly exploited. Most of the cocaine seized in Lithuania enters from the Netherlands or Spain, and is destined for Russia or other European countries. New psychoactive substances arrive from eastern or southern Asian countries and China. Some also arrive from the United Kingdom and Spain, and postal courier services are increasingly used for their transport. Mail courier services are increasingly also used for transporting small quantities of other illicit drugs such as ecstasy, amphetamines and cannabis resin.
The number of offences related to illicit drugs increased from 959 in 2003, when harsher laws were adopted, to 3 387 in 2014. According to the Lithuanian Ministry of Interior, more than half of drug-law offences were linked to the possession of psychotropic substances for purposes other than distribution.
Cannabis products are still involved in the largest proportions of all seizures, and the number of cannabis resin and herbal cannabis seizures increased in 2014 compared to 2013. However, the amount of cannabis resin (840.814 kg) and herbal cannabis (78.715 kg) seized in 2014 was less than the amounts reported in 2013 (1 088 kg and 124.1 kg respectively).
Following 2012, when a record low quantity of heroin (0.5 kg) was seized, in 2013 a total of 13.2 kg was seized, most of which came from one operation. In 2014 the number of seizures involving heroin increased; however, the amount seized was 6.884 kg.
In 2014 the number of seizures involving amphetamine increased to 55 and there were 75 seizures of methamphetamine. Despite the increase in the number of seizures, the amount of seized substance was 3.852 kg, which is almost four times less than reported in 2013 (13.05 kg). The amount of seized methamphetamine was also significantly lower in 2014 compared to 2013 (6.561 kg and 58.01 kg respectively). Cocaine seizures are highly variable; in 2012 more than 120 kg of the substance was seized, while in 2013 the total was slightly more than 3 kg and in 2014 the amount seized was 116.1 kg. Ecstasy was involved in a small number of seizures, and in 2014 total of 1.879 kg of substance was seized.
The penal code entered into force in May 2003, with further changes in 2010 to tighten custodial sentences. Possession of even a small amount of illicit drugs with no intent to distribute is a criminal offence, with a sentence of up to two years’ imprisonment. (This is also listed as an administrative offence, but the penal code takes priority.) Drug traffickers may be sentenced to between two and eight years’ imprisonment, which increases to 8–10 and then 10–15 years, depending on the quantities involved and the presence of aggravating circumstances (such as the involvement of minors or an organised group). A Ministry of Health regulation defines small, large and very large quantities of all drugs.
In 2009 an administrative penalty was introduced for offences related to the presence of intoxicated workers at workplaces.
New psychoactive substances are regulated through amendments of the List of Drugs and Psychotropic Substances Prohibited to Use For Medical Purposes. In 2010–12, for example, 18 new substances or substance groups were added to this list.
The National Programme on Drug Control and Prevention of Drug Addiction, 2010–16 was endorsed by the Lithuanian Parliament on 10 November 2010. The overarching goal of the programme is to reduce the supply and demand for illicit drugs and psychotropic substances and their precursors, and the spread of drug addiction, by strengthening individual and public education, health and safety. Several priorities are included in the national programme addressing: drug demand reduction among children and youth in particular; drug supply reduction; drug use monitoring; information; and coordination and international cooperation. The programme is constructed around two pillars covering the areas of supply and demand reduction and two cross-cutting themes focus on coordination and cooperation, and information and research. It is primarily concerned with illicit drugs. Since 2015 the strategy has been implemented as part of the Inter-institutional Action Plan for Prevention of Drugs, Tobacco and Alcohol, approved by Resolution No 217 of 25 February 2015. A new draft strategy, the National Programme for Control and Use Prevention of Drugs, Tobacco and Alcohol for 2015–2025, is currently under development.
The policy issues regarding drug control and prevention of drug addiction and amendments of laws in this area are mainly discussed in the Parliamentary Committee of Health Affairs, the Commission for Prevention of Drug Addiction and Alcohol Dependence, and in the National Health Council.
The Health Affairs Committee is involved in the development of legislation and coordinating the work of institutions involved. It presents the Parliament with proposals relevant for health policy and oversees the implementation of healthcare reform and the development of the health system.
The Commission for Prevention of Drug Addiction and Alcohol Dependence is a permanent commission of the Parliament of the Republic of Lithuania. It is responsible for forming and overseeing the implementation of policy and strategy for the prevention and control of drug, tobacco and alcohol control use.
