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Table DUP-105. Prevalence (percentage) of drug use among prisoners in EU member states and Norway - full listing of studies

CountrySource / Ref. (1)YearDefinition of drug useDrug used (and if any: restriction on base population)%Methodological comments (2)
Belgium12010persons reporting injecting drug use (almost) daily, once or several times during last month before current imprisonmentany illicit drug7cross-sectional national survey in all the 32 Belgian prisons in a representative sample of 10% of prisoners in each prison, including remanded, sentenced and mentally disordered prisoners, both males and females (n= 1251)
12010persons reporting lifetime drug use during the current imprisonmentany illicit drug33cross-sectional national survey in all the 32 Belgian prisons in a representative sample of 10% of prisoners in each prison, including remanded, sentenced and mentally disordered prisoners, both males and females (n= 1251)
12010persons reporting last year drug use during the current imprisonmentany illicit drug15cross-sectional national survey in all the 32 Belgian prisons in a representative sample of 10% of prisoners in each prison, including remanded, sentenced and mentally disordered prisoners, both males and females (n= 1251)
12010persons reporting last month drug use during the current imprisonmentany illicit drug12cross-sectional national survey in all the 32 Belgian prisons in a representative sample of 10% of prisoners in each prison, including remanded, sentenced and mentally disordered prisoners, both males and females (n= 1251)
12010persons reporting regular drug use (from multiple times a month to once and multiple times a week and daily use) during the current imprisonmentany illicit drug12cross-sectional national survey in all the 32 Belgian prisons in a representative sample of 10% of prisoners in each prison, including remanded, sentenced and mentally disordered prisoners, both males and females (n= 1251)
12010persons reporting injecting drug use during the current imprisonmentany illicit drug2cross-sectional national survey in all the 32 Belgian prisons in a representative sample of 10% of prisoners in each prison, including remanded, sentenced and mentally disordered prisoners, both males and females (n= 1251)
12010persons reporting lifetime drug use (prior/within prison)any illicit drug61cross-sectional national survey in all the 32 Belgian prisons in a representative sample of 10% of prisoners in each prison, including remanded, sentenced and mentally disordered prisoners, both males and females (n= 1251)
12010persons reporting injecting drug use (prior/within prison)any illicit drug15cross-sectional national survey in all the 32 Belgian prisons in a representative sample of 10% of prisoners in each prison, including remanded, sentenced and mentally disordered prisoners, both males and females (n= 1251)
22008persons reporting lifetime drug useany illicit drug65cross-sectional national survey in all the 32 Belgian prisons in a representative sample of 10% of prisoners in each prison, including remanded, sentenced and mentally disordered prisoners, both males and females (n= 1078)
22008persons reporting lifetime drug use during the current detentionany illicit drug35cross-sectional national survey in all the 32 Belgian prisons in a representative sample of 10% of prisoners in each prison, including remanded, sentenced and mentally disordered prisoners, both males and females (n= 1078)
32006persons reporting lifetime drug useany illicit drug60cross-sectional national survey in all the 32 Belgian prisons in a representative sample of 10% of prisoners in each prison, including remanded, sentenced and mentally disordered prisoners, both males and females (n= 902)
32006persons reporting lifetime injecting drug useany illicit drug18cross-sectional national survey in all the 32 Belgian prisons in a representative sample of 10% of prisoners in each prison, including remanded, sentenced and mentally disordered prisoners, both males and females (n= 902)
32006persons reporting having used illicit drugs (or an unprescribed psychotropic drug) before the current detentionany illicit drug30cross-sectional national survey in all the 32 Belgian prisons in a representative sample of 10% of prisoners in each prison, including remanded, sentenced and mentally disordered prisoners, both males and females (n= 902)
32006persons reporting lifetime injecting drug use before the current detentionany illicit drug14cross-sectional national survey in all the 32 Belgian prisons in a representative sample of 10% of prisoners in each prison, including remanded, sentenced and mentally disordered prisoners, both males and females (n= 902)
32006persons reporting having used illicit drugs (or an unprescribed psychotropic drug) during the current detentionany illicit drug30cross-sectional national survey in all the 32 Belgian prisons in a representative sample of 10% of prisoners in each prison, including remanded, sentenced and mentally disordered prisoners, both males and females (n= 902)
32006persons reporting drug injecting during the current detentionany illicit drug4cross-sectional national survey in all the 32 Belgian prisons in a representative sample of 10% of prisoners in each prison, including remanded, sentenced and mentally disordered prisoners, both males and females (n= 902)
42003persons reporting lifetime drug use (prior/within prison)any illicit drug51national survey in a random sample of 10 prisons (over a total of 38) among on remand, convicted and social defence (psychiatric cases) prisoners (n= 886)
42003persons reporting lifetime drug injecting (prior/within prison)any illicit drug15national survey in a random sample of 10 prisons (over a total of 38) among on remand, convicted and social defence (psychiatric cases) prisoners (n= 886)
42003persons reporting having used illicit drugs during the last incarcerationany illicit drug33national survey in a random sample of 10 prisons (over a total of 38) among on remand, convicted and social defence (psychiatric cases) prisoners (n= 886)
42003persons reporting injecting drug use during the last incarcerationany illicit drug2national survey in a random sample of 10 prisons (over a total of 38) among on remand, convicted and social defence (psychiatric cases) prisoners (n= 886)
51999persons reporting drug use within the last month prior to imprisonment any illicit drug50survey in two prisons (1 male prison + 1 woman section in another prison) amongst voluntary prisoners (n= 246)
51999persons reporting injecting drug use prior to imprisonment from a daily basis to a few times per week or per monthany illicit drug9survey in two prisons (1 male prison + 1 woman section in another prison) amongst voluntary prisoners (n= 246)
51999persons reporting regular drug use during previous and current imprisonmentsany illicit drug42survey in two prisons (1 male prison + 1 woman section in another prison) amongst voluntary prisoners (n= 246)
51999persons reporting injecting drug use in prison from a daily basis to a few times per week or per month2survey in two prisons (1 male prison + 1 woman section in another prison) amongst voluntary prisoners (n= 246)
61997persons reporting drug use within the last year prior to imprisonmentcannabis45survey in one prison amongst on remand and convicted prisoners (n=115)
61997persons reporting lifetime injecting drug use prior to imprisonment22survey in one prison amongst on remand and convicted prisoners (n=115)
61997persons reporting lifetime drug use in prisoncannabis38survey in one prison amongst on remand and convicted prisoners (n=115)
71993persons reporting having used illicit drugs42survey in one prison amongst voluntary prisoners entering prison (n=1627)
71993persons reporting having ever injected drugs15survey in one prison amongst voluntary prisoners entering prison (n=1627)
Bulgaria12010persons reporting lifetime drug use (prior/within prison)Any illicit drug37cross-sectional national survey in all prisons among all convicted men and females, all ages during March 2011 (n= 3703) (Repeated survey, previous one in 2006, next planned every two years)
12010persons reporting last year drug use (prior/within prison)Any illicit drug22cross-sectional national survey in all prisons among all convicted men and females, all ages during March 2011 (n= 3703) (Repeated survey, previous one in 2006, next planned every two years)
12010persons reporting regular drug use: at least 10 times during the last 30 days and/or at least 30 times during the last 12 months (prior/within prison)Any illicit drug12cross-sectional national survey in all prisons among all convicted men and females, all ages during March 2011 (n= 3703) (Repeated survey, previous one in 2006, next planned every two years)
12010persons reporting injecting drug use (prior/within prison)Any illicit drug19cross-sectional national survey in all prisons among all convicted men and females, all ages during March 2011 (n= 3703) (Repeated survey, previous one in 2006, next planned every two years)
22009persons reporting at admission to the prison lifetime drug use prior to imprisonmentAny illicit drug17national survey in 17 remand prisons among all convicted, defendant adults and detained persons in prison and remand arrest during the year (n= 5776)
22009persons reporting at admission to the prison drug use within the last year prior to imprisonmentAny illicit drug11national survey in 17 remand prisons among all convicted, defendant adults and detained persons in prison and remand arrest during the year (n= 5776)
22009persons reporting at admission to the prison drug use within the last month prior to imprisonmentAny illicit drug5national survey in 17 remand prisons among all convicted, defendant adults and detained persons in prison and remand arrest during the year (n= 5776)
22009persons reporting at admission to the prison regular drug use (long-term PDUs) prior to imprisonmentAny illicit drug10national survey in 17 remand prisons among all convicted, defendant adults and detained persons in prison and remand arrest during the year (n= 5776)
22009persons reporting at admission to the prison ever injecting drugs prior to imprisonmentheroin7national survey in 17 remand prisons among all convicted, defendant adults and detained persons in prison and remand arrest during the year (n= 5776)
32008persons reporting at admission to the prison lifetime drug use prior to imprisonmentAny illicit drug15national survey in 17 remand prisons among all convicted, defendant adults and detained persons in prison and remand arrest during the year (n= 9983)
32008persons reporting at admission to the prison drug use within the last year prior to imprisonmentAny illicit drug11national survey in 17 remand prisons among all convicted, defendant adults and detained persons in prison and remand arrest during the year (n= 9983)
32008persons reporting at admission to the prison drug use within the last year in prisonAny illicit drug4national survey in 17 remand prisons among all convicted, defendant adults and detained persons in prison and remand arrest during the year (n= 9983)
32008persons reporting at admission to the prison drug use within the last month in prisonAny illicit drug0.6national survey in 17 remand prisons among all convicted, defendant adults and detained persons in prison and remand arrest during the year (n= 9983)
42007persons registered (in the judicial and medical files) as lifetime drug users prior to imprisonment (self-report)Any illicit drug10national survey in 17 remand prisons among all new cases accused, defendant adults and detained persons in prison and remand arrest during the year (n= 7780)
42007persons registered (in the judicial and medical files) as drug users within the last year prior to imprisonment (self-report)Any illicit drug8national survey in 17 remand prisons among all new cases accused, defendant adults and detained persons in prison and remand arrest during the year (n= 7780)
42007persons registered (in the judicial and medical files) as drug users within the last month prior to imprisonment (self-report)Any illicit drug1national survey in 17 remand prisons among all new cases accused, defendant adults and detained persons in prison and remand arrest during the year (n= 7780)
52006persons registered (in the judicial and medical files) as lifetime drug users prior to imprisonment (self-report)Any illicit drug18national survey in 17 remand prisons among all accused, defendant adults and detained persons (n= 11400)
52006persons registered (in the judicial and medical files) as lifetime drug users prior to imprisonment (self-report)Any illicit drug11national survey in 6 prisons among prisoners during the period Jan-April (n= 3733)
