Wastewater analysis and drugs — a European multi-city study

  • Page last updated: 04 May 2023

Introduction

The analysis of municipal wastewaters for drugs and their metabolic products to estimate community consumption is a developing field, involving scientists working in different research areas, including analytical chemistry, physiology, biochemistry, sewage engineering, spatial epidemiology and statistics, and conventional drug epidemiology. This page presents the findings from studies conducted since 2011. Data from all studies can be explored through an interactive tool, and a detailed analysis of the findings of the most recent study, in 2022, is presented.

See our wastewater analysis hub page for more information and resources on this topic.

Please note: the analysis and underlying data presented on this page were originally published on 22 March 2023. On 05 May 2023, some corrections and minor updates where made to the data — this is fully reflected in the Data explorer and the main data source table at the bottom of the page but individual graphics and maps on the page ('Figures') and textual analysis on the page are still based on the original data sets so there may be some very minor discrepancies between the data in the explorer and elsewhere. If in doubt regarding a specific site, please refer to the Data explorer.

Data explorer

In this section you can explore the data from the most recent study in 2022, as well as from previous studies. Each study reveals a picture of distinct geographical and temporal patterns of drug use across European cities. Clicking on a symbol in the graph or the map will show more detailed information for a given wastewater treatment plant. You can also select a site from the drop-down menu.

 

Notes

  • Cocaine is detected through its metabolite benzoylecgonine (BE) and cannabis through its metabolite THC-COOH.
  • Please see the notes in the Source data section, which include general notes, substance-specific notes, as well as city-specific remarks.
  • Because of the size of the data-set, this data explorer may be slow or unresponsive. If this is the case, we recommend trying another browser such as FireFox, Safari or Chrome.

Analysis: results from a European multi-city study

The findings of the largest European project to date in the emerging science of wastewater analysis are presented in this section. The project analysed wastewater in over 100 European cities and towns (hereinafter referred to as ‘cities') to explore the drug-taking habits of those who live in them. The results provide a valuable snapshot of the drug flow through the cities involved, revealing marked geographical variations.

Wastewater analysis is a rapidly developing scientific discipline with the potential for monitoring real-time data on geographical and temporal trends in illicit drug use. Originally used in the 1990s to monitor the environmental impact of liquid household waste, the method has since been used to estimate illicit drug consumption in different cities (Daughton, 2001; van Nuijs et al., 2011; Zuccato et al., 2008). It involves sampling a source of wastewater, such as a sewage influent to a wastewater treatment plant. This allows scientists to estimate the quantity of drugs consumed by a community by measuring the levels of illicit drugs and their metabolites excreted in urine (Zuccato et al., 2008).

Wastewater testing in European cities

In 2010, a Europe-wide network (Sewage analysis CORe group — Europe (SCORE)) was established with the aim of standardising the approaches used for wastewater analysis and coordinating international studies through the establishment of a common protocol of action. The first activity of the SCORE group was a Europe-wide investigation, performed in 2011 in 19 European cities, which allowed the first ever wastewater study of regional differences in illicit drug use in Europe (Thomas et al., 2012). That study al included the first intercalibration exercise for the evaluation of the quality of the analytical data and allowed a comprehensive characterisation of the major uncertainties of the approach (Castiglioni et al., 2014). Following the success of this initial study, comparable studies were undertaken over the following years, covering 104 cities and 21 countries in the European Union, Norway and Turkey in 2021. A standard protocol and a common quality control exercise were used in all locations, which made it possible to directly compare illicit drug loads in Europe over a one-week period during 10 consecutive years (van Nuijs et al., 2018). Raw 24-hour composite samples were collected during a single week between March and May 2022. These samples were analysed for the urinary biomarkers (i.e. measurable characteristics) of the parent drug (i.e. primary substance) for amphetamine, methamphetamine, ketamine and MDMA. In addition, the samples were analysed for the main urinary metabolites (i.e. substances produced when the body breaks drugs down) of cocaine and cannabis, which are benzoylecgonine (BE) and THC-COOH (11-nor-9-carboxy-delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol).

The specific metabolite of heroin, 6-monoacetylmorphine, has been found to be unstable in wastewater. Consequently, the only alternative is to use morphine, although it is not a specific biomarker and can also be excreted as a result of therapeutic use. This underlines the importance of collecting the most accurate figure for morphine use from prescription and/or sales reports.

Patterns of illicit drug use: geographical and temporal variation

2022 key findings

The project findings revealed distinct geographical and temporal patterns of drug use across European cities (see the data explorer).

The annual SCORE wastewater sampling presented here, from 104 cities, showed that, overall, the loads of the different stimulant drugs detected in wastewater in 2022 varied considerably across study locations, although all illicit drugs investigated were found in almost every city that participated.

The BE loads observed in wastewater indicate that cocaine use remains highest in western and southern European cities, in particular in cities in Belgium, the Netherlands, Portugal and Spain. Low levels were found in the majority of the eastern European cities, although with the most recent data showing some signs of increase.

A recent European project on wastewater, EUSEME, found crack cocaine residues in all 13 participating cities and for all sampling days, with the highest loads reported in Amsterdam and Antwerp.

The loads of amphetamine detected in wastewater varied considerably across study locations, with the highest levels being reported in cities in the north and east of Europe, as in previous years. Amphetamine was found at much lower levels in cities in the south of Europe, although with the most recent data showing some signs of increase.

The highest loads were found in cities in Sweden, Belgium, Germany, the Netherlands and Finland.

In contrast, methamphetamine use, generally low and historically concentrated in Czechia and Slovakia, was also present in Belgium, the east of Germany, Spain, Turkey and northern Europe. The observed methamphetamine loads in the other locations were very low, although most recent data show signals of increases in central and southern European cities.

The highest mass loads of MDMA were found in the wastewater in cities in Belgium, Czechia, the Netherlands, Spain and Portugal.

The highest mass loads of the cannabis metabolite THC-COOH were found in wastewater in cities in Czechia, Spain, the Netherlands and Portugal.

For the first time, ketamine loads are being published. The highest mass loads were found in the wastewater in cities in Denmark, Italy, Spain and Portugal.

Sixteen countries participating in the 2021 monitoring campaign included two or more study locations (Austria, Belgium, Cyprus, Czechia, Germany, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Italy, Lithuania, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Slovakia, Slovenia, Sweden and Turkey). The study highlighted differences between these cities within the same country, which may be explained in part by the different social and demographic characteristics of the cities (universities, nightlife areas and age distribution of the population). In the majority of countries with multiple study locations, BE, methamphetamine and MDMA loads were higher in large cities compared to smaller locations. No such marked differences could be detected for amphetamine and cannabis (THC-COOH).

In addition to geographical patterns, wastewater analysis can detect fluctuations in weekly patterns of illicit drug use. More than three quarters of cities show higher loads of BE, ketamine and MDMA in wastewater during the weekend (Friday to Monday) than during weekdays. In contrast, amphetamine, cannabis (THC-COOH) and methamphetamine use was found to be distributed more evenly over the whole week.

Sixty-five cities have participated in at least five of the annual wastewater monitoring campaigns since 2011. This allows for time trend analysis of drug consumption based on wastewater testing.

Cannabis

Cannabis is Europe's most commonly used illicit drug, with an estimated 22.6 million last year users. Cannabis use appeared to have been less affected during the pandemic lockdown periods, although differences between and within countries existed. Data from the European Web Survey on Drugs: COVID-19 (EWSD-COVID) also indicated that, among respondents, cannabis use patterns remained relatively stable during the first lockdown period, with more than two fifths (42 %) of the cannabis users who participated in the survey reporting no change in their use of the drug compared with before the pandemic (EMCDDA, 2020). The 2021 European Web Survey on Drugs, conducted in 30 countries, found that herbal cannabis was one of the few substances that were used more often in this period by respondents when asked about the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on their use of illicit drugs in the past 12 months.

In wastewater, cannabis use is estimated by measuring its main metabolite, THC-COOH, which is the only suitable biomarker found so far. Although it is excreted in a low percentage and more research is still needed (Causanilles et al., 2017a), it is commonly used to report on cannabis use in the literature (Zucatto et al., 2016; Bijlsma et al., 2020).

The THC-COOH loads observed in wastewater indicate that cannabis use was highest in western and southern European cities, in particular in cities in Czechia, Spain, the Netherlands and Portugal. In 2022, there were diverging trends with 18 cities out of 38 reported a decrease increase in THC-COOH loads in wastewater samples and 15 an increase.

Figure 1. Relative geographical distribution of cannabis metabolite as detected in European cities, 2022 (daily mean)
 

To examine the data, use the data explorer, also available on this page. Underlying data is available in source data.

Figure 2: Changes in the mean weekly cannabis metabolites from wastewater analyses in selected European cities between 2021 and 2022
Red = increase | Green = decrease | Yellow = stable, with respect to previous year
 

To examine the data, use the data explorer, also available on this page. Underlying data is available in source data.

 

Cocaine

The BE loads observed in wastewater indicate that cocaine use remains highest in western and southern European cities, in particular in cities in Belgium, the Netherlands, Portugal and Spain. Low levels were found in the majority of the eastern European cities, but the most recent data show signs of increase.

Figure 3: Relative geographical distribution of cocaine metabolite as detected in European cities, 2022 (daily mean)
 

To examine the data, use the data explorer, also available on this page. Underlying data is available in source data.

A relatively stable picture of cocaine use was observed between 2011 and 2015 in most cities. 2016 marked a turning point, with increases observed in the majority of cities each year since then. The 2022 data revealed an increase in cocaine residues in most cities when compared to 2021 data, with 38 out of 66 cities reporting an increase, while 18 cities reported no change and 10 cities reported a decrease. An overall increase is seen for all 10 cities with data for both 2011 and 2022.

Figure 4: Aggregated trends in cocaine residues in 7 EU cities, 2011 to 2022

NB: Trends in mean daily amounts of benzoylecgonine in milligrams per 1 000 head of population in Antwerp Zuid (Belgium) Zagreb (Croatia), Milan (Italy), Eindhoven and Utrecht (Netherlands), Castellon and Santiago (Spain). These 7 cities were selected owing to the availability of annual data from 2011 to 2022.

To examine the data, use the data explorer, also available on this page. Underlying data is available in source data.

Figure 5: Changes in the mean weekly cocaine metabolites from wastewater analyses in selected European cities between 2021 and 2022
Red = increase | Green = decrease | Yellow = stable, with respect to previous year

To examine the data, use the data explorer, also available on this page. Underlying data is available in source data.

In the majority of countries with multiple study locations, BE (cocaine) loads were higher in large cities compared to smaller locations. In addition to geographical patterns, wastewater analysis can detect fluctuations in weekly patterns of illicit drug use. More than three quarters of cities show higher loads of BE in wastewater during the weekend (Friday to Monday) than during weekdays, which may reflect a pattern of more recreational use.

A recent European project on wastewater in found crack cocaine residues in all 13 participating cities and for all sampling days, with the highest loads reported in Amsterdam and Antwerp.

MDMA

The highest mass loads of MDMA were found in the wastewater in cities in Belgium, Czechia, the Netherlands, Spain and Portugal.

Figure 6. Relative geographical distribution of MDMA residues as detected in European cities, 2022 (daily mean)
 

To examine the data, use the data explorer, also available on this page. Underlying data is available in source data.

General population surveys in many countries showed that MDMA prevalence was declining from peak levels attained in the early to mid-2000s. In recent years, however, the picture has remained mixed with no clear trends. Where prevalence is high, this may reflect MDMA no longer being a niche or subcultural drug limited to dance clubs and parties, but now being used by a broader range of young people in mainstream nightlife settings, including bars and house parties.

Figure 7: Changes in the mean weekly MDMA metabolites from wastewater analyses in selected European cities between 2021 and 2022
Red = increase | Green = decrease | Yellow = stable, with respect to previous year

To examine the data, use the data explorer, also available on this page. Underlying data is available in source data.

Looking at longer-term trends in wastewater analysis, in most cases the loads increased between 2011-16, and have fluctuated after this. In 2020, possibly due to the fact that in the majority of countries nightlife was largely closed for long periods, almost half of the cities (24 of 49) reported a decrease with 18 reporting an increase. In 2021, 38 out of 58 cities, reported a decrease. Of the 62 cities that have data on MDMA residues in municipal wastewater for 2021 and 2022, 28 reported an increase (mostly in cities in southern and central Europe), 7 a stable situation and 27 a decrease (mostly in northern Europe). Of the 9 cities with data for both 2011 and 2022, 9 had higher MDMA loads in 2022 than in 2011.

In the large majority of countries, MDMA loads were higher in large cities compared to smaller locations. Also, more than three quarters of cities showed higher loads of MDMA in wastewater during the weekend (Friday to Monday) than during weekdays, reflecting the predominant use of ecstasy in recreational settings.

Amphetamine and methamphetamine

Amphetamine and methamphetamine, two closely related stimulants, are both consumed in Europe, although amphetamine is much more commonly used. Methamphetamine consumption has historically been restricted to Czechia and, more recently, Slovakia, although recent years have seen increases in use in other countries.

The loads of amphetamine detected in wastewater varied considerably across study locations, with the highest levels reported in cities in the north and east of Europe. The highest loads were found in cities in Sweden, Belgium, Germany, the Netherlands and Finland. Amphetamine was found at much lower levels in cities in the south of Europe, although the most recent data shows some signs of increase.