The National Health Council is involved in the coordination of health policy and reports to the Parliament. Specifically, it coordinates policy with respect to alcohol, tobacco and drug control, public healthcare, and disease prevention and control.
The Drug, Tobacco and Alcohol Control Department is responsible for the implementation and coordination of the National Programme on Drug Control and Prevention of Drug Addiction, 2010–16. It is tasked with: participating in formulating public policy on drugs, tobacco and alcohol control and its implementation; coordinating and monitoring the activities of national authorities involved in precursor chemical, tobacco and alcohol control; preparing national alcohol, tobacco, drug control and prevention programmes and coordinating their implementation; organising and coordinating the risk assessment of new psychoactive substances; performing the licensing of the wholesale production of tobacco and alcohol and the licensing of precursors; and functioning as the Reitox national focal point in the EMCDDA’s Reitox network.
Each of the 60 municipalities has a Municipality Drug Control Commission. These usually consist of representatives of local institutions (police, educational institutions, doctors, social workers, etc.), and the chairperson is usually the mayor or vice-mayor. These municipal commissions coordinate different actions, such as prevention, treatment and harm reduction.
A multi-annual budget was associated to Lithuania’s Action Plan for 1999–2003. The Action Plan for 2004–08 had no such budget. However, in that period the Government defined a detailed budget each year. Between 2008 and 2010 information on drug-related public expenditures was fragmented, but in 2011 the Government started to associate an annual budget to the Lithuanian Interagency Activity Plan (2011–13). In 2013 the Government allocated EUR 1 159 000 to the Lithuanian Action Plan 2010–16, while in 2014 the planed budget was EUR 678 000. In 2015 the Interinstitutional Action Plan of Drug, Tobacco and Alcohol Prevention planned funding of EUR 4 405 700.
In 2008 labelled drug-related expenditures (1) were estimated to represent 0.02 % of gross domestic product (GDP). Most planned expenditures were allocated to treatment and rehabilitation (50.9 %), followed by prevention (18.4 %), law enforcement (17.7 %) and coordination and research activities (13.0 %) (Table 1). After 2011 the overall annual budget approved at the beginning of every fiscal year for drug-related expenditure declined as a proportion of GDP, from 0.013 % GDP in 2011 to an estimated 0.002 % in 2013. The planned budget for 2014 is set to decline further.
Table 1: Total drug-related public expenditure, 2012
Drug policy area
% of total (a)
|Areas of drug policy interventions|
Treatment and rehabilitation
|Law enforcement||1 072||17.7|
|Coordination, scientific research, development of the information system||783||13.0|
|% of GDP||0.02 %|
(a) EMCDDA estimations.
Source: National annual report of Lithuania (2009)
(1) Some of the funds allocated by governments for expenditure on tasks related to drugs are identified as such in the budget (‘labelled’). Often, however, the bulk of drug-related expenditure is not identified (‘unlabelled’) and must be estimated by modelling approaches. The total budget is the sum of labelled and unlabelled drug-related expenditures.
Scientific research and the development of information systems and training on research are two priorities within the national programme on drug addiction, prevention and control. Research is mainly funded by relevant ministries and public authorities. The Lithuanian national focal point has a mandate to develop methodological recommendations in the drug field. It also conducts population surveys and collects information from several governmental, academic and non-governmental organisation sources on drug-related research, which is disseminated through its annual National report and website. Recent drug-related studies have mainly focused on the prevalence, incidence and patterns of drug use, the prevalence of infectious diseases among drug users, responses to the drug situation and consequences of drug use.