52006persons registered (in the judicial and medical files) as lifetime drug users prior to imprisonment (self-report)cannabis7national survey in 17 prisons among prisoners during the period Jan-April (n= 7274)
52006persons registered (in the judicial and medical files) as drug users within the last year prior to imprisonment (self-report)Any illicit drug6national survey in 6 prisons among prisoners during the period Jan-April (n= 3733)
52006persons registered (in the judicial and medical files) as drug users within the last year prior to imprisonment (self-report)cannabis5national survey in 17 prisons among prisoners during the period Jan-April (n= 7274)
52006persons registered (in the judicial and medical files) as drug users within the last month prior to imprisonment (self-report)Any illicit drug3national survey in 6 prisons among prisoners during the period Jan-April (n= 3733)
52006persons registered (in the judicial and medical files) as drug users within the last month prior to imprisonment (self-report)cannabis1national survey in 17 prisons among prisoners during the period Jan-April (n= 7274)
52006persons registered (in the judicial and medical files) as regular drug users prior to imprisonment (self-report)Any illicit drug8national survey in 6 prisons among prisoners during the period Jan-April (n= 3733)
52006persons registered (in the judicial and medical files) as regular drug users prior to imprisonment (self-report)cannabis0.8national survey in 17 prisons among prisoners during the period Jan-April (n= 7274)
52006persons registered (in the judicial and medical files) as injecting drug users prior to imprisonment (self-report)Any illicit drug7national survey in 6 prisons among prisoners during the period Jan-April (n= 3733)
52006persons registered (in the judicial and medical files) as injecting drug users prior to imprisonment (self-report)cocaine0.04national survey in 17 prisons among prisoners during the period Jan-April (n= 7274)
52006persons registered (in the judicial and medical files) as lifetime drug users in prison (self-report)Any illicit drug1national survey in 17 prisons among prisoners during the period Jan-April (n= 2562)
52006persons registered (in the judicial and medical files) as drug users within the last year in prison (self-report)Any illicit drug1national survey in 17 prisons among prisoners during the period Jan-April (n= 2562)
52006persons registered (in the judicial and medical files) as drug users within the last month in prison (self-report)Any illicit drug0.1national survey in 17 prisons among prisoners during the period Jan-April (n= 2562)
52006persons registered (in the judicial and medical files) as injecting drug users in prison (self-report)Any illicit drug8national survey in 17 prisons among prisoners during the period Jan-April (n= 2562)
52006persons registered (in the judicial and medical files) as lifetime drug users (prior/within prison) (self-report)Any illicit drug62national survey in 17 prisons among prisoners during the period Jan-April (n= 265)
52006persons registered (in the judicial and medical files) as drug users within the last year (prior/within prison) (self-report)Any illicit drug10national survey in 17 prisons among prisoners during the period Jan-April (n= 265)
52006persons registered (in the judicial and medical files) as drug users within the last month (prior/within prison) (self-report)Any illicit drug3national survey in 17 prisons among prisoners during the period Jan-April (n= 265)
52006persons registered (in the judicial and medical files) as lifetime drug users prior to imprisonment (self-report)Any illicit drug8national survey in 17 remand prisons among all accused, defendant adults and detained persons during the period Jan-April (n= 3567)
52006persons registered (in the judicial and medical files) as drug users within the last year prior to imprisonment (self-report)Any illicit drug2national survey in 17 remand prisons among all accused, defendant adults and detained persons during the period Jan-April (n= 3567)
52006persons registered (in the judicial and medical files) as drug users within the last month prior to imprisonment (self-report)Any illicit drug0.4national survey in 17 remand prisons among all accused, defendant adults and detained persons during the period Jan-April (n= 3567)
52006persons registered (in the judicial and medical files) as regular drug users prior to imprisonment (self-report)Any illicit drug3national survey in 17 remand prisons among all accused, defendant adults and detained persons during the period Jan-April (n= 3567)
52006persons registered (in the judicial and medical files) as injecting drug users prior to imprisonment (self-report)Any illicit drug3national survey in 17 remand prisons among all accused, defendant adults and detained persons during the period Jan-April (n= 3567)
62006persons reporting lifetime drug use (prior/within prison)Any illicit drug37national survey in 10 prisons of 8 cities among a sample of persons serving sentence (n=1257)
62006persons reporting last year drug use (prior/within prison)Any illicit drug15national survey in 10 prisons of 8 cities among a sample of persons serving sentence (n=1257)
62006persons reporting last month drug use (prior/within prison)Any illicit drug9national survey in 10 prisons of 8 cities among a sample of persons serving sentence (n=1257)
62006persons reporting last month drug use more than 5 time in the last 30 days (prior/within prison)Any illicit drug4national survey in 10 prisons of 8 cities among a sample of persons serving sentence (n=1257)
62006persons reporting injecting drug use at least once in the last 12 months (prior/within prison)Any illicit drug4national survey in 10 prisons of 8 cities among a sample of persons serving sentence (n=1257)
72004persons registered (in the judicial file) as lifetime drug users prior to imprisonmentany illicit drug15national survey based on cases for which drug use prior to imprisonment was mentioned during the collection of data for the judicial file, among all convicted detainees (n= 11521)
82004persons in contact with health services, psychologists and social workers reporting lifetime drug use prior to imprisonmentany illicit drug(3)7national survey among inmates who made contact with health services, psychologists and social workers in prison (n= 11521)
82004persons in contact with health services, psychologists and social workers reporting drug use in the last year prior to imprisonmentany illicit drug(3)4national survey among inmates who made contact with health services, psychologists and social workers in prison (n= 11521)
82004persons in contact with health services, psychologists and social workers reporting drug use in the last month prior to imprisonmentany illicit drug(3)2national survey among inmates who made contact with health services, psychologists and social workers in prison (n= 11521)
82004persons in contact with health services, psychologists and social workers reporting lifetime injecting drug use prior to imprisonmentany illicit drug(3)2national survey among inmates who made contact with health services, psychologists and social workers in prison (n= 11521)
Czech Republic12010persons reporting lifetime drug use prior to current imprisonmentany illicit drug49First cross-sectional national survey in 35 out of 36 Czech prisons among a random sample of prison inmates (out of 19570 prisoners were randomly selected 2000 respondents of whom 1668 did really answer). Field has been conducted during 13 days in all Czech prisons. (N=1668) (Planned every two years)
12010persons reporting last year drug use prior to current imprisonmentany illicit drug35First cross-sectional national survey in 35 out of 36 Czech prisons among a random sample of prison inmates (out of 19570 prisoners were randomly selected 2000 respondents of whom 1668 did really answer). Field has been conducted during 13 days in all Czech prisons. (N=1668) (Planned every two years)
12010persons reporting last month drug use prior to current imprisonmentany illicit drug25First cross-sectional national survey in 35 out of 36 Czech prisons among a random sample of prison inmates (out of 19570 prisoners were randomly selected 2000 respondents of whom 1668 did really answer). Field has been conducted during 13 days in all Czech prisons. (N=1668) (Planned every two years)
12010persons reporting regular drug use; repeatedly in the last month prior entering the current imprisonmentany illicit drug18First cross-sectional national survey in 35 out of 36 Czech prisons among a random sample of prison inmates (out of 19570 prisoners were randomly selected 2000 respondents of whom 1668 did really answer). Field has been conducted during 13 days in all Czech prisons. (N=1668) (Planned every two years)
12010persons reporting injecting drug use prior to current imprisonmentany illicit drug22First cross-sectional national survey in 35 out of 36 Czech prisons among a random sample of prison inmates (out of 19570 prisoners were randomly selected 2000 respondents of whom 1668 did really answer). Field has been conducted during 13 days in all Czech prisons. (N=1668) (Planned every two years)
12010persons reporting lifetime drug use during any imprisonment "drug use in prison"any illicit drug22First cross-sectional national survey in 35 out of 36 Czech prisons among a random sample of prison inmates (out of 19570 prisoners were randomly selected 2000 respondents of whom 1668 did really answer). Field has been conducted during 13 days in all Czech prisons. (N=1668) (Planned every two years)
12010persons reporting ever injecting any drug inside prisonany illicit drug8First cross-sectional national survey in 35 out of 36 Czech prisons among a random sample of prison inmates (out of 19570 prisoners were randomly selected 2000 respondents of whom 1668 did really answer). Field has been conducted during 13 days in all Czech prisons. (N=1668) (Planned every two years)
12010persons reporting lifetime drug use (prior/within prison)any illicit drug54First cross-sectional national survey in 35 out of 36 Czech prisons among a random sample of prison inmates (out of 19570 prisoners were randomly selected 2000 respondents of whom 1668 did really answer). Field has been conducted during 13 days in all Czech prisons. (N=1668) (Planned every two years)
12010persons reporting last year drug use (prior/within prison)any illicit drug23First cross-sectional national survey in 35 out of 36 Czech prisons among a random sample of prison inmates (out of 19570 prisoners were randomly selected 2000 respondents of whom 1668 did really answer). Field has been conducted during 13 days in all Czech prisons. (N=1668) (Planned every two years)
12010persons reporting last month drug use (prior/within prison)any illicit drug9First cross-sectional national survey in 35 out of 36 Czech prisons among a random sample of prison inmates (out of 19570 prisoners were randomly selected 2000 respondents of whom 1668 did really answer). Field has been conducted during 13 days in all Czech prisons. (N=1668) (Planned every two years)
12010persons reporting ever injecting any drug (prior/within prison)any illicit drug31First cross-sectional national survey in 35 out of 36 Czech prisons among a random sample of prison inmates (out of 19570 prisoners were randomly selected 2000 respondents of whom 1668 did really answer). Field has been conducted during 13 days in all Czech prisons. (N=1668) (Planned every two years)
22002registered drug users: persons claiming to be regular drug users, persons with a health record of addiction before prison, persons found positive through drug screening34national recording system in all prisons (n= 16213)
22001registered drug users: persons claiming to be regular drug users, persons with a health record of addiction before prison, persons found positive through drug screening29national recording system in all prisons (n= 19320)
22000registered drug users: persons claiming to be regular drug users, persons with a health record of addiction before prison, persons found positive through drug screening25national recording system in all prisons (n= 21538)
21999registered drug users: persons claiming to be regular drug users, persons with a health record of addiction before prison, persons found positive through drug screening26national recording system in all prisons (n= 23060)
21998registered drug users: persons claiming to be regular drug users, persons with a health record of addiction before prison, persons found positive through drug screening19national recording system in all prisons (n= 22067)
21997registered drug users: persons claiming to be regular drug users, persons with a health record of addiction before prison, persons found positive through drug screening15national recording system in all prisons (n= 21560)