Figure 8. Relative geographical distribution of amphetamine residues as detected in European cities, 2022 (daily mean)
 

To examine the data, use the data explorer, also available on this page. Underlying data is available in source data.

Figure 9: Changes in the mean weekly amphetamine metabolites from wastewater analyses in selected European cities between 2021 and 2022
Red = increase | Green = decrease | Yellow = stable, with respect to previous year

To examine the data, use the data explorer, also available on this page. Underlying data is available in source data.

In contrast, methamphetamine use, generally low and historically concentrated in Czechia and Slovakia, now appears to be present also in Belgium, Cyprus, the east of Germany, Spain, Turkey and several northern European countries (Denmark, Finland, Lithuania, Norway). The observed methamphetamine loads in the other locations were very low to negligible, although most recent data show signals of increases in central and southern European cities.

Figure 10. Relative geographical distribution of methamphetamine residues as detected in European cities, 2022 (daily mean)
 

To examine the data, use the data explorer, also available on this page. Underlying data is available in source data.

Overall, the data related to amphetamine and methamphetamine from the 11 monitoring campaigns showed no major changes in the general patterns of use observed, although since 2021 increases were observed in several cities for both substances in regions where use has traditionally been low to negligible. Of the 55 cities with data on amphetamine residues in municipal wastewater for 2021 and 2022, 20 reported an increase, 9 a stable situation and 26 a decrease.

Of the 60 cities that have data on methamphetamine residues in municipal wastewater for 2021 and 2022, 39 reported an increase, 6 a stable situation and 15 a decrease. The 3 cities with the highest loads are all situated in Czechia, followed by cities in Latvia, Germany, Turkey and Cyprus.

Figure 11: Changes in the mean weekly methamphetamine metabolites from wastewater analyses in selected European cities between 2021 and 2022
Red = increase | Green = decrease | Yellow = stable, with respect to previous year

To examine the data, use the data explorer, also available on this page. Underlying data is available in source data.

In 2022, amphetamine and methamphetamine use were found to be distributed more evenly over the whole week than in previous years, possibly reflecting the use of these drugs being associated with more regular consumption by a cohort of high-risk users.

Ketamine

In 2022, generally very low levels of ketamine residues in municipal wastewater were reported by 15 cities, with the highest mass loads detected in cities in Denmark, Italy, Spain and Portugal.

Figure 12. Relative geographical distribution of ketamine residues as detected in European cities, 2022 (daily mean)
 

To examine the data, use the data explorer, also available on this page. Underlying data is available in source data.

More than three quarters of cities showed higher loads of ketamine in wastewater during the weekend (Friday to Monday) than during weekdays, reflecting the predominant use of ketamine in recreational settings.

Limitations of this method

Wastewater analysis offers an interesting complementary data source for monitoring the quantities of illicit drugs used at the population level, but it cannot provide information on prevalence and frequency of use, main classes of users and purity of the drugs. Additional challenges arise from uncertainties associated with the behaviour of the selected biomarkers in the sewer, different back-calculation methods and different approaches to estimate the size of the population being tested (Castiglioni et al., 2013, 2016; EMCDDA, 2016b; Lai et al., 2014). The caveats in selecting the analytical targets for heroin, for example, make monitoring this drug in wastewater more complicated compared to other substances (Been et al., 2015). Also, the purity of street products fluctuates unpredictably over time and in different locations. Furthermore, translating the total consumed amounts into the corresponding number of average doses is complicated, as drugs can be taken by different routes and in amounts that vary widely, and purity levels fluctuate (Zuccato et al., 2008).

Efforts are being made to enhance wastewater monitoring approaches. For example, work has been undertaken on overcoming a major source of uncertainty related to estimating the number of people present in a sewer catchment at the time of sample collection. This involved using data from mobile devices to better estimate the dynamic population size for wastewater-based epidemiology (Thomas et al., 2017).

New developments and the future

Wastewater-based epidemiology has established itself as an important tool for monitoring illicit drug use and future directions for wastewater research have been explored (EMCDDA, 2016).

First, wastewater analysis has been proposed as a tool to address some of the challenges related to the dynamic new psychoactive substances (NPS) market. This includes the large number of individual NPS, the relatively low prevalence of use and the fact that many of the users are actually unaware of exactly which substances they are using. A technique has been established to identify NPS that involves the collection and analysis of pooled urine from stand-alone portable urinals from nightclubs, city centres and music festivals, thereby providing timely data on exactly which NPS are currently in use at a particular location (Archer et al., 2013a, 2013b, 2015; Causanilles et al., 2017b; Kinyua et al., 2016; Mackuľak et al., 2019; Mardal et al., 2017; Reid et al., 2014). The European project ‘NPS euronet' aimed to improve the capacity to identify and assess the NPS being used in Europe. The project applied innovative analytical chemical and epidemiological methods and a robust risk-assessment procedure to improve the identification of NPS, to assess risks, and to estimate the extent and patterns of use in specific groups (e.g. at music festivals) and among the general population (Bade et al., 2017; González-Mariño et al., 2016).

Second, in addition to estimating illicit drug use, wastewater-based epidemiology has been successfully applied in recent years to providing detailed information on the use and misuse of alcohol (Boogaerts et al., 2016; Mastroianni et al., 2017; Rodríguez-Álvarez et al., 2015), tobacco (Senta et al., 2015; van Wel et al., 2016) and medicines in a specific population (Baz-Lomba et al., 2016, 2017; Been et al., 2015; Krizman-Matasic et al., 2018). Furthermore, wastewater analysis can potentially provide information on health and illness indicators within a community (Kasprzyk-Hordern et al., 2014; Thomaidis et al., 2016; Yang et al., 2015).

Third, the potential for wastewater-based epidemiology to be used as an outcome measurement tool, in particular in the evaluation of the effectiveness of interventions that target drug supply (e.g. law enforcement) or drug demand (e.g. public health campaigns) has not yet been fully explored. Close collaboration between the different stakeholders involved, including epidemiologists, wastewater experts and legal authorities, is highly recommended in order to start examining these potential wastewater-based epidemiology applications (EMCDDA, 2016). The WATCH project included a 30-day synthetic drug production monitoring campaign in three cities in Belgium and the Netherlands. High levels of MDMA were recorded during the whole monitoring period in one city in the Netherlands, suggesting continuous discharges of unconsumed MDMA from sources within the wastewater catchment area, indicating drug production was taking place in this region.

Fourth, by back-calculating the daily sewer loads of target residues, wastewater analysis can provide total consumption estimates, and specific efforts are now being directed towards finding the best procedures for estimating annual averages. In 2016, the EMCDDA presented, for the first time, illicit drug retail market size estimates in terms of quantity and value for the main substances used (EMCDDA and Europol, 2016). It is envisaged that findings from wastewater analysis can help to further develop work in this area.

Finally, new methods such as enantiomeric profiling have been developed to determine if mass loads of drugs in wastewater originated from consumption or from the disposal of unused drugs or production waste. It is now important to assess the possible utility of wastewater analysis to report on drug supply dynamics, including synthetic drug production (Emke et al., 2014). For example, recent malfunctioning of a small wastewater treatment plant in the Netherlands was caused by direct discharges in the sewage system of chemical waste from a drug production site. Further analysis revealed the actual synthesis process used to manufacture the corresponding drugs. The study confirmed that the chemical waste from the illegal manufacturing of stimulants will result in a specific chemical fingerprint that can be tracked in wastewater and used for forensic purposes. Such profiles can be used to identify drug production or synthesis waste disposal in the wastewater catchment area (Emke et al., 2018).

Wastewater analysis has demonstrated its potential as a useful complement to established monitoring tools in the drugs area. It has some clear advantages over other approaches as it is not subject to response and non-response bias and can better identify the true spectrum of drugs being consumed, as users are often unaware of the actual mix of substances they take. This tool also has the potential to provide timely information in short timeframes on geographical and temporal trends. In order to check the quality and accuracy of data, further comparisons between wastewater analysis and data obtained through other indicators are needed.

As a method, wastewater analysis has moved from being an experimental technique to being a new method in the epidemiological toolkit. Its rapid ability to detect new trends can help target public health programmes and policy initiatives at specific groups of people and the different drugs they are using.

Terms and definitions

In addition to the glossary below, see also Frequently-asked questions on wastewater-based epidemiology and drugs.

Back-calculation 

Back-calculation is the process whereby researchers calculate/estimate the consumption of illicit drugs in the population based on the amounts of the target drug residue entering the wastewater treatment plant.

LC-MS/MS

Liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) is the analytical method most commonly used to quantify drug residues in wastewater. LC-MS/MS is an analytical chemistry technique that combines the separation techniques of liquid chromatography with the analysis capabilities of mass spectrometry. Considering the complexity and the low concentrations expected in wastewater, LC-MS/MS is one of the most powerful techniques for this analysis, because of its sensitivity and selectivity.

Metabolite

Traces of drugs consumed will end up in the sewer network either unchanged or as a mixture of metabolites. Metabolites, the end products of metabolism, are the substances produced when the body breaks drugs down.

Residue

Wastewater analysis is based on the fact that we excrete traces in our urine of almost everything we consume, including illicit drugs. The target drug residue is what remains in the wastewater after excretion and is used to quantify the consumption of illicit drugs in the population.

Urinary biomarkers

Analytical chemists look for urinary biomarkers (measurable characteristics to calculate population drug use) in wastewater samples, which can be the parent drug (i.e. the primary substance) or its urinary metabolites.

Enantiomeric profiling

Enantiomeric profiling is an analytical chemistry technique used to determine if studied drugs in wastewater originate from consumption or direct disposal (eq. production waste). It is based on the fact that chiral molecules (if only one chiral centre is present) exist as two enantiomers (opposite forms) which are non-superimposable mirror images of each other. As the enantiomeric ratio will change after human metabolism, the enantiomeric fraction can be used to determine whether the studied drugs in wastewater originate from consumption.

Methods and ethical considerations

In order to estimate levels of drug use from wastewater, researchers attempt first to identify and quantify drug residues, and then to back-calculate the amount of the illicit drugs used by the population served by the sewage treatment plants (Castiglioni et al., 2014). This approach involves several steps (see figure). Initially, composite samples of untreated wastewater are collected from the sewers in a defined geographical area. The samples are then analysed to determine the concentrations of the target drug residues. Following this, the drug use is estimated through back-calculation by multiplying the concentration of each target drug residue (nanogram/litre) with the corresponding flow of sewage (litre/day). A correction factor for each drug is taken into account as part of the calculation. In a last step, the result is divided by the population served by the wastewater treatment plant, which shows the amount of a substance consumed per day per 1 000 inhabitants. Population estimates can be calculated using different biological parameters, census data, number of house connections, or the design capacity, but the overall variability of different estimates is generally very high.

Image shows steps in sampling process for wastewater. Step 1. Sample collection (composite 24 hour samples). Step 2. Sample analysis to obtain the concentrations of the target residues (Flow rate in cubic metres per day). Step 3. Amount of target residues entering the treatment plant in grams per day. Human metabolism correction factors are applied. Step 4. Calculate amount of substance consumed by the population served by the treatment plant, based on population estimates. Step 5. Normalisation of the amount of substance to a defined population in g or mg per day per 1000 inhabitants. Step 6. To calculte mean doses, final value is expressed as doses per day per 1000 inhabitants.

Although primarily used to study trends in illicit drug consumption in the general population, wastewater analysis has also been applied to small communities, including workplaces, schools (Zuccato et al., 2017), music festivals, prisons (Nefau et al., 2017) and specific neighbourhoods (Hall et al., 2012).

Using this method in small communities can involve ethical risks (Prichard et al., 2014), such as possible identification of a particular group within the community.

In 2016 the SCORE group published ethical guidelines for wastewater-based epidemiology and related fields (Prichard et al., 2016). The objective of these guidelines is to outline the main potential ethical risks for wastewater research and to propose strategies to mitigate those risks. Mitigating risks means reducing the likelihood of negative events and/or minimising the consequences of negative events.

References

Archer, J. R. H., Dargan, P. I., Hudson, S. and Wood, D. M. (2013a), ‘Analysis of anonymous pooled urinals in central London confirms the significant use of novel psychoactive substances', QJM 106(2), pp. 147–152.

Archer, J. R. H., Hudson, S., Wood, D. M. and Dargan, P. I. (2013b), ‘Analysis of urine from pooled urinals: A novel method for the detection of novel psychoactive substances', Current Drug Abuse Reviews 6(2), pp. 86–90.

Archer, J. R. H., Hudson, S. and Jackson, O. (2015), ‘Analysis of anonymized pooled urine in nine UK cities: variation in classical recreational drug, novel psychoactive substance and anabolic steroid use', QJM, 108 (12), pp. 929–933.

Bade, R., Bijlsma, L., Sancho, J. et al. (2017), ‘Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry determination of synthetic cathinones and phenethylamines in influent wastewater of eight European cities', Chemosphere 168, pp.10321–10041.

Baz-Lomba, J. A., Salvatore, S., Gracia-Lor, E., et al. (2016), ‘Comparison of pharmaceutical, illicit drug, alcohol, nicotine and caffeine levels in wastewater with sale, seizure and consumption data for 8 European cities', BMC Public Health 16(1), 1035.