|Problem opioid use (rate/1 000)||2007||2.36||0.2||10.7|
|All clients entering treatment (%)||2014||88.2%||4%||90%|
|New clients entering treatment (%)||2014||66.6%||2%||89%|
|Purity — heroin brown (%)||2014||1||23.0%||7%||52%|
|Price per gram — heroin brown (EUR)||2014||EUR 63||EUR 23||EUR 140|
|Prevalence of drug use — schools (%)||2011||2.0%||1%||5%|
|Prevalence of drug use — young adults (%)||2012||0.3%||0%||4%|
|Prevalence of drug use — all adults (%)||2012||0.2%||0%||2%|
|All clients entering treatment (%)||2014||0.2%||0%||38%|
|New clients entering treatment (%)||2014||0.3%||0%||40%|
|Price per gram (EUR)||2014||EUR 72||EUR 47||EUR 107|
|Prevalence of drug use — schools (%)||2011||3.0%||1%||7%|
|Prevalence of drug use — young adults (%)||2012||0.5%||0%||3%|
|Prevalence of drug use — all adults (%)||2012||0.2%||0%||1%|
|All clients entering treatment (%)||2014||3.4%||0%||70%|
|New clients entering treatment (%)||2014||8.2%||0%||75%|
|Price per gram (EUR)||2014||EUR 10||EUR 3||EUR 63|
|Prevalence of drug use — schools (%)||2011||2.0%||1%||4%|
|Prevalence of drug use — young adults (%)||2012||0.3%||0%||6%|
|Prevalence of drug use — all adults (%)||2012||0.2%||0%||2%|
|All clients entering treatment (%)||2014||0.0%||0%||2%|
|New clients entering treatment (%)||2014||0.0%||0%||2%|
|Purity (mg of MDMA base per unit)||2014||38 mg||27 mg||131 mg|
|Price per tablet (EUR)||2014||EUR 6||EUR 4||EUR 16|
|Prevalence of drug use — schools (%)||2011||20.0%||5%||42%|
|Prevalence of drug use — young adults (%)||2012||5.1%||0%||24%|
|Prevalence of drug use — all adults (%)||2012||2.3%||0%||11%|
|All clients entering treatment (%)||2014||4.3%||3%||63%|
|New clients entering treatment (%)||2014||14.7%||7%||77%|
|Potency — herbal (%)||:||:||3%||15%|
|Potency — resin (%)||:||:||3%||29%|
|Price per gram — herbal (EUR)||2014||EUR 10||EUR 3||EUR 23|
|Price per gram — resin (EUR)||2014||EUR 12||EUR 3||EUR 22|
|Prevalence of problem drug use|
|Problem drug use (rate/1 000)||:||:||2.7||10.0|
|Injecting drug use (rate/1 000)||:||:||0.2||9.2|
|Drug-related infectious diseases/deaths|
|HIV infections newly diagnosed (cases / million)||2014||12.9||0.0||50.9|
|HIV prevalence (%)||:||:||0%||31%|
|HCV prevalence (%)||:||:||15%||84%|
|Drug-related deaths (rate/million)||2014||44.2||2.4||113.2|
|Health and social responses|
|Syringes distributed||2014||154 889||382||7 199 660|
|Clients in substitution treatment||2014||585||178||161 388|
|All clients||2014||2 159||271||100 456|
|New clients||2014||341||28||35 007|
|All clients with known primary drug||2014||2 159||271||97 068|
|New clients with known primary drug||2014||341||28||34 088|
|Drug law offences|
|Number of reports of offences||2014||3 387||537||282 177|
|Offences for use/possession||2014||3 195||13||398 422|
b Breal in time series.
p Eurostat provisional value.
: Not available.
1 Gross domestic product (GDP) is a measure of economic activity. It is defined as the value of all goods and services produced less the value of any goods or services used in their creation. The volume index of GDP per capita in Purchasing Power Standards (PPS) is expressed in relation to the European Union (EU-27) average set to equal 100. If the index of a country is higher than 100, this country's level of GDP per head is higher than the EU average and vice versa.
2 Expenditure on social protection contains: benefits, which consist of transfers in cash or in kind to households and individuals to relieve them of the burden of a defined set of risks or needs.
3 Unemployment rates represent unemployed persons as a percentage of the labour force. Unemployed persons comprise persons aged 15 to 74 who were: (a) without work during the reference week; (b) currently available for work; (c) actively seeking work.
4 Situation of penal institutions on 1 September, 2014.
5 Share of persons aged 0+ with an equivalent disposable income below the at-risk-of-poverty threshold, which is set at 60 % of the national median equivalised disposable income (after social transfers).
|Year||EU (28 countries)||Source|
|Population||2014||2 943 472||506 944 075 bep||Eurostat|
|Population by age classes||15–24||2014||13.3 %||11.3 % bep||Eurostat|
|25–49||33.1 %||34.7 % bep|
|50–64||20.6 %||19.9 % bep|
|GDP per capita in PPS (Purchasing Power Standards) 1||2014||64||100||Eurostat|
|Total expenditure on social protection (% of GDP) 2||2013||15.3 % p||:||Eurostat|
|Unemployment rate 3||2015||9.1 %||9.4 %||Eurostat|
|Unemployment rate of population aged under 25 years||2015||16.3 %||20.3 %||Eurostat|
|Prison population rate (per 100 000 of national population) 4||2014||305.0||:||Council of Europe, SPACE I-2014.1|
|At risk of poverty rate 5||2014||19.1 %||17.2 %||SILC|
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