21996registered drug users: persons claiming to be regular drug users, persons with a health record of addiction before prison, persons found positive through drug screening12national recording system in all prisons (n= 20860)
Denmark12001persons reporting drug use at least twice a week during the last month prior to imprisonmentany illicit drug56national survey in 82 prisons amongst on remand and convicted prisoners (n= 1305)
22001drug abusers: have used euphoriants many times during the last 6 months before prison37nationwide survey (n= 3445)
22000drug abusers: have used euphoriants many times during the last 6 months before prison38nationwide survey (n= 3466)
21999drug abusers: have used euphoriants many times during the last 6 months before prison36nationwide survey (n= 3600)
21998drug abusers: have used euphoriants many times during the last 6 months before prison36nationwide survey (n= 3567)
21997drug abusers: have used euphoriants many times during the last 6 months before prison36nationwide survey (n= 3533)
21996drug abusers: have used euphoriants many times during the last 6 months before prison35nationwide survey (n= 3498)
21995drug abusers: have used euphoriants many times during the last 6 months before prison33nationwide survey (n= 3574)
22000heavy drug abusers: have habitually used substances other than cannabis20nationwide survey (n= 3466)
21999heavy drug abusers: have habitually used substances other than cannabis18nationwide survey (n= 3600)
21998heavy drug abusers: have habitually used substances other than cannabis19nationwide survey (n= 3567)
21997heavy drug abusers: have habitually used substances other than cannabis19nationwide survey (n= 3533)
21996heavy drug abusers: have habitually used substances other than cannabis18nationwide survey (n= 3498)
21995heavy drug abusers: have habitually used substances other than cannabis16nationwide survey (n= 3574)
France12003/04persons classified as problem drug users within the last 12 months, using various standard instruments (e.g. DSM-IV), based on self-reports, open clinical interviewany illicit drug28national randomized cross-sectional survey in 23 prisons (over 188 existing prisons, state prisons and detention centre were over-represented) among a random sample of all adult prisoners (n= 998)
22003persons reporting (clinical interview) ocasional (once or twice in the year) drug use within the last 6 month prior to current imprisonmentcannabis (males)22survey among all male admissions in all prisons in Lyons between 01/01/2003 and 31/12/2003 (n= 1410)
22003persons reporting (clinical interview) regular (several times per month without physical or social harm) drug use within the last 6 month prior to current imprisonmentcannabis (males)10survey among all male admissions in all prisons in Lyons between 01/01/2003 and 31/12/2003 (n= 1410)
22003persons reporting (clinical interview) drug abuse (frequent use with physical or social harm) within the last 6 month prior to current imprisonmentcannabis (males)3survey among all male admissions in all prisons in Lyons between 01/01/2003 and 31/12/2003 (n= 1410)
22003persons classified as having drug dependence (according DSM IV) within the last 6 month prior to current imprisonment, based on self-reports in a clinical interview and DSM IV for drug dependencecannabis (males)4survey among all male admissions in all prisons in Lyons between 01/01/2003 and 31/12/2003 (n= 1410)
32003persons reporting regular drug use within the last 12 months prior to imprisonmentany illicit drug33nationwide survey in 134 prisons (over 187 existing prisons) among a representative sample of persons entering prison (on remand and convicted) (n= 6087)
32003persons reporting lifetime injecting drug use 7nationwide survey in 134 prisons (over 187 existing prisons) among a representative sample of persons entering prison (on remand and convicted) (n= 6087)
32003persons reporting injecting drug use within the last 12 months prior to imprisonment3nationwide survey in 134 prisons (over 187 existing prisons) among a representative sample of persons entering prison (on remand and convicted) (n= 6087)
41997persons reporting regular drug use within the last 12 months prior to imprisonmentany illicit drug32nationwide survey among 86% of persons entering prison, based on self-reports (n= 8728)
41997persons reporting lifetime injecting drug use 12nationwide survey among 86% of persons entering prison, based on self-reports (n= 8728)
41997persons reporting injecting drug use within the last 12 months prior to imprisonment6nationwide survey among 86% of persons entering prison, based on self-reports (n= 8728)
51998persons reporting illicit drug use within the last 12 months prior to imprisonment43survey in 4 prisons (n=1212)
51998persons reporting lifetime injecting drug use prior to imprisonment12survey in 4 prisons (n=1212)
51998persons reporting injecting drug use within the last 12 months prior to imprisonment9survey in 4 prisons (n=1212)
51996persons reporting lifetime intravenous drug use23survey in one prison (n=574)
61997persons reporting drug use within the last year prior to imprisonmentcannabis35survey in 3 prisons among on remand and convicted prisoners (n=960)
61997persons reporting injecting drug use (lifetime) prior to imprisonment14survey in 3 prisons among on remand and convicted prisoners (n=960)
61997persons reporting drug use within the last year while in prisoncannabis24survey in 3 prisons among on remand and convicted prisoners (n=960)
Germany12010persons reporting drug use at prison entrycannabis40Baden-Wuerttemberg routine recording system at prison admission of all detainees present on 3/31/2010; provided data refer to the examination at prison entry or before privileges could be granted. Self report about intravenous drug use, medical assessment (test of urine sample) about drug use (N = 29 934).
22006/07persons reporting injecting drug use (lifetime) prior to imprisonmentany illicit drug31survey in 6 prisons in 3/16 federal states in a quota sample of on remand and convicted prisoners (n= 1457)
22006/07persons reporting injecting drug use (lifetime) in prisonany illicit drug22survey in 6 prisons in 3/16 federal states in a quota sample of on remand and convicted prisoners (n= 1457)
32002persons estimated to be regular drug users by prison staff and medical servicescannabis20survey in one prison (JVA Oldenburg) amongst all admissions (n=517)
41997persons reporting injecting drug use (lifetime) prior to imprisonment33survey in one prison among on remand and convicted prisoners (n=437)
51996drug users in prison (based on information given by key persons)60survey in one prison based on reports of pre-selected key prisoners (n=16), doctor, pastor(s)
51996hard drug users (based on information given by key persons)10survey in one prison based on reports of pre-selected key prisoners (n=16), doctor, pastor(s)
51996soft drug users (based on information given by key persons)50survey in one prison based on reports of pre-selected key prisoners (n=16), doctor, pastor(s)
Greece12000persons reporting lifetime drug use prior to imprisonmentany illicit drug48survey in 1 prison amongst on remand and convicted prisoners (n= 136)
12000persons reporting lifetime drug use while in prisonany illicit drug46survey in 1 prison amongst on remand and convicted prisoners (n= 136)
21999persons reporting drug use within the last yearcannabis (males)74survey in one prison amongst on remand and convicted men (n=80)
cocaine (males)14
heroin (males)41
amphetamines (males)14
ecstasy (males)4
31998adolescents reporting lifetime drug use prior to imprisonmentcannabis (adolescents)46survey in 2 prisons for adolescents, both on remand and convicted, enrolled in vocational training (n= 100)
cocaine (adolescents)18
heroin (adolescents)19
amphetamines (adolescents)4
ecstasy (adolescents)7
other drugs (adolescents)11
41996persons reporting lifetime injecting drug use persons reporting injecting drug use while in prison 34survey in 10 prisons (n= 861)
51995lifetime drug use prior to imprisonment (based on self-reports and serum tests)cannabis22survey in 2 prisons amongst convicted voluntary prisoners (n= 544)
cocaine6
heroin66
51995injecting drug use prior to imprisonment (based on self-reports and serum tests)69survey in 2 prisons amongst convicted voluntary prisoners (n= 544)
51995lifetime drug use in prison (based on self-reports and serum tests)any illicit drugs54survey in 2 prisons amongst convicted voluntary prisoners (n= 544)
51995 injecting drug use in prison (based on self-reports and serum tests) injecting drug users28survey in 2 prisons amongst convicted voluntary prisoners (n= 544)
31survey in one prison (n=1183)
Hungary12009persons reporting lifetime drug use prior to imprisonmentany illicit drug58cross-sectional survey in 1 prison in Budapest amongst a simple random sample of adult convicted males; population 1 400 (n= 194)
12009persons reporting ever using drugs weekly or more often (regular use) prior to imprisonmentany illicit drug35cross-sectional survey in 1 prison in Budapest amongst a simple random sample of adult convicted males; population 1 400 (n= 194)
22008persons reporting lifetime drug use prior to imprisonmentany illicit drug44national cross-sectional survey in 22 prisons amongst a proportional random sample of adult both males and females convicted prisoners of Hungarian citizenship (n= 503)
22008persons reporting drug use within the last year prior to imprisonmentany illicit drug34national cross-sectional survey in 22 prisons amongst a proportional random sample of adult both males and females convicted prisoners of Hungarian citizenship (n= 503)
22008persons reporting drug use within the last month prior to imprisonmentany illicit drug26national cross-sectional survey in 22 prisons amongst a proportional random sample of adult both males and females convicted prisoners of Hungarian citizenship (n= 503)
22008persons reporting regular drug use (ever using drugs weekly o more often) prior to imprisonmentany illicit drug18national cross-sectional survey in 22 prisons amongst a proportional random sample of adult both males and females convicted prisoners of Hungarian citizenship (n= 503)
22008persons reporting lifetime injecting drug use prior to imprisonmentany illicit drug10national cross-sectional survey in 22 prisons amongst a proportional random sample of adult both males and females convicted prisoners of Hungarian citizenship (n= 503)
22008persons reporting lifetime drug use in prisonany illicit drug14national cross-sectional survey in 22 prisons amongst a proportional random sample of adult both males and females convicted prisoners of Hungarian citizenship (n= 503)
22008persons reporting drug use within the last year in prisonany illicit drug8national cross-sectional survey in 22 prisons amongst a proportional random sample of adult both males and females convicted prisoners of Hungarian citizenship (n= 503)
22008persons reporting drug use within the last month in prisonany illicit drug3national cross-sectional survey in 22 prisons amongst a proportional random sample of adult both males and females convicted prisoners of Hungarian citizenship (n= 503)
22008persons reporting lifetime injecting drug use in prisonany illicit drug0.7national cross-sectional survey in 22 prisons amongst a proportional random sample of adult both males and females convicted prisoners of Hungarian citizenship (n= 503)
32004persons reporting lifetime drug use prior to imprisonmentany illicit drug (adult males)32national survey in 11 prisons amongst a proportional random sample of adult male convicted prisoners of Hungarian citizenship (n= 609)
32004persons reporting drug use within the last year prior to imprisonmentany illicit drug (adult males)23national survey in 11 prisons amongst a proportional random sample of adult male convicted prisoners of Hungarian citizenship (n= 609)
32004persons reporting drug use within the last month prior to imprisonmentany illicit drug (adult males)15national survey in 11 prisons amongst a proportional random sample of adult male convicted prisoners of Hungarian citizenship (n= 609)
32004persons reporting regular drug use (at least once a week) prior to imprisonmentany illicit drug (adult males)12national survey in 11 prisons amongst a proportional random sample of adult male convicted prisoners of Hungarian citizenship (n= 609)
32004persons reporting injecting drug use prior to imprisonmentany illicit drug (adult males)7national survey in 11 prisons amongst a proportional random sample of adult male convicted prisoners of Hungarian citizenship (n= 609)
32004persons reporting lifetime drug use in prisonany illicit drug (adult males)8national survey in 11 prisons amongst a proportional random sample of adult male convicted prisoners of Hungarian citizenship (n= 609)