Baz-Lomba, J. A., Harman, C., Reid, M. and Thomas, K. V. (2017), ‘Passive sampling of wastewater as a tool for the long-term monitoring of community exposure: Illicit and prescription drug trends as a proof of concept', Water Research 121, pp. 221–230.

Been, F., Benaglia, L., Lucia, S., et al. (2015), ‘Data triangulation in the context of opioids monitoring via wastewater analyses', Drug and Alcohol Dependence 151, pp. 203–210.

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Boogaerts, T., Covaci, A., Kinyua, J., et al. (2016), ‘Spatial and temporal trends in alcohol consumption in Belgian cities: A wastewater-based approach', Drug and Alcohol Dependence 160, pp. 170–176.

Castiglioni, S., Bijlsma, L., Covaci, A., et al. (2013), ‘Evaluation of uncertainties associated with the determination of community drug use through the measurement of sewage drug biomarkers', Environmental Science and Technology 47(3), pp. 1452–1460.

Castiglioni, S., Thomas, K. V., Kasprzyk-Hordern, B., Vandam, L. and Griffiths, P. (2014), ‘Testing wastewater to detect illicit drugs: State of the art, potential and research needs', Science of the Total Environment 487, pp. 613–620.

Castiglioni, S., Borsotti, A., Riva, F. and Zuccato, E. (2016), ‘Illicit drug consumption estimated by wastewater analysis in different districts of Milan: A case study', Drug and Alcohol Review 35, pp. 128–132.

Causanilles, A., Baz-Lomba, J. A., Burgard, D. A., et al. (2017a), ‘Improving wastewater-based epidemiology to estimate cannabis use: Focus on the initial aspects of the analytical procedure', Analytica Chimica Acta 988, pp. 27–33.

Causanilles, A., Kinyua, J., Ruttkies, C., et al. (2017b), ‘Qualitative screening for new psychoactive substances in wastewater collected during a city festival using liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry', Chemosphere 184, pp. 1186–1193.

Daughton, C. G. (2001), ‘Emerging pollutants, and communicating the science of environmental chemistry and mass spectrometry: Pharmaceuticals in the environment', American Society for Mass Spectrometry 12, pp. 1067–1076.

EMCDDA (2016), Assessing illicit drugs in wastewater: Advances in wastewater-based drug epidemiology, Publications Office of the European Union, Luxembourg.

EMCDDA (2020), Impact of COVID-19 on patterns of drug use and drug-related harms in Europe, EMCDDA Trendspotter Briefing, EMCDDA, Lisbon.

EMCDDA and Europol (2016), EU Drug Markets Report, Publications Office of the European Union, Luxembourg.

Emke, E., Evans, S., Kasprzyk-Hordern, B. and de Voogt, P. (2014), ‘Enantiomer profiling of high loads of amphetamine and MDMA in communal sewage: A Dutch perspective', Science of the Total Environment 487, pp. 666–672.

Emke, E., Vughs, D., Kolkman, A. and de Voogt, P. (2018), ‘Wastewater-based epidemiology generated forensic information: amphetamine synthesis waste and the impact on a small sewage treatment plant', Forensic Science International 286, e1–e7.

González-Mariño, I., Gracia-Lor, E., Rousis, N., et al. (2016), ‘Wastewater-based epidemiology to monitor synthetic cathinones use in different European countries', Environmental Science and Technology 50, pp.10089−10096.

Hall, W., Prichard,J., Kirkbride P., Bruno, R., Thai, P. K., Gartner, C. et al. (2012), ‘An analysis of ethical issues in using wastewater analysis to monitor illicit drug use', Addiction 107(10), pp. 1767–1773

Kasprzyk-Hordern, B., Bijlsma, L., Castiglioni, S., et al. (2014), ‘Wastewater-based epidemiology for public health monitoring', Water and Sewerage Journal 4, pp. 25–26.

Kinyua, J., Negreira, N., Miserez, B., et al. (2016), ‘Qualitative screening of new psychoactive substances in pooled urine samples from Belgium and United Kingdom', Science of the Total Environment 573, pp. 1527–1535.

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Find out more

Source data

General notes on the data

  • Population-normalised loads: All values indicate the amount of drug residues quantified in raw sewage. No values were corrected with excretion factors.
  • Cities with multiple sewage treatment plants (STPs): The numbers or letters in brackets specify the STPs, which provided data for the corresponding city in this study. For example, Berlin (4) indicates the population-weighted average of four different STPs in the city of Berlin.
  • Values below limit of quantification: Values below the method limit of quantification are indicated as zero.
  • Weekday means are averages of Tuesdays, Wednesdays and Thursdays. Weekend means are averages of Fridays, Saturdays, Sundays and Mondays. Usually, there is at least one sample taken on each weekday. In case data is missing for a day, the averages are calculated over non-missing observations.

Using the data

  • The data may be re-used in your own work provided the source (EMCDDA and SCORE) are acknowledged.
  • In addition to data values, a site information table is provided with information on the treatment plants where the measurements were made. Each site is identified with a unique arbitrary ID ('SiteID'), which provides information on the location of the site, the institution responsible and the approximate population served (the population values presented are indicative only and not necessarily the ones used at the time of the collection). This ID is referred to in each data table.

Substance-specific notes

  • Benzoylecgonine: this is the main excreted metabolite of cocaine.
  • THC-COOH: this is the main excreted metabolite of cannabis.

Jump to a table:

Source table for Figure 1.

Relative geographical distribution of cannabis metabolite as detected in European cities, 2022 (daily mean)
Year Metabolite Site ID Country City Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday Sunday Monday Tuesday Weekday mean Weekend mean Daily mean Latitude Longitude Location City Country: City
2022 cannabis AT001 AT Graz 69.31 59.09 75.89 55.2 50.19 54.96 57 61.8 59.06 60.24 47.070713 15.439504 ARA Graz Graz AT: Graz
2022 cannabis AT002 AT Hall-Wattens 43.23 45.2 43.92 43.92 44.48 52.04 45.14 44.52 46.09 45.42 47.29168 11.59284 Abwasserverband Hall in Tirol-Fritzens Hall-Wattens AT: Hall-Wattens
2022 cannabis AT004 AT Innsbruck 77.87 74.53 83.46 91.04 82.65 91.1 84.61 79 87.06 83.61 47.269212 11.404102 ARA-Innsbruck Innsbruck AT: Innsbruck
2022 cannabis AT005 AT Kapfenberg 18.43 17.59 21.95 14.88 13.2 34.91 28.83 21.61 21.23 21.4 47.443562 15.2901 Kläranlage Kapfenberg Kapfenberg AT: Kapfenberg
2022 cannabis AT006 AT Klagenfurt 51.93 51.89 63.03 50.94 53.11 66.74 53.79 52.53 58.46 55.92 46.6357 14.311817 N/A Klagenfurt AT: Klagenfurt
2022 cannabis AT008 AT Knittelfeld 43.28 93.2 52.96 38.57 50.67 45.26 43.77 60.08 46.86 52.53 47.21595 14.82719 N/A Knittelfeld AT: Knittelfeld
2022 cannabis AT009 AT Korneuburg 61.56 51.31 46.31 90.98 49.46 53.64 41.07 51.31 60.1 56.33 48.34472 16.33149 N/A Korneuburg AT: Korneuburg
2022 cannabis AT010 AT Kufstein 99.72 96.97 109.35 110.68 109.35 109.63 96.06 97.58 109.75 104.54 47.582958 12.17077 Abwasserverband Kufstein Kufstein AT: Kufstein
2022 cannabis AT013 AT Purgstall 34.75 28.37 29.61 36.13 26.1 23.58 31.76 31.63 28.85 30.04 48.057812 15.13545 GAV Erlauftal Purgstall AT: Purgstall
2022 cannabis AT011 AT Region Millstättersee 44.24 43.71 40.85 48.34 60.77 48.08 44.2 44.05 49.51 47.17 46.81924 13.52146 Wasserverband Millstaettersee Region Millstättersee AT: Region Millstättersee
2022 cannabis AT014 AT Salzburg 51.39 49.66 86.58 46.17 46.44 66.14 61.05 54.03 61.33 58.2 47.811195 13.033229 N/A Salzburg AT: Salzburg
2022 cannabis AT015 AT Steyr 57.66 47.7 65.95 107.58 78.36 67.86 72.92 59.43 79.94 71.15 48.05009 14.41827 N/A Steyr AT: Steyr
2022 cannabis AT016 AT Strass im Zillertal 33.41 30.54 31.01 38.59 31.02 37.71 36.25 33.4 34.58 34.07 47.395748 11.82211 AIZ Abwasserverband Strass im Zillertal AT: Strass im Zillertal
2022 cannabis AT003 AT Wasserverband Hofsteig 47.76 50.68 57.82 46.15 45.99 60.01 45.52 47.99 52.49 50.56 47.4852 9.6762 ARA Hofsteig Wasserverband Hofsteig AT: Wasserverband Hofsteig
2022 cannabis AT017 AT Wien 74 85.62 93.73 73.2 80.47 91.03 83.84 81.15 84.6 83.12 48.210033 16.363449 N/A Wien AT: Wien
2022 cannabis AT018 AT Wiener Neustadt 73.26 83.72 66.1 58.24 59.13 69.03 58.27 71.75 63.13 66.82 47.80279 16.23318 N/A Wiener Neustadt AT: Wiener Neustadt
2022 cannabis AT019 AT Wildon 51.24 48.71 49.55 44.75 48.54 43.81 49.01 49.65 46.66 47.94 46.885708 15.518532 N/A Wildon AT: Wildon
2022 cannabis CH001 CH Basel 148.51 127.95 129.56 161.14 130.97 132.79 96.2 124.22 138.62 132.45 47.56 7.59 ARA Basel Basel CH: Basel
2022 cannabis CH002 CH Berne 119.58 103.3 130.42 82.29 95.82 114.17 125.56 116.14 105.68 110.16 46.83 7.62 ARA Bern Berne CH: Berne
2022 cannabis CH003 CH Geneva 217.59 138.38 209.45 214.44 165.11 179.09 141.6 165.86 192.02 180.81 46.2 6.17 STEP SIG Geneva CH: Geneva
2022 cannabis CH008 CH Zurich 172.64 124.28 118.03 113.05 126.57 149.18 123.94 140.29 126.71 132.53 47.37 8.51 Werdhölzli Zurich CH: Zurich
2022 cannabis CZ001 CZ Brno 44.79 46.64 37.29 46.48 49.6 54.69 68.4 53.28 47.02 49.7 49.19506 16.606837 Waterworks and sewage of city Brno Brno CZ: Brno
2022 cannabis CZ002 CZ České Budějovice 116.36 81.27 134.45 52.72 92.07 122.4 123.3 106.98 100.41 103.22 48.96 14.46 UCOV CB České Budějovice CZ: České Budějovice
2022 cannabis CZ003 CZ Karlovy Vary 149.03 134.03 81.33 184.21 100.53 105.56 95.2 126.09 117.91 121.41 50.23204 12.87099 COV Karloy Vary Karlovy Vary CZ: Karlovy Vary
2022 cannabis CZ004 CZ Ostrava 70.08 77.38   74.8 93.97 69.77 71.48 72.98 79.51 76.25 49.833864 18.281034 UCOV Ostrava Ostrava CZ: Ostrava
2022 cannabis CZ005 CZ Prague (2) 109.53 116.09 73.22 120.59 146.88 133.91 86.41 104.01 118.65 112.38 50.08 14.43 UCOV Praha Prague (2) CZ: Prague (2)
2022 cannabis EE001 EE Kohtla-Järve (2) 58.45 46 27.39 29.61 33.65 44.02 96.19 66.88 33.67 47.9 59.397474 27.279751 N/A Kohtla-Järve (2) EE: Kohtla-Järve (2)
2022 cannabis EE005 EE Tallinn 75.52 63.44 42.95 27.93 57.68 65.82 64.53 67.83 48.59 56.84 59.436962 24.753574 N/A Tallinn EE: Tallinn
2022 cannabis ES001 ES Barcelona 220.15 149.21 114.96 123.6 149.53 115.99 184.3 184.55 126.02 151.1 41.43 1.97 Baix Llobregat Barcelona ES: Barcelona
2022 cannabis ES002 ES Castellon 46.08 54.31 58.77 51.12 45.47 69.67 56.29 52.23 56.26 54.53 40.23 -0.12 EDAR Castellón Castellon ES: Castellon
2022 cannabis ES003 ES Lleida 83.58 92.25 104.61 89.27 74.57 84.16 96.26 90.7 88.15 89.24 41.617592 0.620015 N/A Lleida ES: Lleida
2022 cannabis ES006 ES Santiago 57.32 80.52 109.1 95.75 84.78 102.23 119.94 85.93 97.97 92.81 42.88 -8.54 Silvouta Santiago ES: Santiago
2022 cannabis ES007 ES Tarragona 64.77 107.95 76.97 72.7 77.63 114.88 99.02 90.58 85.55 87.71 41.1190145116416 1.24570728603803 Tarragona Tarragona ES: Tarragona
2022 cannabis ES008 ES Valencia (3) 89.16 76.99 94.23 83.04 71.8 146.64 95.7 87.28 98.93 93.94 39.46 -0.33 Valencia 3 plants Valencia (3) ES: Valencia (3)
2022 cannabis GB001 GB Bristol     0 0         0 0 51.503457 -2.698444 Avonmouth Bristol GB: Bristol
2022 cannabis HR001 HR Zagreb 107.71 72.14 131.07 81.19 77.95 90.5 113.84 97.9 95.18 96.34 45.7929993 15.9463997 Central wastewater treatment plant of the city of Zagreb Zagreb HR: Zagreb
2022 cannabis IS002 IS Reykjavik Klettagarðar 105.3 106.67 119.6 99.95 110.27 129.94 179.7 130.56 114.94 121.63 64.126521 -21.817439 Klettagarðar Reykjavik Klettagarðar IS: Reykjavik Klettagarðar
2022 cannabis IT001 IT Bozen 39.35 45.57 44.39 44.6 43.94 44.41 41.85 42.26 44.34 43.44 46.49672 11.358 Kläranlage Bozen Bozen IT: Bozen
2022 cannabis IT002 IT Milan 52.59 55.97 55.25 53.77 37.81 62.61 55.34 54.63 52.36 53.33 45.4337997 9.2213602 Nosedo Milan IT: Milan
2022 cannabis NL001 NL Amsterdam 161.47 174.45 184.1 177.78 145.69 153.76 188.46 174.8 165.33 169.39 52.375 4.8666668 RWZI Amsterdam-WEST Amsterdam NL: Amsterdam
2022 cannabis NL002 NL Eindhoven 90.69 75.19 104.88 90.01 90.98 108.27 128.16 98.01 98.53 98.31 51.4421082 5.4800701 RWZI Eindhoven Eindhoven NL: Eindhoven
2022 cannabis NL005 NL Utrecht 79.71 93.28 109.75 76.15 93.74 122.6 121.67 98.22 100.56 99.56 52.0858002 5.1308398 RWZI Utrecht Utrecht NL: Utrecht
2022 cannabis PL003 PL Krakow P 27.27 68.07 49.32 42 40.18 56.12 39.24 44.86 46.91 46.03 50.06 19.94 Krakow Plaszow Krakow P PL: Krakow P
2022 cannabis PT001 PT Almada 154.89 150.74 134.62 138.46 89.5 116.77 153.02 152.88 119.84 134 38.675187 -9.154345 Mutela Almada PT: Almada
2022 cannabis PT002 PT Lisbon 132.89 141.76 128.94 124.58 112.36 163.89 104.93 126.52 132.44 129.91 38.7044907 -9.1754999 Alcântara Lisbon PT: Lisbon
2022 cannabis PT003 PT Porto 61.97 71.62 54.4 34.09 90.44 66.64 69.69 67.76 61.39 64.12 41.157944 -8.629105 N/A Porto PT: Porto
2022 cannabis SE001 SE Gävle 63.77 45.54 56.59 50.31 51.02 65.32 55.78 55.03 55.81 55.48 60.674622 17.14183 Duvbacken Gävle SE: Gävle
2022 cannabis SE003 SE Sandviken   34.54 46.47 26.26 27.47 25.72 25.15 29.85 31.48 30.94 60.61667 16.76667 Hedåsen ARV Sandviken SE: Sandviken
2022 cannabis SE009 SE Växjö 29.36 17.07 14.56 21.75 21.06 25.31 35.75 27.4 20.67 23.55 56.858257 14.761215 N/A Växjö SE: Växjö
2022 cannabis SI001 SI Domžale-Kamnik 54.37 55.97 51.9 52.58 55.12 60.6 58.57 56.3 55.05 55.59 46.13788 14.59384 Domžale-Kamnik Domžale-Kamnik SI: Domžale-Kamnik
2022 cannabis SI002 SI Koper 67.05 86.21 72.69 85.83 92 74 96.23 83.16 81.13 82 45.548058 13.730188 Central wastewater treatment plant Koper Koper SI: Koper
2022 cannabis SI003 SI Kranj 36.12 50.4 36.98 37.71 30.52 39.67 34.68 40.4 36.22 38.01 46.242834 14.355542 N/A Kranj SI: Kranj
2022 cannabis SI004 SI Ljubljana 77.36 77.56 79.11 78.71 76.72 91.5 78.7 77.87 81.51 79.95 46.056947 14.505751 Central wastewater treatment plant Ljubljana Ljubljana SI: Ljubljana
2022 cannabis SI005 SI Maribor 57.48 56.1 59.36 98.59 48.07 52.16 59.57 57.72 64.54 61.62 46.55734 15.64591 Maribor Maribor SI: Maribor
2022 cannabis SI006 SI Novo mesto 66.14 52.72 53.55 53.71 53.53 58.63 63.92 60.93 54.85 57.46 45.804211 15.16969 Wastewater treatment plant Novo mesto Novo mesto SI: Novo mesto
2022 cannabis SI007 SI Velenje 90.82 80.79 71.36 80.61 43.85 67.2 71.88 81.17 65.75 72.36 46.362274 15.110658 Central wastewater treatment plant Šaleške Doline (Šalek Valley) Velenje SI: Velenje
2022 cannabis SK002 SK Bratislava C 34.58 56.98 32.18 43.21 43.36 44.9 36.27 42.61 40.91 41.64 48.14925 17.106991 Central Bratislava C SK: Bratislava C
2022 cannabis SK004 SK Piestany 6.84 48.21 7.48 43.47 31.04 28.6 21.41 25.49 27.65 26.72 48.5918007 17.8019009 N/A Piestany SK: Piestany
2022 cannabis TR003 TR Istanbul (II-VII) 24.73 25.35 17.64 20.43 23.66 25.46 23.07 24.38 21.8 22.91 41.013 28.9748 Istanbul (II-VII) Istanbul (II-VII) TR: Istanbul (II-VII)

