Recent changes in Europe’s MDMA/ecstasy market – results from an EMCDDA trendspotter study


This report explores the recent resurgence in use of MDMA in Europe and increased availability of high-strength MDMA tablets, crystals and powders. It notes that the picture is not uniform across European countries, and while overall the region’s MDMA market is now in a period of consolidation, there are some temporal ripple effects as latecomer countries catch up.

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Table of contents

  • Study rationale and methods
  • A short history of MDMA/ecstasy
  • A range of MDMA products
  • MDMA markets — production and supply
  • MDMA use and cultural context
  • MDMA harms and deaths
  • Discussion
  • Acknowledgements
  • References