32004persons reporting drug use within the last year in prisonany illicit drug (adult males)5national survey in 11 prisons amongst a proportional random sample of adult male convicted prisoners of Hungarian citizenship (n= 609)
32004persons reporting drug use within the last month in prisonany illicit drug (adult males)3national survey in 11 prisons amongst a proportional random sample of adult male convicted prisoners of Hungarian citizenship (n= 609)
32004persons reporting injecting drug use in prisonany illicit drug (adult males)1national survey in 11 prisons amongst a proportional random sample of adult male convicted prisoners of Hungarian citizenship (n= 609)
32004persons reporting lifetime drug use (both prior to and in prison)any illicit drug (adult males)34national survey in 11 prisons amongst a proportional random sample of adult male convicted prisoners of Hungarian citizenship (n= 609)
32004persons reporting injecting drug use (both prior to and in prison)any illicit drug (adult males)8national survey in 11 prisons amongst a proportional random sample of adult male convicted prisoners of Hungarian citizenship (n= 609)
41997persons reporting lifetime drug use prior to imprisonmentany illicit drug (adult males)22national survey in a sample of all prisons amongst adult male prisoners of Hungarian citizenship (n= 951)
41997persons reporting drug use within the last year prior to imprisonmentcannabis (adult males)8national survey in a sample of all prisons amongst adult male prisoners of Hungarian citizenship (n= 951)
41997persons reporting drug use within the last month prior to imprisonmentcannabis (adult males)6national survey in a sample of all prisons amongst adult male prisoners of Hungarian citizenship (n= 951)
41997persons reporting regular drug use (at least once a week) prior to imprisonmentany illicit drug (adult males)8national survey in a sample of all prisons amongst adult male prisoners of Hungarian citizenship (n= 951)
41997persons reporting injecting drug use prior to imprisonmentany illicit drug (adult males)1national survey in a sample of all prisons amongst adult male prisoners of Hungarian citizenship (n= 951)
41997persons reporting drug use at any time during imprisonmentany illicit drug (adult males)8national survey in a sample of all prisons amongst adult male prisoners of Hungarian citizenship (n= 951)
41997persons reporting injecting drug use while in prisonany illicit drug (adult males)0.2national survey in a sample of all prisons amongst adult male prisoners of Hungarian citizenship (n= 951)
Ireland12000persons reporting drug use within the last year cannabis (males)88national survey in 13 of the 15 prisons amongst on remand and convicted prisoners: in a sample of men (n= 718) and in all women (n= 59)
12000persons reporting cannabis use within the last monthcannabis (males)65national survey in 13 of the 15 prisons amongst on remand and convicted prisoners: in a sample of men (n= 391) and in all women (n= 33)
12000persons reporting injecting drug use in the last 12 months prior to the surveyany illicit drug (males)25national survey in 13 of the 15 prisons amongst on remand and convicted prisoners: in a sample of men (n= 532) and in all women (n= 38)
21999persons reporting injecting drug use (injector status known)any illicit drug29survey in 5 of the 7 Irish committal prisons (n= 593)
31998persons reporting injecting drug use (injector status known)any illicit drug43survey in 9 prisons: all the 5 high risk prisons and a random sample of the medium risk prisons (n= 1205) of whom 57 women
41997regular heroin usersheroin35estimated in one prison0.364
41997persons with a history of heroin abuseheroin70estimated in one prison
51996men reporting lifetime drug useany illicit drug (males)86survey in one male prison (one-fifth systematic sample) (n=108)
51996men reporting ever engaged in injecting drug use(males)56survey in one male prison (one-fifth systematic sample) (n=108)
51996regular users (men) of cannabiscannabis (males)46survey in one male prison (one-fifth systematic sample) (n=108)
51996daily users (men) of cannabiscannabis (males)23survey in one male prison (one-fifth systematic sample) (n=108)
51996men reporting heroin use while in prison (current sentence)heroin (males)42survey in one male prison (one-fifth systematic sample) (n=108)
51996men reporting regular (once a week) heroin use while in prison (current sentence)heroin (males)36survey in one male prison (one-fifth systematic sample) (n=108)
51996men reporting injecting heroin use while in prison (current sentence)heroin (males)34survey in one male prison (one-fifth systematic sample) (n=108)
Italy12010persons reporting drug use in the last month prior to imprisonment (based on self-report and/or clinical assessment)any illicit drug28nationwide routine data from drug-screening by prison authorities at prison admission among all prisoners (adult males and females) entering prison in 2010 (n= 84641)
12010persons reporting regular drug use in prison (DUs) (based on self-report and/or clinical assessment)any illicit drug24nationwide routine data from drug-screening by prison authorities at prison admission among all prisoners (adult males and females) in prison at 30/06/2010 and 31/12/2010 (n= 68258)
22009persons reporting drug use in the last month prior to imprisonment (based on self-report and/or clinical assessment)any illicit drug29nationwide routine data from drug-screening by prison authorities at prison admission among all prisoners (adult males and females) entering prison in 2009 (n= 88066)
32009persons reporting regular drug use in prison (DUs) (based on self-report and/or clinical assessment)any illicit drug25nationwide routine data from drug-screening by prison authorities at prison admission among all prisoners (adult males and females) in prison at 30/06/2009 (n= 63630)
42008persons reporting drug use or known drug users prior to imprisonment (based on self-report and/or clinical assessment)any illicit drug33nationwide routine data from drug-screening by prison authorities at prison admission among all prisoners imprisoned during the year (n= 92800)
52007persons reporting drug use or known drug users prior to imprisonment (based on self-report and/or clinical assessment)any illicit drug27nationwide routine data from drug-screening by prison authorities at prison admission among all prisoners imprisoned during the year (n= 90441)
62006persons reporting drug use or known drug users prior to imprisonment (based on self-report and/or clinical assessment)any illicit drug27nationwide routine data from drug-screening by prison authorities at prison admission among all prisoners imprisoned during the year (n= 90714)
72005persons reporting drug use or known drug users prior to imprisonment (based on self-report and/or clinical assessment)any illicit drug28nationwide routine data from drug-screening by prison authorities at prison admission among all prisoners imprisoned during the year (n= 89887)
72004persons reporting drug use or known drug users prior to imprisonment (based on self-report and/or clinical assessment)any illicit drug30nationwide routine data from drug-screening by prison authorities at prison admission among all prisoners imprisoned during the year (n= 82289)
82003persons reporting drug use or known drug users prior to imprisonment (based on self-report and/or clinical assessment)any illicit drug29nationwide routine data from drug-screening by prison authorities at prison admission among all prisoners imprisoned during the year (n= 81793)
92002persons reporting drug use or known drug users prior to imprisonment (based on self-report and/or clinical assessment)any illicit drug 30nationwide routine data from drug-screening by prison authorities at prison admission among all prisoners imprisoned during the year (n= 81185)
102001persons reporting drug use or known drug users prior to imprisonment (based on self-report and/or clinical assessment)any illicit drug29nationwide routine data from drug-screening by prison authorities at prison admission among all prisoners imprisoned during the year (n= 81078)
112002 (Dec.)persons reporting drug use or known drug users prior to imprisonment (based on self-report and/or clinical assessment)any illicit drug28nationwide routine data from drug-screening by prison authorities at prison admission among all prisoners at 31/12/2002 (n= 55670)
122001 (Dec.)prisoners identified as drug dependent (regular drug use prior to imprisonment) (based on self-report and/or clinical assessment)any illicit drug28nationwide routine data from drug-screening by prison authorities at prison admission among all prisoners at 31/12/2001 (n= 55275)
132000 (Dec.)prisoners identified as drug dependent (regular drug use prior to imprisonment) (based on self-report and/or clinical assessment)any illicit drug27nationwide routine data from drug-screening by prison authorities at prison admission among all prisoners at 31/12/2000 (n= 53030)
141999 (Dec.)prisoners identified as drug dependent (regular drug use prior to imprisonment) (based on self-report and/or clinical assessment)any illicit drug29nationwide routine data from drug-screening by prison authorities at prison admission among all prisoners at 31/12/1999 (n= 51604)
152003persons reporting lifetime drug use prior to imprisonment (based on self-report)any illicit drug56survey among new admissions in 9 prisons of 8 cities spread across national territory (n= 1267)
152003persons reporting last month drug use prior to imprisonment (based on self-report)cannabis21survey among new admissions in 9 prisons of 8 cities spread across national territory (n= 1267)
162001-2002persons reporting a history of injecting drug useany illicit drug 30cross-sectional survey in a convenience sample of males and females in 8 prisons in different areas of Italy (n= 973)
171997persons reporting injecting drug use (lifetime) prior to imprisonment30survey in 3 prisons among on remand and convicted prisoners (n=678)
Latvia12010persons reporting lifetime drug use prior to imprisonmentany illicit drug 66Repeated cross-sectional national survey in 11 (out of 15) prisons, convicted persons (n= 1965)
12010persons reporting drug use within the last year prior to imprisonmentany illicit drug 49Repeated cross-sectional national survey in 11 (out of 15) prisons, convicted persons (n= 1965)
12010persons reporting drug use within the last month prior to imprisonmentany illicit drug 39Repeated cross-sectional national survey in 11 (out of 15) prisons, convicted persons (n= 1965)
12010persons reporting regular drug use (daily/almost daily and 4-6 times a week) within the last month prior to imprisonmentcannabis7Repeated cross-sectional national survey in 11 (out of 15) prisons, convicted persons (n= 1965)
12010persons reporting lifetime injecting drug use prior to imprisonmentcocaine7Repeated cross-sectional national survey in 11 (out of 15) prisons, convicted persons (n= 1965)
12010persons reporting lifetime drug use in prisonany illicit drug 32Repeated cross-sectional national survey in 11 (out of 15) prisons, convicted persons (n= 1965)
12010persons reporting drug use within the last year in prisonany illicit drug 18Repeated cross-sectional national survey in 11 (out of 15) prisons, convicted persons (n= 1965)
12010persons reporting drug use within the last month in prisonany illicit drug 9Repeated cross-sectional national survey in 11 (out of 15) prisons, convicted persons (n= 1965)
12010persons reporting regular drug use (daily/almost daily and 4-6 times a week) within the last month in prisoncannabis2Repeated cross-sectional national survey in 11 (out of 15) prisons, convicted persons (n= 1965)
12010persons reporting lifetime injecting drug use in prisoncocaine1Repeated cross-sectional national survey in 11 (out of 15) prisons, convicted persons (n= 1965)
12010persons reporting lifetime drug use both prior/inside prisonany illicit drug 68Repeated cross-sectional national survey in 11 (out of 15) prisons, convicted persons (n= 1965)
22003persons reporting lifetime drug use prior to imprisonmentany illicit drug 53national survey in 11 (out of 15) prisons with at least 100 convicted persons (n= 2867)
22003persons reporting drug use within the last year prior to imprisonmentcannabis31national survey in 11 (out of 15) prisons with at least 100 convicted persons (n= 2867)
22003persons reporting drug use within the last month prior to imprisonmentcannabis20national survey in 11 (out of 15) prisons with at least 100 convicted persons (n= 2867)
22003persons reporting lifetime injecting drug use prior to imprisonment20national survey in 11 (out of 15) prisons with at least 100 convicted persons (n= 2867)
22003persons reporting lifetime drug use in prisoncannabis28national survey in 11 (out of 15) prisons with at least 100 convicted persons (n= 2867)
22003persons reporting drug use within the last year in prisoncannabis15national survey in 11 (out of 15) prisons with at least 100 convicted persons (n= 2867)
