Report on the risk assessment of a new psychoactive substance: methyl 2-{[1-(4-fluorobutyl)-1H-indole-3-carbonyl]amino}-3,3-dime- thylbutanoate (4F-MDMB-BICA) in accordance with Article 5c of Regulation (EC) No 1920/2006 (as amended)


This publication presents the data and findings of the risk assessment on methyl 2-{[1-(4-fluorobutyl)-1H-indole-3-carbonyl]amino}-3,3-dimethylbutanoate (4F-MDMB-BICA), carried out by the extended Scientific Committee of the EMCDDA on 9 December 2020. On the basis of the Risk Assessment Report, on 12 March 2021, the Commission decided that 4F-MDMB-BICA should be included in the definition of 'drug', in the Annex to Framework Decision 2004/757/JHA. 

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Table of contents

  • Statement regarding the United Kingdom
  • Contents
  • Introduction
  • Background
  • Chemical and physical properties and the methods and precursors used for manufacture
  • Pharmacological and toxicological properties
  • Health risks
  • Social risks
  • Extent and patterns of use, availability and potential for diffusion
  • Commercial and industrial uses, the extent of such use and its use for scientific research and developmental purposes
  • Other relevant information
  • Conclusion