Source data for Figure 2

Changes in the mean weekly cannabis metabolites from wastewater analyses in selected European cities between 2021 and 2022
Country City Metabolite Current measurement (mg/1000p/day) Previous measurement (mg/1000p/day) Year currernt measurement Year Previous measurement Percentage change Change evaluation SiteID latitude longitude Population served by facility Institution
PT Almada cannabis 134 109.35 2022 2021 22.54229538 increase PT001 38.675187 -9.154345 138685 INMLCF
NL Amsterdam cannabis 169.39 157.64 2022 2021 7.453691956 stable NL001 52.375 4.8666668 669917 KWR
ES Barcelona cannabis 151.1 455.92 2022 2021 -66.85822074 decrease ES001 41.43 1.97 1185619 IDAEA-CSIC
CH Basel cannabis 132.45 18.37 2022 2019 621.0125204 increase CH001 47.56 7.59 273075 Ecole des Sciences Criminelles, University of Lausanne
CH Berne cannabis 110.16 11.92 2022 2020 824.1610738 increase CH002 46.83 7.62 224557 Ecole des Sciences Criminelles, University of Lausanne
IT Bozen cannabis 43.44 38.38 2022 2021 13.18394997 increase IT001 46.49672 11.358 282747 Medical University Innsbruck
SK Bratislava C cannabis 41.64 20.84 2022 2021 99.80806142 increase SK002 48.14925 17.106991 450000 FFPW, USB
GB Bristol cannabis 0   2022     no previous data GB001 51.503457 -2.698444 890154 University of Bath
CZ Brno cannabis 49.7 83.8 2022 2021 -40.69212411 decrease CZ001 49.19506 16.606837 445000 FFPW, USB
CZ České Budějovice cannabis 103.22 117.64 2022 2021 -12.25773546 decrease CZ002 48.96 14.46 110000 FFPW, USB
ES Castellon cannabis 54.53 66.82 2022 2021 -18.3926968 decrease ES002 40.23 -0.12 178141 UJI
SI Domžale-Kamnik cannabis 55.59 66.73 2022 2021 -16.69414057 decrease SI001 46.13788 14.59384 77981 Jožef Stefan Institute, Environmental department, Laboratory for organic analysis
NL Eindhoven cannabis 98.31 112.6 2022 2021 -12.69094139 decrease NL002 51.4421082 5.4800701 457153 KWR
SE Gävle cannabis 55.48 47.17 2022 2021 17.61712953 increase SE001 60.674622 17.14183 90114 RISE
CH Geneva cannabis 180.81 188.27 2022 2020 -3.962394434 stable CH003 46.2 6.17 454433 Ecole des Sciences Criminelles, University of Lausanne
AT Graz cannabis 60.24 87.17 2022 2021 -30.89365607 decrease AT001 47.070713 15.439504 475333 Medical University Innsbruck
AT Hall-Wattens cannabis 45.42 36.21 2022 2021 25.43496272 increase AT002 47.29168 11.59284 70353 Medical University Innsbruck
AT Innsbruck cannabis 83.61 97.72 2022 2021 -14.43921408 decrease AT004 47.269212 11.404102 266478 Medical University Innsbruck
AT Kapfenberg cannabis 21.4 76.53 2022 2021 -72.03710963 decrease AT005 47.443562 15.2901 37058 Medical University Innsbruck
CZ Karlovy Vary cannabis 121.41 122.59 2022 2021 -0.962558121 stable CZ003 50.23204 12.87099 67544 T. G. Masaryk Water Resesrch institute, p. r. i., Prague
AT Klagenfurt cannabis 55.92   2022     no previous data AT006     207812 Medical University Innsbruck
SI Koper cannabis 82 117.31 2022 2021 -30.09973574 decrease SI002 45.548058 13.730188 49843 Jožef Stefan Institute, Environmental department, Laboratory for organic analysis
PL Krakow P cannabis 46.03 51.15 2022 2021 -10.00977517 decrease PL003 50.06 19.94 680000 Istituto Mario Negri
AT Kufstein cannabis 104.54 91.24 2022 2021 14.57693994 increase AT010 47.582958 12.17077 44537 Medical University Innsbruck
PT Lisbon cannabis 129.91 101.77 2022 2021 27.65058465 increase PT002 38.7044907 -9.1754999 426964 INMLCF
SI Ljubljana cannabis 79.95 143.02 2022 2021 -44.09872745 decrease SI004 46.056947 14.505751 270305 Jožef Stefan Institute, Environmental department, Laboratory for organic analysis
SI Maribor cannabis 61.62 100.66 2022 2021 -38.78402543 decrease SI005 46.55734 15.64591 129000 Jožef Stefan Institute, Environmental department, Laboratory for organic analysis
IT Milan cannabis 53.33 42.98 2022 2021 24.08096789 increase IT002 45.4337997 9.2213602 1034715 Istituto Mario negri
SI Novo mesto cannabis 57.46 76.05 2022 2021 -24.44444444 decrease SI006 45.804211 15.16969 25414 Jožef Stefan Institute, Environmental department, Laboratory for organic analysis
CZ Ostrava cannabis 75.7 82.08 2022 2021 -7.772904483 stable CZ004 49.833864 18.281034 250000 T. G. Masaryk Water Resesrch institute, p. r. i., Prague
SK Piestany cannabis 26.72 20.92 2022 2021 27.72466539 increase SK004 48.5918007 17.8019009 30000 FFPW, USB
PT Porto cannabis 64.12 47.55 2022 2021 34.84752892 increase PT003 41.157944 -8.629105 150000 USC
CZ Prague (2) cannabis 112.38 91.03 2022 2021 23.45380644 increase CZ005 50.08 14.43 1212000 South Bohemian Research Center of Aquaculture and Biodiversity of Hydrocenoses, University of South Bohemia in Ceske Budejovice
AT Purgstall cannabis 30.04 37.71 2022 2021 -20.33943251 decrease AT013 48.057812 15.13545 8681 Medical University Innsbruck
AT Region Millstättersee cannabis 47.17 24.25 2022 2021 94.51546392 increase AT011 46.81924 13.52146 60745 Medical University Innsbruck
IS Reykjavik Klettagarðar cannabis 121.63 116.35 2022 2020 4.538031801 stable IS002 64.126521 -21.817439 107000 Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Iceland
SE Sandviken cannabis 30.94 37.61 2022 2021 -17.73464504 decrease SE003 60.61667 16.76667 27000 RISE
ES Santiago cannabis 92.81 82.68 2022 2021 12.25205612 increase ES006 42.88 -8.54 136500 IAQBUS
SE Söderhamn cannabis 23.55 42.4 2022 2021 -44.45754717 decrease SE004 61.30373 17.05921 75512 RISE
AT Strass im Zillertal cannabis 34.07 31.95 2022 2021 6.635367762 stable AT016 47.395748 11.82211 123102 Medical University Innsbruck
ES Tarragona cannabis 87.71 39.64 2022 2021 121.2663976 increase ES007 41.11901451164164 1.245707286 115567 URV
NL Utrecht cannabis 99.56 89.53 2022 2021 11.20294873 increase NL005 52.0858002 5.1308398 267739 KWR
ES Valencia (3) cannabis 93.94 143.68 2022 2019 -34.61859688 decrease ES008 39.46 -0.33 1471771 Research Institute for Pesticides and Water, University Jaume I
SI Velenje cannabis 72.36 74.48 2022 2021 -2.846401719 stable SI007 46.362274 15.110658 32583 Jožef Stefan Institute, Environmental department, Laboratory for organic analysis
AT Wasserverband Hofsteig cannabis 50.56 94.49 2022 2021 -46.49169224 decrease AT003 47.4852 9.6762 99818 Medical University Innsbruck
HR Zagreb cannabis 96.34 132.9 2022 2021 -27.50940557 decrease HR001 45.7929993 15.9463997 650000 Laboratory for analytical chemistry and biogeochemistry of organic compounds
CH Zurich cannabis 132.53 114.68 2022 2020 15.56505058 increase CH008 47.37 8.51 471275 Ecole des Sciences Criminelles, University of Lausanne