22003persons reporting drug use within the last month in prisoncannabis6national survey in 11 (out of 15) prisons with at least 100 convicted persons (n= 2867)
22003persons reporting lifetime injecting drug use in prison10national survey in 11 (out of 15) prisons with at least 100 convicted persons (n= 2867)
Lithuania12004persons reporting to be drug usersany illicit drug16national routine data in all 14 prisons among all prisoners at 31/12/2004 (n= 8.125)
12003persons reporting to be drug usersany illicit drug14national routine data in all 14 prisons among all prisoners at 31/12/2003 (n= 8063)
22003persons reporting lifetime use of a narcotic drugany illicit drug49survey in all penal institutions among those who returned the questionnaire including men (1122), women (67) and minor boys (115) (n= 1304)
Luxembourg12005persons reporting lifetime drug use in prisonany illicit drug56nationwide cross-sectional survey in 2 state prisons amongst the total population of prisoners (n= 246)
12005Lifetime intravenous drug users within prison (based on self-reports)any illicit drug31nationwide cross-sectional survey in 2 state prisons amongst the total population of prisoners (n= 246)
21998regular intravenous drug users prior and within prison (based on self-reports and cross-checking in personal files)41nationwide cross-sectional survey in 2 state prisons amongst the total population of prisoners (n= 362)
21998regular intravenous drug use prior to imprisonment (based on self-reports and cross-checking in personal files)32nationwide cross-sectional survey in 2 state prisons amongst the total population of prisoners (n= 362)
21998regular intravenous drug use in prison (based on self-reports and cross-checking in personal files)28nationwide cross-sectional survey in 2 state prisons amongst the total population of prisoners (n= 362)
21998first intravenous drug use in prison (based on self-reports and cross-checking in personal files)9nationwide cross-sectional survey in 2 state prisons amongst the total population of prisoners (n= 362)
Malta12010recent drug use (The data are collected from the routine administration of toxicology samples upon admission, as well as from the administration of the correctional care plans, based on positive urine tests at admission)cannabis17national screening of the total population entering prison Corradino Correctional Facility (CCF) (both on remand and convicted) (n= 731)
22009recent drug use (The data are collected from the routine administration of toxicology samples upon admission, as well as from the administration of the correctional care plans, based on positive urine tests at admission)any illicit drug37national screening of the total population entering prison Corradino Correctional Facility (CCF) (both on remand and convicted) (n= 544)
32006recent drug use (based on positive urine tests at admission)cannabis15national screening of the total population entering prison CCF (both on remand and convicted) (n= 535)
42005recent drug use (based on positive urine tests at admission)cannabis17national screening of the total population entering prison CCF (both on remand and convicted) (n= 411)
52004recent drug use (based on positive tests at admission)any illicit drug48national screening of the total population entering prison CCF (both on remand and convicted) (n= 396)
Netherlands12008persons classified as lifetime problematic drug users prior to imprisonment. Analysis of files informationany illicit drug83cross-sectional study of files in 5 out of 8 institution for prolific offenders representative of all institutions, random sampling (n= 100, women over represented)
22008persons classified as having drug addiction with in the last year prior to imprisonment, using the Mini international neuropsychiatric interview to assess drug addiction in the year prior to imprisonment, based on self-reportany illicit drug (males)30cross-sectional study in one local penitentiary institution ("Vught") on-remand and convicted male prisoners. Random selection of prisoners in the first phase after entry (n= 191)
32007persons classified as problem drug users prior to imprisonment, using various standard instruments (e.g. EuropASI), based on self-reportsany illicit drug57survey in 8 prisons among on-remand prisoners (n= 637)
42003men reporting lifetime drug use prior to imprisonmentany illicit drug (males)79survey in 8 prisons among convicted and on remand male detainees (n= 355)
42003men reporting light problems with drugsany illicit drug (males)13survey in 8 prisons among convicted and on remand male detainees (n= 355)
42003men reporting moderate problems with drugsany illicit drug (males)12survey in 8 prisons among convicted and on remand male detainees (n= 355)
42003men reporting severe problems with drugsany illicit drug (males)22survey in 8 prisons among convicted and on remand male detainees (n= 355)
42003men reporting very severe problems with drugsany illicit drug (males)18survey in 8 prisons among convicted and on remand male detainees (n= 355)
42003men reporting monthly drug use prior to imprisonmentcannabis (males)2survey in 8 prisons among convicted and on remand male detainees (n= 355)
42003men reporting weekly drug use prior to imprisonmentcannabis (males)12survey in 8 prisons among convicted and on remand male detainees (n= 355)
42003men reporting daily drug use prior to imprisonmentcannabis (males)33survey in 8 prisons among convicted and on remand male detainees (n= 355)
52002-2003youth reporting lifetime drug use prior to imprisonmentcannabis (youth)78cross-sectional survey in 8 youth detention centres in 3 regions among a representative sample (n= 205) (random sample of 135 boys and oversample of 70 girls) of 14-17 year-olds on remand and convicted
52002-2003youth reporting drug use in the last month prior to imprisonmentcannabis (youth)58cross-sectional survey in 8 youth detention centres in 3 regions among a representative sample (n= 205) (random sample of 135 boys and oversample of 70 girls) of 14-17 year-olds on remand and convicted
61999detainees in care reported by the psychologist or the psycho-medical unit as having addiction problemsany illicit drug36national cross-sectional study in a representative sample of penitentiary facilities (18 covered) among detainees known by the psychologist or the psycho-medical unit of the facility (n= 554)
71999young males reporting lifetime drug use prior to imprisonmentcannabis (young males)86cross-sectional survey in 6 out of 9 youth detention centres among a sample (assumed to be representative) of incarcerated boys (12-18 year-olds) (n= 204)
71999young males reporting substance use disorders in the 6 months prior to imprisonmentcannabis (young males)44cross-sectional survey in 6 out of 9 youth detention centres among a sample (assumed to be representative) of incarcerated boys (12-18 year-olds) (n= 204)
81998-2001forensic psychiatric patients reporting and/or being assessed as having had lifetime psychoactive substance abuse/dependence disordersany illicit drug47local study in one forensic psychiatric facility among forensic psychiatric patients sentenced by the court to involuntary commitment because of diminished responsibility for the crimes they committed (n= 98), enrolled between 01/01/1998 and 01/12/2001
91995 to 2000persons with substance use problems during the criminal offence (tested for DSM-IV and ICD-9 diagnosis and self-reports)cannabis31cross-sectional and at admission survey in 13 facilities among detainees convicted to compulsory treatment (whether not legally accountable or after expiration of prison sentence; all cases present at 1/11/95 and all those who entered prison until 1/1/2000) (n= 1105)
101997persons judged by a clinical psychologist to have addiction problems with drugs29survey in one prison among on remand and convicted prisoners (n=528)
101997persons reporting drug abuse or drug dependence within the last month14survey in one prison among on remand and convicted prisoners (n=135)
111997persons judged to be drug addicts according to 2 criteria (at least 2 months of regular use within the past 2 years and a severity score over 3 on the EuropASI drug section)44survey in one prison (n=319)
121989-1990young male offenders reporting lifetime drug use prior to imprisonment (DSM-III)any illicit drug (young males)58survey among young male convicted detainees in one youth detention centre, aged 18-24 years (n= 200)
121989-1990young male offenders reporting last year drug use prior to imprisonment (DSM-III)any illicit drug (young males)49survey among young male convicted detainees in one youth detention centre, aged 18-24 years (n= 200)
121989-1990young male offenders reporting last month drug use prior to imprisonment (DSM-III)any illicit drug (young males)20survey among young male convicted detainees in one youth detention centre, aged 18-24 years (n= 200)
Austria11999injecting drug use prior to imprisonment(male adults)26national survey in a selection of representative prisons: 4 for male adults (n= 143), 2 for female adults (n= 69) and 5 for male youth (n=51); convicted and on remand
11999injecting drug use within prison(male adults)15national survey in a selection of representative prisons: 4 for male adults (n= 143), 2 for female adults (n= 69) and 5 for male youth (n=51); convicted and on remand
21996intravenous drug users15estimated by experts
31994persons reporting having used illicit drugs72survey in one prison amongst Narcotic Drug Act convicted persons (n=307)
Romania12006persons reporting lifetime drug use prior to imprisonmentany illicit drug16survey in 27 prisons among prisoners (n=3218)
12006persons reporting drug use within the last year prior to imprisonmentany illicit drug10survey in 27 prisons among prisoners (n=3218)
12006persons reporting drug use within the last month prior to imprisonmentany illicit drug7survey in 27 prisons among prisoners (n=3218)
12006persons reporting lifetime drug use in prisonany illicit drug2survey in 27 prisons among prisoners (n=3218)
12006persons reporting drug use within the last year in prisonany illicit drug2survey in 27 prisons among prisoners (n=3218)
12006persons reporting drug use within the last month in prisonany illicit drug0.9survey in 27 prisons among prisoners (n=3218)
12006persons reporting lifetime injecting drug use prior/in prisonany illicit drug 6survey in 27 prisons among prisoners (n=3218)
Poland12007persons reporting lifetime drug use prior to imprisonmentany illicit drug (adult males)49nationwide survey (41 prisons) in a random sample of on remand and convicted adult male prisoners (n= 1240)
12007persons reporting drug use within the last year prior to imprisonmentany illicit drug (adult males)22nationwide survey (41 prisons) in a random sample of on remand and convicted adult male prisoners (n= 1240)
cocaine (adult males)4
heroin (adult males)2
amphetamines (adult males)15
ecstasy (adult males)10
12007persons reporting drug use within the last month prior to imprisonmentany illicit drug (adult males)9nationwide survey (41 prisons) in a random sample of on remand and convicted adult male prisoners (n= 1240)
cocaine (adult males)2
heroin (adult males)1
amphetamines (adult males)5
ecstasy (adult males)2
12007persons reporting lifetime drug use in prisonany illicit drug (adult males)20nationwide survey (41 prisons) in a random sample of on remand and convicted adult male prisoners (n= 1240)
cocaine (adult males)3
heroin (adult males)2
amphetamines (adult males)15
ecstasy (adult males)7
22001persons reporting lifetime drug use prior to imprisonmentcannabis (adult males)39nationwide survey (38 prisons) in a random sample of on remand and convicted adult male prisoners (n= 1189)
22001persons reporting drug use within the last year prior to imprisonmentany illicit drug (adult males)20nationwide survey (38 prisons) in a random sample of on remand and convicted adult male prisoners (n= 1189)
cocaine (adult males)5
heroin (adult males)4
amphetamines (adult males)15
ecstasy (adult males)7
22001persons reporting drug use within the last month prior to imprisonmentcannabis (adult males)9nationwide survey (38 prisons) in a random sample of on remand and convicted adult male prisoners (n= 1189)
heroin (adult males)2
amphetamines (adult males)6
ecstasy (adult males)3
22001persons reporting lifetime injecting drug use prior to imprisonmentany illicit drug (adult males)6nationwide survey (38 prisons) in a random sample of on remand and convicted adult male prisoners (n= 1189)
22001persons reporting lifetime drug use in prisonany illicit drug (adult males)23nationwide survey (38 prisons) in a random sample of on remand and convicted adult male prisoners (n= 1189)
cocaine (adult males)5
heroin (adult males)3
amphetamines (adult males)15
ecstasy (adult males)5
