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Table PDU-1. Estimates of prevalence of problem drug use at national level: summary table, 2006–11, rate per 1 000 aged 15–64

Part (iii) Problem opioid use

CountryNotesYearCentral rate/1000 ages 15–64Lower and Upper rates/1000 ages 15-64Estimated Number of usersLower and upper bound of prevalence estimatesEstimation methods [1]Data sources [1]Remarks:Reference
Czech Republic120111.31.2-1.393008800-9750TMLTS;OS:7
Germany22010n.a.2.9-3.4:156164-185445TM:Germany reported two estimates for 2011 (based on MM or PM methods). However, data for 2010 TM method are presented here. For full details see Table PDU-102.33;34
Ireland120067.26.2-8.12079018136-23576CRTR ; HO:3 ; 4
Greece120112.72.5-3.02047318529-22688CRTRThe entire population recorded by the TDI, subject to tha age being 15-64 years, who have injected in the last month indeendently of substance3
Spain120101.21.1-1.33850036093-41250TMTR;OSProblematic heroin users3
Lithuania120072.42.3-2.454585314-5605CRTR ; CJLong duration/regular use of opioids, multiple drug use, other psychoactive substances. Estimated proportion of opioid users >90%.3
Luxembourg120075.95.0-7.619001608-2463CR ; TPTR ; DRD ; CJ ; DRID ; OSTProblem heroin users.4
Hungary12007- ; CJHeroin users. Opiates other than heroin were excluded.4
Malta120117.56.9-8.221591987-2369CRTRDaily opioid users. 3
Netherlands120081.61.61.61770017300-18100TMTRProblem opiates users.32
Austria120115.305.20-5.503030629500-31111CRTR ; CJ(Poly-) drug use including opiates. According to other sources of data this is by far the main group of problem drug users in Austria1;13
Slovakia120081.31.0-2.548883966-9782OTLTSSignificant change in data collection occured in 2008 and caused na artificial decrease in estimatet prevalence. For historical data see Table PDU-102.7
United Kingdom12004-108.28.0-8.6335496327659-351438CR ; MIMTR ; CJ ; DRDBased on estimates of opiate use in Northern Irealnd for 2004; opiate use in England for 2009/10; and long duration or regular use of opiates in Wales for 2009/10. For Scotland the number of opiate users has been estimated as 90% of the number of opiates and/or benzodiazepines users in 2009/10, using the proportion from the Drug Outcomes Research in Scotland study (DORIS).24;28; 29;30
Norway320083.02.1-3.994506600-12300CMDRD ; SS ; OSProblem heroin users. 5


n.a. = not available.

1 - Interval is a 95 % confidence interval.

2 - Confidence Interval not available.

3 - Interval is based on a sensitivity analysis.

4- Interval estimated using other method

5-Croatia reported in 2011opioid & stimulants, while it had reported opioids in 2010. So data for 2010 are included in part (iii) and for 2011 in part (i)

CR = Capture Recapture

CM = Combined method

TM = Treatment Multiplier

TP = Truncated Poisson

OT = Other

HM = HIV Multiplier

MM = Mortality Multiplier

MI = Multivariate Indicator Method

TR = Treatment data.

GPS = General population surveys.

DRD = Drug related deaths.

OS = Other surveys.

SS = Social services.

LTS = Low-threshold programmes.

CJ = Criminal justice data.

HO = Hospitals.

DRID = Infectious Diseases Registries

For further details on methods and data sources/comments see Table PDU-102 and Table PDU-103.

See also ‘General notes for interpreting data’ on the Explanatory notes and help page

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Page last updated: Friday, 26 April 2013