Source table for Figure 3

Relative geographical distribution of cocaine metabolite as detected in European cities, 2022 (daily mean)
Year Metabolite Site ID Country City Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday Sunday Monday Tuesday Weekday mean Weekend mean Daily mean Latitude Longitude Location City Country: City
2022 cocaine AT001 AT Graz 163.63 153.52 193.23 241.92 225.36 146.9 139.79 152.32 201.85 180.62 47.070713 15.439504 ARA Graz Graz AT: Graz
2022 cocaine AT002 AT Hall-Wattens 250.21 254.08 283.7 356.65 343.63 246.85 200.89 235.06 307.71 276.57 47.29168 11.59284 Abwasserverband Hall in Tirol-Fritzens Hall-Wattens AT: Hall-Wattens
2022 cocaine AT004 AT Innsbruck 301.15 324.95 373.86 486.61 432 305.2 288.61 304.9 399.42 358.91 47.269212 11.404102 ARA-Innsbruck Innsbruck AT: Innsbruck
2022 cocaine AT005 AT Kapfenberg 94.4 67.2 88.06 102.49 148.83 81.98 98.9 86.84 105.34 97.41 47.443562 15.2901 Kläranlage Kapfenberg Kapfenberg AT: Kapfenberg
2022 cocaine AT006 AT Klagenfurt 147.89 146.99 252.46 210.99 222.31 182.01 128.09 140.99 216.94 184.39 46.6357 14.311817   Klagenfurt AT: Klagenfurt
2022 cocaine AT008 AT Knittelfeld 43.13 63.29 61.35 88.81 104.44 55.99 52.52 52.98 77.65 67.08 47.21595 14.82719   Knittelfeld AT: Knittelfeld
2022 cocaine AT009 AT Korneuburg 134.34 185.54 99.19 343.38 239.99 183.79 164.64 161.51 216.59 192.98 48.34472 16.33149   Korneuburg AT: Korneuburg
2022 cocaine AT010 AT Kufstein 504.04 545.85 569.43 632.9 665.51 429.72 409.12 486.33 574.39 536.65 47.582958 12.17077 Abwasserverband Kufstein Kufstein AT: Kufstein
2022 cocaine AT013 AT Purgstall 16.62 49.59 65.13 63.96 27.55 5.76 43.02 36.41 40.6 38.8 48.057812 15.13545 GAV Erlauftal Purgstall AT: Purgstall
2022 cocaine AT011 AT Region Millstättersee 91.17 114.47 126.26 152.07 108.67 102.51 78.86 94.84 122.38 110.57 46.81924 13.52146 Wasserverband Millstaettersee Region Millstättersee AT: Region Millstättersee
2022 cocaine AT014 AT Salzburg 174.68 174.96 197.81 213.77 236.25 186.49 161.67 170.44 208.58 192.23 47.811195 13.033229   Salzburg AT: Salzburg
2022 cocaine AT015 AT Steyr 50.89 34.57 45.53 195.29 145.78 56.53 44.05 43.17 110.78 81.8 48.05009 14.41827   Steyr AT: Steyr
2022 cocaine AT016 AT Strass im Zillertal 124.94 139.15 150.49 184.8 190.99 124.69 129.51 131.2 162.74 149.22 47.395748 11.82211 AIZ Abwasserverband Strass im Zillertal AT: Strass im Zillertal
2022 cocaine AT003 AT Wasserverband Hofsteig 268.3 242.15 345.38 437.14 409.94 279.13 258.85 256.43 367.9 320.13 47.4852 9.6762 ARA Hofsteig Wasserverband Hofsteig AT: Wasserverband Hofsteig
2022 cocaine AT017 AT Wien 287.63 341.65 396.64 452.43 455.06 360.55 300.1 309.79 416.17 370.58 48.210033 16.363449   Wien AT: Wien
2022 cocaine AT018 AT Wiener Neustadt 154.62 176.96 151.96 214.37 224.99 162.41 142.86 158.15 188.43 175.45 47.80279 16.23318   Wiener Neustadt AT: Wiener Neustadt
2022 cocaine AT019 AT Wildon 135.97 152.3 170.28 218.3 232.13 146.04 116.89 135.05 191.69 167.42 46.885708 15.518532   Wildon AT: Wildon
2022 cocaine BE002 BE Antwerp Zuid 1582.68 3175.71 2295.28 1767.23 2154.56 3996.27 1697.97 2152.12 2553.33 2381.39 51.2 4.39 Antwerpen-Zuid Antwerp Zuid BE: Antwerp Zuid
2022 cocaine BE005 BE Brussels 931.81 865.82 1189 1159.42 1125.32 828.32 793.93 863.85 1075.51 984.8 50.86 4.36 Brussel-Noord Brussels BE: Brussels
2022 cocaine CH001 CH Basel 820.86 681.95 839.81 1098.47 972.96 738.54 712.21 738.34 912.44 837.83 47.56 7.59 ARA Basel Basel CH: Basel
2022 cocaine CH002 CH Berne 484.77 456.49 687 621.49 627.14 451.72 420.86 454.04 596.84 535.64 46.83 7.62 ARA Bern Berne CH: Berne
2022 cocaine CH003 CH Geneva 723.42 697.08 945.89 834.32 987.99 598.32 600.76 673.76 841.63 769.69 46.2 6.17 STEP SIG Geneva CH: Geneva
2022 cocaine CH008 CH Zurich 1025.93 838.18 946.15 1060.7 1237.11 787.1 622.47 828.86 1007.76 931.09 47.37 8.51 Werdhölzli Zurich CH: Zurich
2022 cocaine CY001 CY Agia Napa 56.61 9.8 8.89 33.75 61.64 44.32 28.31 31.57 37.15 34.76 34.9907544470418 33.9999814169353 Sewage treatment plant of Agia Napa-Paralimni Agia Napa CY: Agia Napa
2022 cocaine CY002 CY Larnaca 36.37 12.26 7 30.78 61.87 36.03 35.09 27.91 33.92 31.34 34.9151643530411 33.6361988334665 Sewage Bioard of Larnaca Larnaca CY: Larnaca
2022 cocaine CY003 CY Limassol 86 54.44 75.31 130.98 144.99 123.08 75.86 72.1 118.59 98.67 34.69 33.02 Sewerage Board of Limassol-Amathus (SBLA) Limassol CY: Limassol
2022 cocaine CY005 CY Nicosia (2) 40.99 42.15 40.67 52.62 56.56 58.95 30.88 38.01 52.2 46.12 35.17 33.4 Sewage treatment plant of Pano Deftera (Anthoupoli)-Sewerage Board of Nicosia; Sewage treatment plant of Vathia Gonia-Sewerage Board of Nicosia Nicosia (2) CY: Nicosia (2)
2022 cocaine CY007 CY Paphos 21.56 25.23 27.74 43.2 49.38 32.84 26.22 24.34 38.29 32.31 34.7758536275518 32.4215949998929 Sewage Borad of Pafos Paphos CY: Paphos
2022 cocaine CZ001 CZ Brno 40.9 66.07 68.98 79.68 155.9 134.78 92.83 66.6 109.84 91.31 49.19506 16.606837 Waterworks and sewage of city Brno Brno CZ: Brno
2022 cocaine CZ002 CZ České Budějovice 110.24 45.93 78.43 84.72 131.83 168.65 86.87 81.01 115.91 100.95 48.96 14.46 UCOV CB České Budějovice CZ: České Budějovice
2022 cocaine CZ003 CZ Karlovy Vary 74.16 243.57 138.13 180.48 64.04 59.08 67.55 128.43 110.43 118.14 50.23204 12.87099 COV Karloy Vary Karlovy Vary CZ: Karlovy Vary
2022 cocaine CZ004 CZ Ostrava 51.75 47.87 62.02 89.8 123.32 63.6 53.74 51.12 84.69 70.3 49.833864 18.281034 UCOV Ostrava Ostrava CZ: Ostrava
2022 cocaine CZ005 CZ Prague (2) 599.12 414.46 339.52 412.8 445.66 789.69 592.56 535.38 496.92 513.4 50.08 14.43 UCOV Praha Prague (2) CZ: Prague (2)
2022 cocaine DE001 DE Berlin (4) 458.07 376.72 543.48 637.67 905.74 472.5 453.45 425.77 620.66 541.34 52.52 13.4 Berlin 4 plants Berlin (4) DE: Berlin (4)
2022 cocaine DE008 DE Chemnitz 14.19 21.38 26.56 34.18 38.73 27.74   17.78 31.8 27.13 50.827845 12.92137 Chemnitz Chemnitz DE: Chemnitz
2022 cocaine DE009 DE Dortmund 271.86 333.38 420.88 315.29 460.96 295.66   302.62 373.2 349.67 51.52 7.46 Deusen Dortmund DE: Dortmund
2022 cocaine DE010 DE Dresden 30.07 40.94 48.12 65.76 73.68 43.64 38.92 36.64 57.8 48.73 51.05089 13.73832 Dresden-Kaditz Dresden DE: Dresden
2022 cocaine DE011 DE Dülmen 81.69 68.3 130.14 212.71 211.11   67.51 72.5 184.65 128.58 51.84 7.28 Dülmen Dülmen DE: Dülmen
2022 cocaine DE012 DE Erfurt 47.33 84.58 53.12 130.48 120.26 66.56 45.81 59.24 92.61 78.31 50.984768 11.02988 Erfurt Erfurt DE: Erfurt
2022 cocaine DE023 DE Magdeburg 135.5 196.46 171.62 243.12 269.12 222.38 184.02 171.99 226.56 203.17 52.120533 11.627624   Magdeburg DE: Magdeburg
2022 cocaine DE026 DE Munich Gut Großlappen 192.66 218.42 223.31 322.38 300.13 221.37 176.62 195.9 266.8 236.41 48.14 11.58 Gut_Grosslappen Munich Gut Großlappen DE: Munich Gut Großlappen
2022 cocaine DE028 DE Nuremberg 45.93 49.76 63.98 82.48 90.43 55.77 44.63 46.77 73.17 61.86 49.452102 11.076665 Nürnberg Nuremberg DE: Nuremberg
2022 cocaine DE030 DE Saarbrücken (2) 208.82 171.56 145.06 188.92 235.96 223.91 195.46 191.95 198.46 195.67 49.240157 6.996933 Saarbrucken 2 plants Saarbrücken (2) DE: Saarbrücken (2)
2022 cocaine DK001 DK Copenhagen 438.92 405 726.99 1029.23 884.93 607.44 438.94 427.62 812.15 647.35 55.69 12.62 Lynetten Copenhagen DK: Copenhagen
2022 cocaine EE001 EE Kohtla-Järve (2) 17.34 24.2 22.38 18.46 36.97 64.7 48.21 29.92 35.63 33.18 59.397474 27.279751   Kohtla-Järve (2) EE: Kohtla-Järve (2)
2022 cocaine EE005 EE Tallinn 155.29 164.95 244.57 206.86 247.84 218.26 175.03 165.09 229.38 201.83 59.436962 24.753574   Tallinn EE: Tallinn
2022 cocaine ES001 ES Barcelona 339.39 444.52 715.78 896.36 951.39 485.46 522.94 435.62 762.25 622.26 41.43 1.97 Baix Llobregat Barcelona ES: Barcelona
2022 cocaine ES002 ES Castellon 484.1 487.5 540.33 662.1 606.57 632.88 466.59 479.4 610.47 554.3 40.23 -0.12 EDAR Castellón Castellon ES: Castellon
2022 cocaine ES003 ES Lleida 734.72 572.62 570.88 1061.06 985.27 820.69 571.53 626.29 859.47 759.54 41.617592 0.620015   Lleida ES: Lleida
2022 cocaine ES006 ES Santiago 332.56 425.32 496.03 828.98 676.23 404.02 372.56 376.81 601.31 505.1 42.88 -8.54 Silvouta Santiago ES: Santiago
2022 cocaine ES007 ES Tarragona 1326.76 1500.66 1733.88 1936.34 1929.49 1557.14 1289.56 1372.33 1789.21 1610.55 41.1190145116416 1.24570728603803 Tarragona Tarragona ES: Tarragona