22001persons reporting lifetime injecting drug use in prisonany illicit drug (adult males)3nationwide survey (38 prisons) in a random sample of on remand and convicted adult male prisoners (n= 1189)
Portugal12007persons reporting lifetime drug use prior to imprisonmentany illicit drug55nationwide survey (44 prisons) in a random sample of on remand and convicted prisoners (n= 1986)
12007persons reporting drug use within the last year prior to imprisonmentany illicit drug50nationwide survey (44 prisons) in a random sample of on remand and convicted prisoners (n= 1986)
12007persons reporting drug use within the last month prior to imprisonmentany illicit drug37nationwide survey (44 prisons) in a random sample of on remand and convicted prisoners (n= 1986)
12007persons reporting regular (everyday) drug use prior to imprisonmentany illicit drug40nationwide survey (44 prisons) in a random sample of on remand and convicted prisoners (n= 1986)
12007persons reporting lifetime injecting drug use prior to imprisonmentcocaine12nationwide survey (44 prisons) in a random sample of on remand and convicted prisoners (n= 1986)
12007persons reporting lifetime drug use in prisonany illicit drug36nationwide survey (44 prisons) in a random sample of on remand and convicted prisoners (n= 1986)
12007persons reporting drug use within the last year in prisonany illicit drug41nationwide survey (44 prisons) in a random sample of on remand and convicted prisoners (n= 1986)
12007persons reporting drug use within the last month in prisonany illicit drug27nationwide survey (44 prisons) in a random sample of on remand and convicted prisoners (n= 1986)
12007persons reporting regular (everyday) drug use within the last month in prisonany illicit drug12nationwide survey (44 prisons) in a random sample of on remand and convicted prisoners (n= 1986)
12007persons reporting lifetime injecting drug use in prisoncocaine2nationwide survey (44 prisons) in a random sample of on remand and convicted prisoners (n= 1986)
12007persons reporting lifetime drug use (prior/within prison)any illicit drug59nationwide survey (44 prisons) in a random sample of on remand and convicted prisoners (n= 1986)
12007persons reporting lifetime injecting drug use (prior/within prison)any illicit drug21nationwide survey (44 prisons) in a random sample of on remand and convicted prisoners (n= 1986)
22001persons reporting lifetime drug use prior to imprisonmentany illicit drug61nationwide survey (47 prisons) in a random sample of on remand and convicted prisoners (n= 2057)
22001persons reporting drug use within the last year in prisonany illicit drug52nationwide survey (47 prisons) in a random sample of on remand and convicted prisoners (n= 2057)
22001persons reporting drug use within the last month in prisonany illicit drug30nationwide survey (47 prisons) in a random sample of on remand and convicted prisoners (n= 2057)
22001persons reporting regular (everyday) drug use within the last month in prisonany illicit drug10nationwide survey (47 prisons) in a random sample of on remand and convicted prisoners (n= 2057)
22001persons reporting lifetime injecting drug use prior to imprisonmentany illicit drug 27nationwide survey (47 prisons) in a random sample of on remand and convicted prisoners (n= 2057)
22001persons reporting lifetime injecting drug use in prisonany illicit drug 11nationwide survey (47 prisons) in a random sample of on remand and convicted prisoners (n= 2057)
31997persons reporting injecting drug use (lifetime) prior to imprisonment52survey in 3 prisons among on remand and convicted prisoners (n=535)
Slovakia12004persons reporting drug abuse any illicit drug8national survey in 18 prisons among all persons at admission into prison, both on remand and convicted (n= 8056)
Slovenia12008Persons classified as people with problems relatd to the use of illicit drugsany illicit drug28routine monitoring in all prisons (6) and correctional centre amongst on remand, convicted detention prisoners (juvenile included) (n= 4383) admitted into prison during the year Expert estimations
22007Persons classified as people with problems relatd to the use of illicit drugsany illicit drug25routine monitoring in all prisons (6) and correctional centre amongst on remand, convicted detention prisoners (juvenile included) (n= 4311) admitted into prison during the year Expert estimations
32006Persons classified as people with problems relatd to the use of illicit drugsany illicit drug27routine monitoring in all prisons (6) and correctional centre amongst on remand, convicted detention prisoners (juvenile included) (n= 3572) admitted into prison during the year Expert estimations
42005Persons classified as people with problems relatd to the use of illicit drugsany illicit drug28routine monitoring in all prisons (6) and correctional centre amongst on remand, convicted detention prisoners (juvenile included) (n= 3097) admitted into prison during the year Expert estimations
52004Persons classified as people with problems relatd to the use of illicit drugsany illicit drug22routine monitoring in all prisons (6) and correctional centre amongst on remand, convicted detention prisoners (juvenile included) (n= 4344) admitted into prison during the year Expert estimations
62003persons having problems with drugs (based on self-reports, clinical assessment, urine testing) prior to imprisonmentany illicit drug13nationwide survey in all prisons (6 prisons and 1 juvenile correctional centre) amongst on remand, convicted, juvenile detention prisoners (n= 3626) admitted into prison during the year
62003persons having problems with drugs (based on self-reports, clinical assessment, urine testing) prior/in prisonany illicit drug24nationwide survey in all prisons (6 prisons and 1 juvenile correctional centre) amongst on remand, convicted, juvenile detention prisoners (n= 1099) in prison on 1 January
Finland12006persons once in lifetime diagnosed as addicted to the substance after medical examinationcannabis19national survey among a random sample of prisoners with the follow characteristics: Male prisoners, a fixed-term unconditional imprisonment, min 8 months (N = 309), female prisoners, all types of prison sentences (N=101), males, fine default prisoners (N= 100); males, prison for life (N= 100); and males, community service (N=101). Interviews were carried out in several sessions and conducted a comprehensive health inspection by an medical doctor.
22001persons reporting having used drugsany illicit drug58national survey among a sample of voluntary HIV tested convicted prisoners (n= 825)
22001persons reporting illicit drug use while in prison17national survey among a sample of voluntary HIV tested convicted prisoners (n= 825)
31995persons reporting lifetime drug use any illicit drug70national survey in 4 prisons among a sample of voluntary convicted prisoners (n= 354)
31995persons reporting lifetime injecting drug useany illicit drug19national survey in 4 prisons among a sample of voluntary convicted prisoners (n= 354)
31995persons reportingdrug use within the current imprisonmentany illicit drug28national survey in 4 prisons among a sample of voluntary convicted prisoners (n= 354)
31995persons reporting regular drug use within the current imprisonmentany illicit drug6national survey in 4 prisons among a sample of voluntary convicted prisoners (n= 354)
31995persons reporting injecting drug use within the current imprisonmentany illicit drug11national survey in 4 prisons among a sample of voluntary convicted prisoners (n= 354)
Spain12006persons reporting lifetime drug use prior to imprisonment cannabis65nationwide survey in 66 prisons in a random sample of prisoners (n= 4934) (women overrepresented)
12006persons reporting last year drug use prior to imprisonment cannabis47nationwide survey in 66 prisons in a random sample of prisoners (n= 4934) (women overrepresented)
12006persons reporting last month drug use prior to imprisonmentcannabis43nationwide survey in 66 prisons in a random sample of prisoners (n= 4934) (women overrepresented)
12006persons reporting last month drug use in prisoncannabis28nationwide survey in 66 prisons in a random sample of prisoners (n= 4934) (women overrepresented)
12006persons reporting injecting lifetime drug use prior to imprisonmentany illicit drug26nationwide survey in 66 prisons in a random sample of prisoners (n= 4934) (women overrepresented)
12006persons reporting injecting drug use within the last 30 days prior to imprisonmentany illicit drug12nationwide survey in 66 prisons in a random sample of prisoners (n= 4934) (women overrepresented)
12006persons reporting injecting drug use within the last 30 days inside prisonany illicit drug3nationwide survey in 66 prisons in a random sample of prisoners (n= 4934) (women overrepresented)
22001persons reporting injecting drug use either currently in prison or prior to imprisonmentany illicit drug34cross-sectional survey in one prison (Alicante I-Fontcalent) among all on remand prisoner in prison at 01/06/2001 (n=800)
32000persons reporting last month drug use prior to imprisonment cannabis43nationwide (Catalonia excepted) survey in 61 prisons in a random sample of prisoners (n= 5028)
41998persons reporting last month drug use prior to imprisonment cocaine31nationwide (Catalonia excepted) survey in 72 prisons in a random sample of prisoners (n= 2223)
41998persons reporting last month intravenous drug use prior to imprisonment cocaine10nationwide (Catalonia excepted) survey in 72 prisons in a random sample of prisoners (n= 2223)
51998women reporting lifetime drug use (alcohol included)any illicit drug - alcohol included (females)70survey in 18 prisons (n= 356)
61998women reporting having used drugs several times a day (alcohol included)any illicit drug - alcohol included (females)35survey in 18 prisons (n= 356)
71998persons reporting to be drug users56survey in 62 prisons (n= 1011)
81997persons reporting injecting drug use (lifetime) prior to imprisonment47survey in one prison among on remand and convicted prisoners (n= 101)
91994persons whose frequency of heroin and/or cocaine use in the past 2 years is at least once a week for a minimum of one month54nationwide survey in 25% of all prisons among persons entering prison (n= 1541)
Sweden12008 (Oct.)persons having used drugs within last 12 months before prison, either sometime or daily/almost daily or intravenously within these 12 monthsany illicit drug54nationwide survey on routine data from all convicted prisoners at admission (n= 4666)
12008 (April)persons having used drugs within last 12 months before prison, either sometime or daily/almost daily or intravenously within these 12 monthsany illicit drug55nationwide survey on routine data from all convicted prisoners at admission (n= 3907)
12007 (Oct.)persons having used drugs within last 12 months before prison, either sometime or daily/almost daily or intravenously within these 12 monthsany illicit drug56nationwide survey on routine data from all convicted prisoners at admission (n= 4227)
12007 (April)persons having used drugs within last 12 months before prison, either sometime or daily/almost daily or intravenously within these 12 monthsany illicit drug59nationwide survey on routine data from all convicted prisoners at admission (n= 4384)
12006 (Oct.)persons having used drugs within last 12 months before prison, either sometime or daily/almost daily or intravenously within these 12 monthsany illicit drug55nationwide survey on routine data from all convicted prisoners at admission (n= 4320)
12006 (April)persons having used drugs within last 12 months before prison, either sometime or daily/almost daily or intravenously within these 12 monthsany illicit drug57nationwide survey on routine data from all convicted prisoners at admission (n= 4392)
12005 (Oct.)persons having used drugs within last 12 months before prison, either sometime or daily/almost daily or intravenously within these 12 monthsany illicit drug55nationwide survey on routine data from all convicted prisoners at admission (n= 4491)
12005 (April)persons having used drugs within last 12 months before prison, either sometime or daily/almost daily or intravenously within these 12 monthsany illicit drug55nationwide survey on routine data from all convicted prisoners at admission (n= 4484)
12004 (Oct.)persons having used drugs within last 12 months before prison, either sometime or daily/almost daily or intravenously within these 12 monthsany illicit drug57nationwide survey on routine data from all convicted prisoners at admission (n= 4256)
12004 (April)persons having used drugs within last 12 months before prison, either sometime or daily/almost daily or intravenously within these 12 monthsany illicit drug58nationwide survey on routine data from all convicted prisoners at admission (n= 4019)
