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Table PDU-1. Estimates of prevalence of problem drug use at national level: summary table, 2006–11, rate per 1 000 aged 15–64

Part (i) Overall problem drug use

CountryNotesYearCentral rate/1000 ages 15–64Lower and Upper rates/1000 ages 15-64Estimated number of usersLower and upper bound of prevalence estimatesTarget population [1]Estimation methods [1]Data sources [1]Remarks: Reference
Bulgaria120096.04.4-8.23131623050-42920PDUCRCJ ; TR ; EM:
Czech Republic120115.54.5-6.54020032700-47700PDUTMLTS;OSCurrent IDUs (EMCDDAs definition, with the excetion that cocaine is not included in Czech definition) because cocaine use prevalence is very low and almost not measurable7
Denmark120099.128.6-9.73307431151-34997PDUCRTRThe target population are clients admitted to treatment for their drug problems over all (including users of cannabis).8
Germany2;62010n.a.3.7-4.4n.a. 200402-237977PDUTMTR;HO:31;34;36
Greece120112.72.5-3.02047318529-22688POUCRTRThe entire population recorded by the TDI, subject to tha age being 15-64 years, who have injected in the last month indeendently of substance3
France1;720116.7-8.8274000-360000PDUMI;TMTR;CJ;SSTreatment multiplier: extrapolation of local estimates to the 96 "départements" in metropolitan France;MIM based on 6 anchor points; Treatment multiplier using police data7;12;13
Italy1200910.09.7-10.2393490382500-404500PDUTMTROpioid and Cocaine users eligible for treatment27
Cyprus120112.11.8-2.512401045-1506PDUTPTRLong term/ regular opioid and/ or cocaine users.8
Luxembourg20096.24.6-7.8207015532623PDUOT CJ ; TR ; DRID ; OSTEMCDDA definition for PDU5
Austria120115.35.2-5.53030629500-31111POUCRTR ; CJ(Poly-) drug use including opiates. According to other sources of data this is by far the main group of problem drug users in Austria1;13
Poland220092.92.1-3.87950056000-103000PDUTMTR ; GPSThe original age range of the study refers to all ages, the rates were adjusted to ages 15–64.:
Slovakia20082.72.1-8.5105198182-33489PDUTMLTSEstimate likely inflated due to change in number of data providers. For details see 2010 Slovak National Report 7
Sweden220074.9n.a.29513n.a.PDUTPTR ; HO ; CJ:2
United Kingdom12004-109.49.1-9.9383534372560-406406PDUCR ; MIMTR ; CJ ; DRDBased on estimates of opiate use in Northern Irealnd for 2004; opiates and/or benzodiazepines use in Scotland for 2009/10; opiate and/or crack cocaine use in England for 2009/10 and for long duration or regular use of opiates and/or cocaine in Wales for 2009/1024;28; 29;30
Croatia1;820113.32.7-4.297958104-12553PDUMMTRTarget population is defined according to EMCDDA definition of PDU. PDU is defined as Injecting drug use of long duration/regular use of opioids, cocaine and /or amphetamines2


n.a. = not available.

1 - Interval is a 95 % confidence interval.

2 - Confidence Interval not available.

3 - Interval is based on a sensitivity analysis.

4- Interval estimated using other method

5 - Malta, Spain, and Turkey reported estimates of problem opioid use only. For details see Table PDU-1 part (iii)

6-Germany reported two estimates for 2011 (based on MM or PM methods). However, data for 2010 TM method are presented here (For full details see Table PDU-102

7-The estimates provided here are based on treatment data and the multivariate indicator, and not on arrest data (police data). For more details, see National report

8-Croatia reported in 2011opioid & stimulants, while it had reported opioids in 2010. So data for 2010 are included in part (iii) and for 2011 in part (i)

PDU = Problem Drug Use

POU = Problem Opioid Use

CR = Capture Recapture

CM = Combined method

TM = Treatment Multiplier

TP = Truncated Poisson

OT = Other

HM = HIV Multiplier

MM = Mortality Multiplier

MI = Multivariate Indicator Method

TR = Treatment data.

GPS = General population surveys.

DRD = Drug related deaths.

OS = Other surveys.

SS = Social services.

LTS = Low-threshold programmes.

CJ = Criminal justice data.

HO = Hospitals.

OST = Opioid substitution treatment registry.

DRID = Infectious Diseases Registries

For further details on methods and data sources/comments see Table PDU-102 and Table PDU-103.

See also ‘General notes for interpreting data’ on the Explanatory notes and help page


For bibliographic references see Table PDU-0

2013 REITOX National Reports - Fonte PDU template

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Page last updated: Friday, 26 April 2013