2022 cocaine ES008 ES Valencia (3) 617.91 576.09 458.54 699.41 899.52 811.08 1006.27 733.42 717.14 724.12 39.46 -0.33 Valencia 3 plants Valencia (3) ES: Valencia (3)
2022 cocaine FI001 FI Espoo 49.13 53.35 55.04 100.74 109 64.13 45.05 49.18 82.23 68.06 60.16 24.71 Suomenoja Espoo FI: Espoo
2022 cocaine FI002 FI Hämeenlinna 2.9 2.06 3.14 10.43 18.7 14.26 4.99 3.31 11.63 8.07 60.99601 24.46423 Paroinen Hämeenlinna FI: Hämeenlinna
2022 cocaine FI003 FI Helsinki 77.9 83.77 95.95 173.47 202.3 114.49 84.67 82.11 146.55 118.93 60.23 24.99 Viikinmäki Helsinki FI: Helsinki
2022 cocaine FI004 FI Joensuu 3.15 1.62 2.72 6.94 13.13 7.25 6.07 3.61 7.51 5.84 62.58 29.73 Kuhasalo Joensuu FI: Joensuu
2022 cocaine FI005 FI Jyväskylä 4.34 4.6 5.69 11.59 11.85 3.53 3.57 4.17 8.16 6.45 62.21 25.77 Nenäinniemi Jyväskylä FI: Jyväskylä
2022 cocaine FI006 FI Kajaani 0.11 0.23 1.9 1.08 0.23 0.13 0.5 0.28 0.83 0.6 64.227 27.7285 Peuraniemi Kajaani FI: Kajaani
2022 cocaine FI007 FI Kemi 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.11 0.21 0.14 0.1 0.12 65.73609 24.56363 Peurasaari Kemi FI: Kemi
2022 cocaine FI008 FI Kokkola 0.75 0.54 0.49 0.6 0.64 0.7 1.93 1.07 0.61 0.81 63.83848 23.13048 Hopeakivenlahti Kokkola FI: Kokkola
2022 cocaine FI009 FI Kotka 11.59 15.16 25.94 27.62 30.38 19.48 31.61 19.45 25.86 23.11 60.45 26.89 Mussalo Kotka FI: Kotka
2022 cocaine FI010 FI Kouvola 8.39 9.86 7.42 12.71 8.17 3.91 6.85 8.37 8.05 8.19 60.8679 26.70405 Mäkikylä Kouvola FI: Kouvola
2022 cocaine FI011 FI Kuopio 8.75 5.16 12.97 21.48 49.56 25.97 18.82 10.91 27.49 20.39 62.96 27.01 Lehtoniemi Kuopio FI: Kuopio
2022 cocaine FI012 FI Lahti 44.52 59.89 49.92 88.41 99.48 45.41 37.07 47.16 70.81 60.67 60.99 25.65 Kariniemi Lahti FI: Lahti
2022 cocaine FI013 FI Lappeenranta 0.8 8.72 7.85 20.99 22.99 10.29 6.85 5.46 15.53 11.21 60.93 27.3 Toikansuo Lappeenranta FI: Lappeenranta
2022 cocaine FI014 FI Mariehamn 6.03 24.36 20.4 33.73 46.6 17.3 9.37 13.25 29.51 22.54 60.09693 19.93482 Lotsbroverket Mariehamn FI: Mariehamn
2022 cocaine FI015 FI Mikkeli 0.93 0.76 0.58 3.09 3.89 1.29 0.49 0.73 2.21 1.57 61.68852 27.27217 Kenkäveronniemi Mikkeli FI: Mikkeli
2022 cocaine FI016 FI Oulu 7.95 4.29 4.57 6.94 9.95 9.08 7.67 6.64 7.64 7.21 65.05 25.41 Taskila Oulu FI: Oulu
2022 cocaine FI017 FI Pietarsaari 0.64 0.9 0.43 0.62 1.22 0.82 0.15 0.56 0.77 0.68 63.67486 22.70256 Alheda Pietarsaari FI: Pietarsaari
2022 cocaine FI018 FI Pori 4.08 3.66 4.77 5.88 12.58 9.56 5.89 4.55 8.2 6.63 61.48519 21.79746 Luotsinmäki Pori FI: Pori
2022 cocaine FI019 FI Rauma 1.91 1.59 4.95 12.44 12.32 7.29 2.84 2.11 9.25 6.19 61.12724 21.51127 Maanpäänniemi Rauma FI: Rauma
2022 cocaine FI020 FI Rovaniemi 1.37 3.09 1.96 0.82 8.19 6.97 1.89 2.12 4.49 3.47 66.5 25.72 Alakorkalo Rovaniemi FI: Rovaniemi
2022 cocaine FI021 FI Salo 7.83 16.07 7.21 23.73 17.05 37.57 36.98 20.29 21.39 20.92 60.38333 23.13333 Salo Salo FI: Salo
2022 cocaine FI022 FI Savonlinna 0.93 0.7 1.71 2.33 0.84 1.25 5.93 2.52 1.53 1.96 61.86 28.85 Pihlajaniemi Savonlinna FI: Savonlinna
2022 cocaine FI023 FI Seinäjoki 1.86 3.61 5.23 4.61 6.88 3.2 2.74 2.74 4.98 4.02 62.79446 22.82822 Seinäjoki Seinäjoki FI: Seinäjoki
2022 cocaine FI024 FI Tampere 13.6 10.73 14.39 26.47 11.62 5.08 10.58 11.64 14.39 13.21 61.49 23.77 Viinikanlahti Tampere FI: Tampere
2022 cocaine FI025 FI Turku 11.03 10.73 14.12 21.87 37.77 20.12 12.39 11.38 23.47 18.29 60.44 22.24 Kakolanmäki Turku FI: Turku
2022 cocaine FI026 FI Vaasa 2.31 3.03 1.54 1.26 1.08 1.94 1.54 2.29 1.46 1.81 63.1 21.62 Patt Vaasa FI: Vaasa
2022 cocaine FI027 FI Vihti 40.78 27.75 23.24 46.79 37.83 33.67 13.89 27.47 35.38 31.99 60.41699 24.31965 Nummela Vihti FI: Vihti
2022 cocaine GR001 GR Athens 111.44 105.44 97.3 104.07 115.96 101.36 92.39 103.09 104.67 103.99 37.9928017 23.7658005 City of Athens WWTP Athens GR: Athens
2022 cocaine HR001 HR Zagreb 371.77 220.37 773.52 429.91 352.44 362.46 297.86 296.66 479.58 401.19 45.7929993 15.9463997 Central wastewater treatment plant of the city of Zagreb Zagreb HR: Zagreb
2022 cocaine IS002 IS Reykjavik Klettagarðar 346.74 382.57 513.3 743.21 670.57 486.21 518.31 415.87 603.32 522.99 64.126521 -21.817439 Klettagarðar Reykjavik Klettagarðar IS: Reykjavik Klettagarðar
2022 cocaine IT001 IT Bozen 340.95 366.72 351.69 419.9 421.86 316.69 350.28 352.65 377.53 366.87 46.49672 11.358 Kläranlage Bozen Bozen IT: Bozen
2022 cocaine IT002 IT Milan 337.4 391.13 373.17 493.23 449.7 352.84 333.27 353.93 417.23 390.11 45.4337997 9.2213602 Nosedo Milan IT: Milan
2022 cocaine LT001 LT Kaunas 91.84 104.64 126.56 194.47 234.4 154.06 119.11 105.2 177.37 146.44 54.89687 23.89243 Kaunas Kaunas LT: Kaunas
2022 cocaine LT002 LT Klaipeda 51.66 56.85 69.85 53.58 92.47 111.96 64.32 57.61 81.96 71.53 55.78282 21.49279 Klaipeda Klaipeda LT: Klaipeda
2022 cocaine LT003 LT Vilnius 96.22 92.6 104.33 192.59 190.16 115.78 74.44 87.75 150.71 123.73 54.687156 25.279651 Vilniaus vandenys Vilnius LT: Vilnius
2022 cocaine LV001 LV Riga 168.11 150.96 170.89 252.04 317.95 227.4 123.93 147.66 242.07 201.61 56.94965 24.105186 Riga Riga LV: Riga
2022 cocaine NL001 NL Amsterdam 951.06 938.94 1089.47 1237.75 1512.58 1266.58 1000.6 963.53 1276.6 1142.43 52.375 4.8666668 RWZI Amsterdam-WEST Amsterdam NL: Amsterdam
2022 cocaine NL002 NL Eindhoven 621.21 635.42 706.88 829.28 857.69 721.38 623.84 626.82 778.81 713.67 51.4421082 5.4800701 RWZI Eindhoven Eindhoven NL: Eindhoven
2022 cocaine NL005 NL Utrecht 532.6 575.78 705.45 794.5 777.43 621.46 554.15 554.18 724.71 651.63 52.0858002 5.1308398 RWZI Utrecht Utrecht NL: Utrecht
2022 cocaine PL003 PL Krakow P 58.58 92.24 80.41 104.29 98.69 77.54 63.25 71.36 90.23 82.14 50.06 19.94 Krakow Plaszow Krakow P PL: Krakow P
2022 cocaine PT001 PT Almada 380.7 613.87 311.99 670.07 600.05 425.78 309.79 434.78 501.97 473.18 38.675187 -9.154345 Mutela Almada PT: Almada
2022 cocaine PT002 PT Lisbon 739.2 647.58 707.2 776.59 1000.44 692.84 559.8 648.86 794.27 731.95 38.7044907 -9.1754999 Alcântara Lisbon PT: Lisbon
2022 cocaine PT003 PT Porto 291.59 232.61 210.53 268.99 336.11 293.2 227.95 250.72 277.21 265.85 41.157944 -8.629105   Porto PT: Porto
2022 cocaine SE001 SE Gävle 79.96 69.51 96.31 196.21 208.07 99.46 98.11 82.53 150.01 121.09 60.674622 17.14183 Duvbacken Gävle SE: Gävle
2022 cocaine SE003 SE Sandviken   107.07 81 115.16 160.24 100.03 74.87 90.97 114.11 106.4 60.61667 16.76667 Hedåsen ARV Sandviken SE: Sandviken
2022 cocaine SE004 SE Söderhamn 39.78 37.46 49.15 116.71 104.12 51.08 21.12 32.79 80.27 59.92 61.30373 17.05921 Granskär ARV Söderhamn SE: Söderhamn
2022 cocaine SI001 SI Domžale-Kamnik 258.57 247.69 219.75 255.51 285.18 286.31 202.73 236.33 261.69 250.82 46.13788 14.59384 Domžale-Kamnik Domžale-Kamnik SI: Domžale-Kamnik
2022 cocaine SI002 SI Koper 285.17 346.93 333.37 473.75 277.37 339.05 378.89 337 355.89 347.79 45.548058 13.730188 Central wastewater treatment plant Koper Koper SI: Koper
2022 cocaine SI003 SI Kranj 174.46 170.4 168.56 295.57 222.32 145.37 139.3 161.39 207.95 188 46.242834 14.355542   Kranj SI: Kranj
2022 cocaine SI004 SI Ljubljana 404.06 459.39 466.19 543.26 548.49 375.5 469.22 444.22 483.36 466.59 46.056947 14.505751 Central wastewater treatment plant Ljubljana Ljubljana SI: Ljubljana
2022 cocaine SI005 SI Maribor 189.34 209.27 210.77 337.19 319.44 226.8 190.5 196.37 273.55 240.47 46.55734 15.64591 Maribor Maribor SI: Maribor
2022 cocaine SI006 SI Novo mesto 207.62 198.14 253.24 397.89 367.22 222.32 181.49 195.75 310.17 261.13 45.804211 15.16969 Wastewater treatment plant Novo mesto Novo mesto SI: Novo mesto
2022 cocaine SI007 SI Velenje 212.85 175.7 229.74 271.8 189.12 171.8 156.33 181.63 215.62 201.05 46.362274 15.110658 Central wastewater treatment plant Šaleške Doline (Šalek Valley) Velenje SI: Velenje
2022 cocaine SK002 SK Bratislava C 139.59 243.01 321.09 335.82 204.17 176.02 165.92 182.84 259.27 226.52 48.14925 17.106991 Central Bratislava C SK: Bratislava C
2022 cocaine SK004 SK Piestany 32.24 27.96 7.85 86.45 70.9 38.48 25.43 28.54 50.92 41.33 48.5918007 17.8019009   Piestany SK: Piestany
2022 cocaine TR001 TR Adana 7.28 8.01 8.05 10.42 13.22 10.65 5.96 7.08 10.59 9.09 36.991421 35.33083 Seyhan Adana TR: Adana
2022 cocaine TR003 TR Istanbul (II-VII) 53.01 64.41 43.95 65.84 62.64 66.53 57.28 58.23 59.74 59.09 41.013 28.9748 Istanbul (II-VII) Istanbul (II-VII) TR: Istanbul (II-VII)