12003 (Oct.)persons having used drugs within last 12 months before prison, either sometime or daily/almost daily or intravenously within these 12 monthsany illicit drug54nationwide survey on routine data from all convicted prisoners at admission (n= 4298)
12003 (April)persons having used drugs within last 12 months before prison, either sometime or daily/almost daily or intravenously within these 12 monthsany illicit drug54nationwide survey on routine data from all convicted prisoners at admission (n= 3941)
12002 (Oct.)persons having used drugs within last 12 months before prison, either sometime or daily/almost daily or intravenously within these 12 monthsany illicit drug52nationwide survey on routine data from all convicted prisoners at admission (n= 4188)
12002 (April)persons having used drugs within last 12 months before prison, either sometime or daily/almost daily or intravenously within these 12 monthsany illicit drug51nationwide survey on routine data from all convicted prisoners at admission (n= 3967)
12001 (Oct.)persons having used drugs within last 12 months before prison, either sometime or daily/almost daily or intravenously within these 12 monthsany illicit drug49nationwide survey on routine data from all convicted prisoners at admission (n= 3708)
12001 (April)persons having used drugs within last 12 months before prison, either sometime or daily/almost daily or intravenously within these 12 monthsany illicit drug52nationwide survey on routine data from all convicted prisoners at admission (n= 3744)
12000 (Oct.)persons having used drugs within last 12 months before prison, either sometime or daily/almost daily or intravenously within these 12 monthsany illicit drug50nationwide survey on routine data from all convicted prisoners at admission (n= 3633)
12000 (April)persons having used drugs within last 12 months before prison, either sometime or daily/almost daily or intravenously within these 12 monthsany illicit drug51nationwide survey on routine data from all convicted prisoners at admission (n= 3352)
11999 (Oct.)persons having used drugs within last 12 months before prison, either sometime or daily/almost daily or intravenously within these 12 monthsany illicit drug47nationwide survey on routine data from all convicted prisoners at admission (n= 3536)
11999 (April)persons having used drugs within last 12 months before prison, either sometime or daily/almost daily or intravenously within these 12 monthsany illicit drug47nationwide survey on routine data from all convicted prisoners at admission (n= 3537)
11998 (Oct.)persons having used drugs within last 12 months before prison, either sometime or daily/almost daily or intravenously within these 12 monthsany illicit drug46nationwide survey on routine data from all convicted prisoners at admission (n= 3546)
11998 (April)persons having used drugs within last 12 months before prison, either sometime or daily/almost daily or intravenously within these 12 monthsany illicit drug50nationwide survey on routine data from all convicted prisoners at admission (n= 3680)
11997 (Oct.)persons having used drugs within last 12 months before prison, either sometime or daily/almost daily or intravenously within these 12 monthsany illicit drug45nationwide survey on routine data from all convicted prisoners at admission (n= 3683)
11997 (April)persons having used drugs within last 12 months before prison, either sometime or daily/almost daily or intravenously within these 12 monthsany illicit drug44nationwide survey on routine data from all convicted prisoners at admission (n= 3616)
11996persons having used drugs intravenously or on a daily (or almost daily) basis within last 2 months before prisonany illicit drug40nationwide survey on routine data from all convicted prisoners at admission (n= 4367)
11995persons having used drugs intravenously or on a daily (or almost daily) basis within last 2 months before prisonany illicit drug40nationwide survey on routine data from all convicted prisoners at admission (n= 4408)
21997persons reporting injecting drug use (lifetime) prior to imprisonment65survey in 9 prisons among on remand and convicted prisoners (n= 305)
United Kingdom England12004-2005women reporting drug use in the 6 months prior to imprisonmentany illicit drug (females)75survey in 2 remand prisons for women among all new receptions during certain pre-defined periods (n= 505)
12004-2005women reporting daily drug use in the 6 months prior to imprisonmentany illicit drug (females)58survey in 2 remand prisons for women among all new receptions during certain pre-defined periods (n= 505)
12004-2005women reporting lifetime injecting drug useany illicit drug (females)38survey in 2 remand prisons for women among all new receptions during certain pre-defined periods (n= 505)
12004-2005women reporting injecting drug use in the month prior to imprisonmentany illicit drug (females)21survey in 2 remand prisons for women among all new receptions during certain pre-defined periods (n= 505)
12004-2005women reporting injecting drug use in prisonany illicit drug (females)7survey in 2 remand prisons for women among all new receptions during certain pre-defined periods (n= 505)
England and Wales22005-2006persons reporting lifetime drug useany of heroin, crack, cocaine, amphetamines, cannabis79survey in 49 prisons holding newly sentenced receptions among all adults sentenced between 1 month and 4 years (n= 1457)
22005-2006persons reporting last year drug use prior to imprisonment any of heroin, crack, cocaine, amphetamines, cannabis69survey in 49 prisons holding newly sentenced receptions among all adults sentenced between 1 month and 4 years (n= 1457)
22005-2006persons reporting last month (4 weeks) drug use prior to imprisonment any of heroin, crack, cocaine, amphetamines, cannabis62survey in 49 prisons holding newly sentenced receptions among all adults sentenced between 1 month and 4 years (n= 1457)
32001-2002persons reporting drug use in the year prior to the current prisonany illicit drug70survey in 31 prisons in a representative sample of male and female remanded and sentenced prisoners (n= 2266)
32001-2002persons reporting drug use in the month prior to the current prisonany illicit drug66survey in 31 prisons in a representative sample of male and female remanded and sentenced prisoners (n= 2266)
32001-2002persons reporting drug use in the current prisonany illicit drug39survey in 31 prisons in a representative sample of male and female remanded and sentenced prisoners (n= 2266)
32001-2002persons reporting drug use during the past month in the current prisonany illicit drug25survey in 31 prisons in a representative sample of male and female remanded and sentenced prisoners (n= 2266)
32001-2002persons reporting drug use during the past week in the current prisonany illicit drug16survey in 31 prisons in a representative sample of male and female remanded and sentenced prisoners (n= 2266)
32001-2002persons reporting injecting drug use in the current prisonany illicit drug1survey in 31 prisons in a representative sample of male and female remanded and sentenced prisoners (n= 2266)
42000persons reporting drug use in the last year prior to imprisonmentany illicit drug (males)73survey in 34 medium and large prisons nationally spread in a random sample of recently arrived sentenced male prisoners (n= 1884)
42000persons reporting drug use in the last month prior to imprisonmentany illicit drug (males)63survey in 34 medium and large prisons nationally spread in a random sample of recently arrived sentenced male prisoners (n= 1884)
42000persons reporting daily or nearly every day drug use prior to imprisonmentany illicit drug (males)54survey in 34 medium and large prisons nationally spread in a random sample of recently arrived sentenced male prisoners (n= 1884)
42000persons reporting regular drug use prior to imprisonmentany illicit drug (males)23survey in 34 medium and large prisons nationally spread in a random sample of recently arrived sentenced male prisoners (n= 1884)
42000persons reporting injecting drug use in the last year prior to imprisonmentany illicit drug (males)23survey in 34 medium and large prisons nationally spread in a random sample of recently arrived sentenced male prisoners (n= 1884)
51997-1998persons reporting having ever injected drugs (inside or outside prison)(adult males)24survey in 8 prisons: 6 adult male prisons (n= 2769), 1 female prison (n= 407) and 1 male young (under 21 years) offenders prison (n= 714)
51997-1998persons reporting having ever injected drugs inside prison(adult males)7survey in 8 prisons: 6 adult male prisons (n= 2746), 1 female prison (n= 400) and 1 male young (under 21 years) offenders prison (n= 714)
61997persons reporting lifetime drug use prior to imprisonmentany illicit drugs(4)69-85nationwide survey in all 131 prisons (n=3142)
61997persons reporting drug use within the last year prior to imprisonmentcannabis(4)42-63nationwide survey in all 131 prisons (n=3142)
61997persons reporting drug use during the last time in prisoncannabis(4)19-46nationwide survey in all 131 prisons (n=3142)
61997persons diagnosed with severe drug dependence within the last year prior to imprisonment(4)32-40nationwide survey in all 131 prisons (n=3142)
61997persons reporting having ever injected drugs(4) 23-40nationwide survey in all 131 prisons (n=3142)
61997persons reporting injecting drug use within the last month prior to imprisonment(4)13-28nationwide survey in all 131 prisons (n=3142)
71996men entering prison reporting a history of injecting drug usemales29survey in one prison
81995men entering prison reporting a history of injecting drug usemales15survey in 3 prisons
91994persons reporting drug use within the last year prior to imprisonment68nationwide survey (n=1000)
Scotland102009persons reporting drug use within the last 12 months prior to imprisonment: Did you use illegal drugs in the 12 months before coming into prison?any illicit drug67nationwide cross-sectional survey in all Scottish prisons amongst the total population of prisoners ( remand and convicted, young offenders and adults, age range 16-79 years) (n= 4431)
102009persons reporting lifetime drug use in prison: Have you ever used illegal drugs in prison? any illicit drug45nationwide cross-sectional survey in all Scottish prisons amongst the total population of prisoners ( remand and convicted, young offenders and adults, age range 16-79 years) (n= 4431)
102009persons reporting drug use within the last month during the current imprisonment: Have you used illegal drugs in the last month while in this prison?any illicit drug22nationwide cross-sectional survey in all Scottish prisons amongst the total population of prisoners ( remand and convicted, young offenders and adults, age range 16-79 years) (n= 4431)
102009persons reporting lifetime injecting drug use while in prison: Have you ever injected drugs in prison?any illicit drug8nationwide cross-sectional survey in all Scottish prisons amongst the total population of prisoners ( remand and convicted, young offenders and adults, age range 16-79 years) (n= 4431)
102009persons reporting injecting drug use within the last month during the current imprisonment: Have you injected drugs in prison in the last month?any illicit drug3nationwide cross-sectional survey in all Scottish prisons amongst the total population of prisoners ( remand and convicted, young offenders and adults, age range 16-79 years) (n= 4431)
112008persons reporting drug use within the last 12 months prior to imprisonmentany illicit drug69nationwide cross-sectional survey in all Scottish prisons amongst the total population of prisoners (young offenders and adults, age range 16-79 years) (n= 4318)
112008persons reporting lifetime drug use in prisonany illicit drug48nationwide cross-sectional survey in all Scottish prisons amongst the total population of prisoners (young offenders and adults, age range 16-79 years) (n= 4318)
112008persons reporting drug use within the last month during the current imprisonmentany illicit drug26nationwide cross-sectional survey in all Scottish prisons amongst the total population of prisoners (young offenders and adults, age range 16-79 years) (n= 4318)
112008persons reporting injecting drug use within the last month during the current imprisonmentany illicit drug3nationwide cross-sectional survey in all Scottish prisons amongst the total population of prisoners (young offenders and adults, age range 16-79 years) (n= 4318)
122007persons reporting drug use within the last 12 months prior to imprisonmentany illicit drug69nationwide cross-sectional survey in all Scottish prisons amongst the total population of prisoners (young offenders and adults, age range 16-79 years) (n= 4692)
122007persons reporting lifetime drug use in prisonany illicit drug51nationwide cross-sectional survey in all Scottish prisons amongst the total population of prisoners (young offenders and adults, age range 16-79 years) (n= 4692)