Source table for Figure 4

Source table for Figure 5

Changes in the mean weekly cocaine metabolites from wastewater analyses in selected European cities between 2021 and 2022
Country City Metabolite Current measurement (mg/1000p/day) Previous measurement (mg/1000p/day) Year current measurement Year Previous measurement Percentage change Change evaluationo SiteID latitude longitude Population served by facility Institution
TR Adana cocaine 9.09 5.71 2022 2021 59.1943958 increase TR001 36.991421 35.33083 1159215 Adana- Lab139
CY Agia Napa cocaine 34.76 124.21 2022 2021 -72.01513566 decrease CY001 34.99075444704176 33.99998142 48201 Nireas IWRC
PT Almada cocaine 473.18 404.51 2022 2021 16.97609453 increase PT001 38.675187 -9.154345 138685 INMLCF
NL Amsterdam cocaine 1142.43 886.83 2022 2021 28.8217584 increase NL001 52.375 4.8666668 669917 KWR
BE Antwerp Zuid cocaine 2381.39 1581.88 2022 2021 50.54176044 increase BE002 51.2 4.39 130218 Toxicological Centre
GR Athens cocaine 103.99 95.85 2022 2021 8.492436098 stable GR001 37.9928017 23.7658005 3700000 National and Kapodistrian University of Athens
ES Barcelona cocaine 622.26 665.38 2022 2021 -6.480507379 stable ES001 41.43 1.97 1185619 IDAEA-CSIC
CH Basel cocaine 837.83 708.08 2022 2021 18.32420066 increase CH001 47.56 7.59 273075 Ecole des Sciences Criminelles, University of Lausanne
DE Berlin (4) cocaine 541.34 343.08 2022 2018 57.78827096 increase DE001 52.52 13.4 3993500 IFT Institut für Therapieforschung
CH Berne cocaine 535.64 501.37 2022 2021 6.835271356 stable CH002 46.83 7.62 224557 Ecole des Sciences Criminelles, University of Lausanne
IT Bozen cocaine 366.87 367.1 2022 2021 -0.062653228 stable IT001 46.49672 11.358 282747 Medical University Innsbruck
SK Bratislava C cocaine 226.52 76.17 2022 2021 197.3874229 increase SK002 48.14925 17.106991 450000 FFPW, USB
CZ Brno cocaine 91.31 74.87 2022 2021 21.95806064 increase CZ001 49.19506 16.606837 445000 FFPW, USB
BE Brussels cocaine 984.8 768.08 2022 2021 28.21581085 increase BE005 50.86 4.36 953987 Toxicological Centre
CZ České Budějovice cocaine 100.95 57.49 2022 2021 75.59575578 increase CZ002 48.96 14.46 110000 FFPW, USB
ES Castellon cocaine 554.3 529.38 2022 2021 4.707393555 stable ES002 40.23 -0.12 178141 UJI
DE Chemnitz cocaine 27.13 20.51 2022 2021 32.27693808 increase DE008 50.827845 12.92137 239402 Clinical Pharmacology TU Dresden
DK Copenhagen cocaine 647.35 533.35 2022 2021 21.37433205 increase DK001 55.69 12.62 685000 Department of forensic medicine, University of Copenhagen
SI Domžale-Kamnik cocaine 250.82 256.23 2022 2021 -2.111384303 stable SI001 46.13788 14.59384 77981 Jožef Stefan Institute, Environmental department, Laboratory for organic analysis
DE Dortmund cocaine 349.67 476.76 2022 2021 -26.65701821 decrease DE009 51.52 7.46 399700 Clinical Pharmacology TU Dresden
DE Dresden cocaine 48.73 50.65 2022 2021 -3.790720632 stable DE010 51.05089 13.73832 671806 Clinical Pharmacology TU Dresden
DE Dülmen cocaine 128.58 207.53 2022 2021 -38.04269262 decrease DE011 51.84 7.28 34733 Clinical Pharmacology TU Dresden
NL Eindhoven cocaine 713.67 623.61 2022 2021 14.44171838 increase NL002 51.4421082 5.4800701 457153 KWR
DE Erfurt cocaine 78.31 81.07 2022 2021 -3.404465277 stable DE012 50.984768 11.02988 215323 Clinical Pharmacology TU Dresden
FI Espoo cocaine 68.06 41.49 2022 2021 64.0395276 increase FI001 60.16 24.71 390000 Forensic Chemistry Unit / Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare
SE Gävle cocaine 121.09 170.7 2022 2021 -29.06268307 decrease SE001 60.674622 17.14183 90114 RISE
CH Geneva cocaine 769.69 652.8 2022 2021 17.90594363 increase CH003 46.2 6.17 454433 Ecole des Sciences Criminelles, University of Lausanne
AT Graz cocaine 180.62 138.65 2022 2021 30.2704652 increase AT001 47.070713 15.439504 475333 Medical University Innsbruck
AT Hall-Wattens cocaine 276.57 204.8 2022 2021 35.04394531 increase AT002 47.29168 11.59284 70353 Medical University Innsbruck
FI Hämeenlinna cocaine 8.07 12.55 2022 2020 -35.69721116 decrease FI002 60.99601 24.46423 67000 Forensic Chemistry Unit / Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare
FI Helsinki cocaine 118.93 60.53 2022 2021 96.48108376 increase FI003 60.23 24.99 860000 Forensic Chemistry Unit / Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare
AT Innsbruck cocaine 358.91 274.18 2022 2021 30.90305639 increase AT004 47.269212 11.404102 266478 Medical University Innsbruck
TR Istanbul (II-VII) cocaine 59.09 53.88 2022 2021 9.669636229 stable TR003 41.013 28.9748 16525000 Forensic Toxicology Labs. Institute of Forensic Sciences and Legal Medicine, Istanbul University-Cerrahpasa
FI Joensuu cocaine 5.84 1.74 2022 2020 235.6321839 increase FI004 62.58 29.73 82667 Forensic Chemistry Unit / Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare
FI Jyväskylä cocaine 6.45 3.01 2022 2020 114.2857143 increase FI005 62.21 25.77 155000 National Institute for Health and Welfare (THL)
FI Kajaani cocaine 0.6 0.93 2022 2020 -35.48387097 decrease FI006 64.227 27.7285 33714 Forensic Chemistry Unit / Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare
AT Kapfenberg cocaine 97.41 109.24 2022 2021 -10.82936653 decrease AT005 47.443562 15.2901 37058 Medical University Innsbruck
CZ Karlovy Vary cocaine 118.14 63.99 2022 2021 84.62259728 increase CZ003 50.23204 12.87099 67544 T. G. Masaryk Water Resesrch institute, p. r. i., Prague
LT Kaunas cocaine 146.44 84.69 2022 2021 72.91297674 increase LT001 54.89687 23.89243 291333 Toxicological Centre
FI Kemi cocaine 0.12 1.86 2022 2020 -93.5483871 decrease FI007 65.73609 24.56363 25000 Forensic Chemistry Unit / Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare
AT Klagenfurt cocaine 184.39   2022     no previous data AT006     207812 Medical University Innsbruck
LT Klaipeda cocaine 71.53 108.86 2022 2021 -34.29175087 decrease LT002 55.78282 21.49279 387400 Toxicological Centre
FI Kokkola cocaine 0.81 0.75 2022 2020 8 stable FI008 63.83848 23.13048 36000 Forensic Chemistry Unit / Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare
SI Koper cocaine 347.79 406.55 2022 2021 -14.45332677 decrease SI002 45.548058 13.730188 49843 Jožef Stefan Institute, Environmental department, Laboratory for organic analysis
FI Kotka cocaine 23.11 18.43 2022 2020 25.39338036 increase FI009 60.45 26.89 72500 Forensic Chemistry Unit / Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare
FI Kouvola cocaine 8.19 7.55 2022 2020 8.476821192 stable FI010 60.8679 26.70405 70000 National Institute for Health and Welfare (THL)
PL Krakow P cocaine 82.14 67.2 2022 2021 22.23214286 increase PL003 50.06 19.94 680000 Istituto Mario Negri
AT Kufstein cocaine 536.65 401.61 2022 2021 33.62466074 increase AT010 47.582958 12.17077 44537 Medical University Innsbruck
FI Kuopio cocaine 20.39 5.89 2022 2020 246.179966 increase FI011 62.96 27.01 90697 Forensic Chemistry Unit / Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare
FI Lahti cocaine 60.67 37.49 2022 2020 61.82982129 increase FI012 60.99 25.65 63000 Forensic Chemistry Unit / Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare
FI Lappeenranta cocaine 11.21 1.47 2022 2020 662.585034 increase FI013 60.93 27.3 60000 Forensic Chemistry Unit / Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare
CY Larnaca cocaine 31.34 39.59 2022 2021 -20.8385956 decrease CY002 34.915164353041064 33.63619883 92442 Nireas IWRC
CY Limassol cocaine 98.67 73.66 2022 2021 33.95329894 increase CY003 34.69 33.02 239936 Nireas IWRC
PT Lisbon cocaine 731.95 500.48 2022 2021 46.24960038 increase PT002 38.7044907 -9.1754999 426964 INMLCF
SI Ljubljana cocaine 466.59 364.79 2022 2021 27.90646673 increase SI004 46.056947 14.505751 270305 Jožef Stefan Institute, Environmental department, Laboratory for organic analysis
DE Magdeburg cocaine 203.17 222.21 2022 2021 -8.568471266 stable DE023 52.120533 11.627624 278000 Clinical Pharmacology TU Dresden
SI Maribor cocaine 240.47 155.83 2022 2021 54.31560033 increase SI005 46.55734 15.64591 129000 Jožef Stefan Institute, Environmental department, Laboratory for organic analysis
FI Mariehamn cocaine 22.54 41.53 2022 2020 -45.72598122 decrease FI014 60.09693 19.93482 20000 Forensic Chemistry Unit / Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare
FI Mikkeli cocaine 1.57 2.98 2022 2020 -47.31543624 decrease FI015 61.68852 27.27217 48626 Forensic Chemistry Unit / Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare
IT Milan cocaine 390.11 385.29 2022 2021 1.251005736 stable IT002 45.4337997 9.2213602 1034715 Istituto Mario negri
DE Munich Gut Großlappen cocaine 236.41 236.17 2022 2021 0.101621713 stable DE026 48.14 11.58 1156000 Clinical Pharmacology TU Dresden
CY Nicosia (2) cocaine 46.12 47.68 2022 2021 -3.271812081 stable CY005 35.17 33.4 94602  
SI Novo mesto cocaine 261.13 192.82 2022 2021 35.42682294 increase SI006 45.804211 15.16969 25414 Jožef Stefan Institute, Environmental department, Laboratory for organic analysis
DE Nuremberg cocaine 61.86 72.94 2022 2021 -15.19056759 decrease DE028 49.452102 11.076665 445593 Clinical Pharmacology TU Dresden
CZ Ostrava cocaine 70.3 45.91 2022 2021 53.12568068 increase CZ004 49.833864 18.281034 250000 T. G. Masaryk Water Resesrch institute, p. r. i., Prague
FI Oulu cocaine 7.21 3.72 2022 2020 93.8172043 increase FI016 65.05 25.41 200526 Forensic Chemistry Unit / Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare
CY Paphos cocaine 32.31 25.36 2022 2021 27.40536278 increase CY007 34.775853627551825 32.421595 132836 Nireas IWRC
SK Piestany cocaine 41.33 11.92 2022 2021 246.7281879 increase SK004 48.5918007 17.8019009 30000 FFPW, USB
FI Pietarsaari cocaine 0.68 0.22 2022 2020 209.0909091 increase FI017 63.67486 22.70256 41100 Forensic Chemistry Unit / Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare
FI Pori cocaine 6.63 3.74 2022 2020 77.27272727 increase FI018 61.48519 21.79746 114000 Forensic Chemistry Unit / Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare
PT Porto cocaine 265.85 237.8 2022 2021 11.79562658 increase PT003 41.157944 -8.629105 150000 USC
CZ Prague (2) cocaine 513.4 239.83 2022 2021 114.0682984 increase CZ005 50.08 14.43 1212000 South Bohemian Research Center of Aquaculture and Biodiversity of Hydrocenoses, University of South Bohemia in Ceske Budejovice
AT Purgstall cocaine 38.8 28.24 2022 2021 37.39376771 increase AT013 48.057812 15.13545 8681 Medical University Innsbruck
FI Rauma cocaine 6.19 1.06 2022 2020 483.9622642 increase FI019 61.12724 21.51127 40000 Forensic Chemistry Unit / Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare
AT Region Millstättersee cocaine 110.57 30.44 2022 2021 263.239159 increase AT011 46.81924 13.52146 60745 Medical University Innsbruck
IS Reykjavik Klettagarðar cocaine 522.99 283.25 2022 2020 84.63901147 increase IS002 64.126521 -21.817439 107000 Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Iceland
LV Riga cocaine 201.61 109.66 2022 2021 83.85008207 increase LV001 56.94965 24.105186 619703 Toxicological Centre
FI Rovaniemi cocaine 3.47 3.24 2022 2020 7.098765432 stable FI020 66.5 25.72 55000 Forensic Chemistry Unit / Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare
DE Saarbrücken (2) cocaine 195.67 207.64 2022 2021 -5.764785205 stable DE030 49.240157 6.996933 203643 IFT Institut für Therapieforschung
FI Salo cocaine 20.92 1.91 2022 2020 995.2879581 increase FI021 60.38333 23.13333 34400 Forensic Chemistry Unit / Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare
SE Sandviken cocaine 106.4 101.98 2022 2021 4.334183173 stable SE003 60.61667 16.76667 27000 RISE
ES Santiago cocaine 505.1 546.97 2022 2021 -7.654898806 stable ES006 42.88 -8.54 136500 IAQBUS
FI Savonlinna cocaine 1.96 2.19 2022 2020 -10.50228311 decrease FI022 61.86 28.85 24000 Forensic Chemistry Unit / Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare
FI Seinäjoki cocaine 4.02 5.76 2022 2020 -30.20833333 decrease FI023 62.79446 22.82822 55000 Forensic Chemistry Unit / Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare
SE Söderhamn cocaine 59.92 50.19 2022 2021 19.38633194 increase SE004 61.30373 17.05921 75512 RISE
AT Strass im Zillertal cocaine 149.22 112.33 2022 2021 32.84073711 increase AT016 47.395748 11.82211 123102 Medical University Innsbruck
FI Tampere cocaine 13.21 9.41 2022 2021 40.38257173 increase FI024 61.49 23.77 200000 Forensic Chemistry Unit / Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare
ES Tarragona cocaine 1610.55   2022     no previous data ES007 41.11901451164164 1.245707286 115567 URV
FI Turku cocaine 18.29 10.45 2022 2021 75.02392344 increase FI025 60.44 22.24 300000 Forensic Chemistry Unit / Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare
NL Utrecht cocaine 651.63 529.55 2022 2021 23.05353602 increase NL005 52.0858002 5.1308398 267739 KWR
FI Vaasa cocaine 1.81 1.82 2022 2020 -0.549450549 stable FI026 63.1 21.62 69252 Forensic Chemistry Unit / Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare
ES Valencia (3) cocaine 724.12 488.31 2022 2019 48.29104462 increase ES008 39.46 -0.33 1471771 Research Institute for Pesticides and Water, University Jaume I
SI Velenje cocaine 201.05 220.45 2022 2021 -8.800181447 stable SI007 46.362274 15.110658 32583 Jožef Stefan Institute, Environmental department, Laboratory for organic analysis
FI Vihti cocaine 31.99 16.87 2022 2020 89.62655602 increase FI027 60.41699 24.31965 17500 Forensic Chemistry Unit / Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare
LT Vilnius cocaine 123.73 119.98 2022 2021 3.12552092 stable LT003 54.687156 25.279651 576727 Toxicological Centre
AT Wasserverband Hofsteig cocaine 320.13 351.72 2022 2021 -8.981576254 stable AT003 47.4852 9.6762 99818 Medical University Innsbruck
HR Zagreb cocaine 401.19 548.62 2022 2021 -26.87288105 decrease HR001 45.7929993 15.9463997 650000 Laboratory for analytical chemistry and biogeochemistry of organic compounds
CH Zurich cocaine 931.09 790.58 2022 2021 17.7730274 increase CH008 47.37 8.51 471275 Ecole des Sciences Criminelles, University of Lausanne