122007persons reporting drug use within the last month during the current imprisonmentany illicit drug30nationwide cross-sectional survey in all Scottish prisons amongst the total population of prisoners (young offenders and adults, age range 16-79 years) (n= 4692)
122007persons reporting injecting drug use within the last month during the current imprisonmentany illicit drug2nationwide cross-sectional survey in all Scottish prisons amongst the total population of prisoners (young offenders and adults, age range 16-79 years) (n= 4692)
132006persons reporting drug use within the last 12 months prior to imprisonmentany illicit drug67nationwide cross-sectional survey in all Scottish prisons amongst the total population of prisoners (young offenders and adults, age range 16-88 years) (n= 4778)
132006persons reporting lifetime drug use in prisonany illicit drug50nationwide cross-sectional survey in all Scottish prisons amongst the total population of prisoners (young offenders and adults, age range 16-88 years) (n= 4778)
132006persons reporting drug use within the last month during the current imprisonmentany illicit drug29nationwide cross-sectional survey in all Scottish prisons amongst the total population of prisoners (young offenders and adults, age range 16-88 years) (n= 4778)
132006persons reporting injecting drug use within the last month during the current imprisonmentany illicit drug3nationwide cross-sectional survey in all Scottish prisons amongst the total population of prisoners (young offenders and adults, age range 16-88 years) (n= 4778)
142005persons reporting drug use within the last 12 months prior to imprisonmentcannabis82nationwide survey among all prisoners (n= 4831)
142005persons reporting lifetime drug use in prisonany illicit drug50nationwide survey among all prisoners (n= 4831)
142005Persons reporting drug use within the last month during the current imprisonment any illicit drug 34nationwide survey among all prisoners (n= 4831)
142005persons reporting injecting drug use within the last month during the current imprisonmentany illicit drug3nationwide survey among all prisoners (n= 4831)
152004persons reporting drug use within the last year prior to imprisonmentany illicit drug51nationwide survey among all prisoners (n= 4793)
152004persons reporting lifetime drug use in prisonany illicit drug55nationwide survey among all prisoners (n= 4793)
152004persons reporting drug use during the current term of imprisonmentany illicit drug35nationwide survey among all prisoners (n= 4793)
152004persons reporting injecting drug use during the current term of imprisonmentany illicit drug5nationwide survey among all prisoners (n= 4793)
162003persons reporting drug use during the current imprisonmentany illicit drug32national survey in 16 prisons among all prisoners available at the time of the survey (n= 4741)
162003persons reporting having ever injected drugs during the current imprisonmentany illicit drug11national survey in 16 prisons among all prisoners available at the time of the survey (n= 4741)
171991-1996men reporting a history of injection drug use(males)32survey in 6 male prisons (n=2286)
171991-1996women reporting a history of injection drug use(females)46survey in one female prison (n=132)
171991-1996young offenders reporting a history of injection drug use(young offenders)18survey in 2 young offenders institutions (n=562)
171991-1996men reporting having ever injected in prison(males)18survey in 6 male prisons (n=2286)
171991-1996women reporting having ever injected in prison(females)26survey in one female prison (n=132)
171991-1996young offenders reporting having ever injected in prison(young offenders)5survey in 2 young offenders institutions (n=562)
Northern Ireland182005female young offenders reporting drug use within the last month prior to imprisonmentany illicit drug (young offenders, females)40Cross-sectional survey in Hydebank Wood Centre among on remand (30%) and convicted prisoners (70%) (n= 20)
182005female young offenders reporting drug use within the last month in prisonany illicit drug (young offenders, females)10Cross-sectional survey in Hydebank Wood Centre among on remand (30%) and convicted prisoners (70%) (n= 20)
192005male young offenders reporting drug use within the last month prior to imprisonmentany illicit drug (young offenders, males)77Cross-sectional survey in Hydebank Wood Centre among on remand (49%) and convicted prisoners (51%) (n= 180)
192005male young offenders reporting drug use within the last month in prisonany illicit drug (young offenders, males)40Cross-sectional survey in Hydebank Wood Centre among on remand (49%) and convicted prisoners (51%) (n= 180)
Croatia12010persons reporting lifetime drug use prior to imprisonment any illicit drug:survey among attendees to the depapartment for diagnostics and programming (all admissions at entry) , who had been convicted and still have more than six months of servitude, regardless on his/hers gender and age (n= 2181)
12010persons reporting drug use within the last year prior to imprisonmentany illicit drug:survey among attendees to the depapartment for diagnostics and programming (all admissions at entry) , who had been convicted and still have more than six months of servitude, regardless on his/hers gender and age (n= 2181)
12010persons reporting drug use within the last month prior to imprisonmentany illicit drug:survey among attendees to the depapartment for diagnostics and programming (all admissions at entry) , who had been convicted and still have more than six months of servitude, regardless on his/hers gender and age (n= 2181)
12010persons reporting regular drug use (at least once per week or more) prior to imprisonmentany illicit drug:survey among attendees to the depapartment for diagnostics and programming (all admissions at entry) , who had been convicted and still have more than six months of servitude, regardless on his/hers gender and age (n= 2181)
12010persons reporting lifetime injecting drug use prior to imprisonmentcocaine0.6survey among attendees to the depapartment for diagnostics and programming (all admissions at entry) , who had been convicted and still have more than six months of servitude, regardless on his/hers gender and age (n= 2181)
22009persons reporting lifetime drug use prior to imprisonment any illicit drug26survey among attendees to the depapartment for diagnostics and programming, who had been convicted and still have more than six months of servitude, regardless on his/hers gender and age (n= 1916)
22009persons reporting drug use within the last year prior to imprisonmentany illicit drug12survey among attendees to the depapartment for diagnostics and programming, who had been convicted and still have more than six months of servitude, regardless on his/hers gender and age (n= 1916)
22009persons reporting drug use within the last month prior to imprisonmentany illicit drug6survey among attendees to the depapartment for diagnostics and programming, who had been convicted and still have more than six months of servitude, regardless on his/hers gender and age (n= 1916)
22009persons reporting regular drug use (at least once per week or more) prior to imprisonmentany illicit drug8survey among attendees to the depapartment for diagnostics and programming, who had been convicted and still have more than six months of servitude, regardless on his/hers gender and age (n= 1916)
22009persons reporting lifetime injecting drug use prior to imprisonmentany illicit drug5survey among attendees to the depapartment for diagnostics and programming, who had been convicted and still have more than six months of servitude, regardless on his/hers gender and age (n= 1916)
32008persons reporting lifetime drug use prior to imprisonment any illicit drug24survey among attendees to the depapartment for diagnostics and programming, who had been convicted and still have more than six months of servitude, regardless on his/hers gender and age (n= 1791)
32008persons reporting drug use within the last year prior to imprisonmentany illicit drug16survey among attendees to the depapartment for diagnostics and programming, who had been convicted and still have more than six months of servitude, regardless on his/hers gender and age (n= 1791)
32008persons reporting drug use within the last month prior to imprisonmentany illicit drug9survey among attendees to the depapartment for diagnostics and programming, who had been convicted and still have more than six months of servitude, regardless on his/hers gender and age (n= 1791)
32008persons reporting regular drug use (at least once per week or more) prior to imprisonmentany illicit drug14survey among attendees to the depapartment for diagnostics and programming, who had been convicted and still have more than six months of servitude, regardless on his/hers gender and age (n= 1791)
32008persons reporting lifetime injecting drug use prior to imprisonmentany illicit drug7survey among attendees to the depapartment for diagnostics and programming, who had been convicted and still have more than six months of servitude, regardless on his/hers gender and age (n= 1791)
Norway12003persons reporting cannabis use in the month prior to imprisonment, but not amphetamine/stimulants or opioid usecannabis (adult males)8nationwide survey in a representative random sample of male and female sentenced adult inmates (n= 260), although only results on males are provided (n= 225)
persons reporting opioid use in the month prior to imprisonment, irrespective of other substance useopioids (adult males)20nationwide survey in a representative random sample of male and female sentenced adult inmates (n= 260), although only results on males are provided (n= 225)
persons reporting amphetamine or other stimulants use in the month prior to imprisonment, but not opioid useamphetamine and other stimulants (adult males)29nationwide survey in a representative random sample of male and female sentenced adult inmates (n= 260), although only results on males are provided (n= 225)
22002persons reporting lifetime drug use prior to imprisonmentany illicit drug 70national survey in all 52 prisons among on remand and convicted prisoners (n= 1074)
22002persons reporting drug use within the last 6 months prior to imprisonmentany illicit drug 62national survey in all 52 prisons among on remand and convicted prisoners (n= 1035)
22002persons reporting drug use during the current imprisonmentany illicit drug 26-38 national survey in all 52 prisons among on remand and convicted prisoners (n= 1074)
32000subtantial drug users: persons reporting the use of more than one drug in the last month prior to imprisonment and terming themselves as regular users or large-consumers55survey in all prisons of the eastern prison district among all inmates sentenced to a maximum of 3 years and who had grown up in Norway (n= 247)
32000intravenous substantial drug users:persons reporting the intravenous use of more than one drug in the last month prior to imprisonment and terming themselves as regular users or large-consumers38survey in all prisons of the eastern prison district among all inmates sentenced to a maximum of 3 years and who had grown up in Norway (n= 247)
41997-1996inmates who used drugs once or several times while serving their sentence40-60estimated by prison authorities on the basis of previous studies in prison and reports submitted by prison and visitation officials
 

Notes:

(2) Caution should be applied when considering that a survey is said to be 'national' as this refers to its intended geographical coverage, but does not mean it is necessarily representative of the national situation, which would depend on any sampling procedures adopted. Note that the size of the prison population surveyed is not available for most of the studies displayed in this table, and sample sizes reflect different proportions of the population in different countries.

(3) Bulgaria: due the fear of sanction it is likely that drug use is under-reported.

(4) England & Wales: results are provided for 4 different sub-groups of population: male remanded, male sentenced, female remanded, female sentenced. Women and men on remand represent a small proportion of the prison population, and thus these groups were over-sampled. Ranges reported here represent the minimum and maximum values obtained for each of the 4 sub-groups.

Sources:

(1) For access to sources and bibliographic references, please refer to Table DUP-0

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The European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA) is the reference point on drugs and drug addiction information in Europe. Inaugurated in Lisbon in 1995, it is one of the EU's decentralised agencies. Read more >>

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Page last updated: Monday, 09 July 2012