Source table for Figure 6

Relative geographical distribution of MDMA residues as detected in European cities, 2022 (daily mean)
Year Metabolite Site ID Country City Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday Sunday Monday Tuesday Weekday mean Weekend mean Daily mean Latitude Longitude Location City Country: City
2022 MDMA AT001 AT Graz 8.11 7.52 9.38 18.27 24.97 10.91 7.88 7.84 15.88 12.43 47.070713 15.439504 ARA Graz Graz AT: Graz
2022 MDMA AT002 AT Hall-Wattens 3.42 2.44 2.32 9.85 10.91 7.61 3.52 3.13 7.67 5.73 47.29168 11.59284 Abwasserverband Hall in Tirol-Fritzens Hall-Wattens AT: Hall-Wattens
2022 MDMA AT004 AT Innsbruck 7.15 6.53 8.23 26.56 33.59 16.83 10.22 7.97 21.3 15.59 47.269212 11.404102 ARA-Innsbruck Innsbruck AT: Innsbruck
2022 MDMA AT005 AT Kapfenberg 3.2 4.07 4.5 5.29 5.05 13.75 3.17 3.48 7.15 5.58 47.443562 15.2901 Kläranlage Kapfenberg Kapfenberg AT: Kapfenberg
2022 MDMA AT006 AT Klagenfurt 4.44 4.26 17.25 12.81 15.3 10.55 4.62 4.44 13.98 9.89 46.6357 14.311817   Klagenfurt AT: Klagenfurt
2022 MDMA AT008 AT Knittelfeld 1.93 2.42 2.98 5.32 7.22 5.75 2.92 2.42 5.32 4.08 47.21595 14.82719   Knittelfeld AT: Knittelfeld
2022 MDMA AT009 AT Korneuburg 3.15 1.7 1.52 5.45 3.75 9.08 6.47 3.77 4.95 4.45 48.34472 16.33149   Korneuburg AT: Korneuburg
2022 MDMA AT010 AT Kufstein 17.5 18.48 11.15 12.21 37.09 11.94 8.15 14.71 18.1 16.65 47.582958 12.17077 Abwasserverband Kufstein Kufstein AT: Kufstein
2022 MDMA AT013 AT Purgstall 2.77 2.31 14.35 10.97 4.76 1.57 4.62 3.23 7.91 5.91 48.057812 15.13545 GAV Erlauftal Purgstall AT: Purgstall
2022 MDMA AT011 AT Region Millstättersee 1.95 1.71 5.12 7.59 5.18 5.59 4.09 2.58 5.87 4.46 46.81924 13.52146 Wasserverband Millstaettersee Region Millstättersee AT: Region Millstättersee
2022 MDMA AT014 AT Salzburg 4.78 4.31 5.11 8 12.52 8.39 4.86 4.65 8.51 6.85 47.811195 13.033229   Salzburg AT: Salzburg
2022 MDMA AT015 AT Steyr 2.56 1.81 2.2 18.13 12.68 7.85 4.85 3.07 10.21 7.15 48.05009 14.41827   Steyr AT: Steyr
2022 MDMA AT016 AT Strass im Zillertal 7.92 5.99 4.81 11.69 12.83 9.49 9.77 7.89 9.7 8.93 47.395748 11.82211 AIZ Abwasserverband Strass im Zillertal AT: Strass im Zillertal
2022 MDMA AT003 AT Wasserverband Hofsteig 5.15 4.32 7.17 9.08 11.41 5.06 3.88 4.45 8.18 6.58 47.4852 9.6762 ARA Hofsteig Wasserverband Hofsteig AT: Wasserverband Hofsteig
2022 MDMA AT017 AT Wien 8.18 8.76 12.61 22.05 43.28 19.78 12.68 9.88 24.43 18.19 48.210033 16.363449   Wien AT: Wien
2022 MDMA AT018 AT Wiener Neustadt 5.67 7 4.94 6.82 17.62 11.86 5.87 6.18 10.31 8.54 47.80279 16.23318   Wiener Neustadt AT: Wiener Neustadt
2022 MDMA AT019 AT Wildon 4.55 5.29 3.78 5.04 14.93 10.32 5.82 5.22 8.52 7.11 46.885708 15.518532   Wildon AT: Wildon
2022 MDMA BE002 BE Antwerp Zuid 78.36 167.2 90 76.73 146.77 276.68 103.08 116.21 147.54 134.12 51.2 4.39 Antwerpen-Zuid Antwerp Zuid BE: Antwerp Zuid
2022 MDMA BE005 BE Brussels 32.72 26.59 27.7 67.28 131.55 53.08 37 32.1 69.9 53.7 50.86 4.36 Brussel-Noord Brussels BE: Brussels
2022 MDMA CH001 CH Basel 10.53 6.56 6.49 54.28 38.15 23.09 12.68 9.92 30.5 21.68 47.56 7.59 ARA Basel Basel CH: Basel
2022 MDMA CH002 CH Berne 8.86 8.78 6.51 33.36 59.44 19.27 10.81 9.48 29.64 21 46.83 7.62 ARA Bern Berne CH: Berne
2022 MDMA CH003 CH Geneva 16.26 16.39 21.3 50.42 67.36 24.17 18.04 16.89 40.81 30.56 46.2 6.17 STEP SIG Geneva CH: Geneva
2022 MDMA CH008 CH Zurich 25.48 16.92 16.91 59.08 108.19 50.34 17.9 20.1 58.63 42.12 47.37 8.51 Werdhölzli Zurich CH: Zurich
2022 MDMA CY001 CY Agia Napa 0.63 0.65 0.71 1.66 5.57 3.97 2.83 1.37 2.98 2.29 34.9907544470418 33.9999814169353 Sewage treatment plant of Agia Napa-Paralimni Agia Napa CY: Agia Napa
2022 MDMA CY002 CY Larnaca 1.55 0.38 0.39 0.4 1.82 2.08 1.32 1.08 1.17 1.13 34.9151643530411 33.6361988334665 Sewage Bioard of Larnaca Larnaca CY: Larnaca
2022 MDMA CY003 CY Limassol 1.8 0.44 0.44 5.92 5.36 6.07 1.36 1.2 4.45 3.06 34.69 33.02 Sewerage Board of Limassol-Amathus (SBLA) Limassol CY: Limassol
2022 MDMA CY005 CY Nicosia (2) 0.58 0.89 0.57 0.58 0.51 3.21 0.94 0.81 1.22 1.04 35.17 33.4 Sewage treatment plant of Pano Deftera (Anthoupoli)-Sewerage Board of Nicosia; Sewage treatment plant of Vathia Gonia-Sewerage Board of Nicosia Nicosia (2) CY: Nicosia (2)
2022 MDMA CY007 CY Paphos 0.38 0.39 0.4 0.4 1.62 0.9 0.4 0.39 0.83 0.64 34.7758536275518 32.4215949998929 Sewage Borad of Pafos Paphos CY: Paphos
2022 MDMA CZ001 CZ Brno 5.06 5.64 8.2 5.81 35.43 33.21 22.72 11.14 20.66 16.58 49.19506 16.606837 Waterworks and sewage of city Brno Brno CZ: Brno
2022 MDMA CZ002 CZ České Budějovice 9.8 4.59 14.01 12.05 20.93 29.92 15.13 9.84 19.23 15.2 48.96 14.46 UCOV CB České Budějovice CZ: České Budějovice
2022 MDMA CZ003 CZ Karlovy Vary 7.17 12.25 15.17 18.05 5.43 7.09 5.25 8.22 11.43 10.06 50.23204 12.87099 COV Karloy Vary Karlovy Vary CZ: Karlovy Vary
2022 MDMA CZ005 CZ Prague (2) 100.71 55.59 24.57 22.38 28.64 39.52 88.67 81.66 28.78 51.44 50.08 14.43 UCOV Praha Prague (2) CZ: Prague (2)
2022 MDMA DE001 DE Berlin (4) 29.34 18.68 21.77 34.15 98.31 75.8 46.15 31.65 58.46 47.55 52.52 13.4 Berlin 4 plants Berlin (4) DE: Berlin (4)
2022 MDMA DE008 DE Chemnitz 1.61 2.23 3.02 7.82 13.93 15.41   1.92 10.05 7.34 50.827845 12.92137 Chemnitz Chemnitz DE: Chemnitz
2022 MDMA DE009 DE Dortmund 6.36 2.26 2.11 17.82 27.94 13.25   4.31 15.28 11.62 51.52 7.46 Deusen Dortmund DE: Dortmund
2022 MDMA DE010 DE Dresden 3.62 5.22 4.04 7.13 17.33 13.19 6.77 5.2 10.42 8.18 51.05089 13.73832 Dresden-Kaditz Dresden DE: Dresden
2022 MDMA DE011 DE Dülmen 1 0.98 0.98 6.29 15.09   1.05 1.01 7.45 4.23 51.84 7.28 Dülmen Dülmen DE: Dülmen
2022 MDMA DE012 DE Erfurt 5.23 7.79 4.27 14.11 30.84 21.46 10.44 7.82 17.67 13.45 50.984768 11.02988 Erfurt Erfurt DE: Erfurt
2022 MDMA DE023 DE Magdeburg 7.11 6.66 5.5 16.87 25.45 19.45 10.24 8 16.82 13.04 52.120533 11.627624   Magdeburg DE: Magdeburg
2022 MDMA DE026 DE Munich Gut Großlappen 7.62 4.87 7.44 19.86 27.78 9.97 4.65 5.71 16.26 11.74 48.14 11.58 Gut_Grosslappen Munich Gut Großlappen DE: Munich Gut Großlappen
2022 MDMA DE028 DE Nuremberg 1.2 1.4 2.99 11.09 18.22 6.91 1.25 1.28 9.8 6.15 49.452102 11.076665 Nürnberg Nuremberg DE: Nuremberg
2022 MDMA DE030 DE Saarbrücken (2) 7.65 7.21 3.04 14.12 40.15 25.5 11.48 8.78 20.7 15.59 49.240157 6.996933 Saarbrucken 2 plants Saarbrücken (2) DE: Saarbrücken (2)
2022 MDMA DK001 DK Copenhagen 11.02 10.1 15.27 48.16 66.67 38.81 14.69 11.94 42.23 29.25 55.69 12.62 Lynetten Copenhagen DK: Copenhagen
2022 MDMA EE001 EE Kohtla-Järve (2) 3.14 3.32 2.11 1.52 3.82 5.68 6.01 4.15 3.28 3.66 59.397474 27.279751   Kohtla-Järve (2) EE: Kohtla-Järve (2)
2022 MDMA EE005 EE Tallinn 11.74 10.94 20.02 32.52 38.98 33.83 19.56 14.08 31.33 23.94 59.436962 24.753574   Tallinn EE: Tallinn
2022 MDMA ES001 ES Barcelona 26.86 20.98 24.4 69.71 87.85 49.11 39.77 29.2 57.77 45.53 41.43 1.97 Baix Llobregat Barcelona ES: Barcelona
2022 MDMA ES002 ES Castellon 12.65 17.74 25.13 14.1 32.28 34.19 27.17 19.19 26.42 23.32 40.23 -0.12 EDAR Castellón Castellon ES: Castellon
2022 MDMA ES003 ES Lleida 10.45 5.92 6.31 17.02 45.71 23.81 12.41 9.59 23.21 17.38 41.617592 0.620015   Lleida ES: Lleida
2022 MDMA ES006 ES Santiago 11.37 18.85 38.43 49.6 53.55 27.4 13.71 14.64 42.24 30.41 42.88 -8.54 Silvouta Santiago ES: Santiago
2022 MDMA FI001 FI Espoo 4.34 2.92 4.23 13.71 16.33 10.34 6.26 4.5 11.15 8.3 60.16 24.71 Suomenoja Espoo FI: Espoo
2022 MDMA FI002 FI Hämeenlinna 0.72 0.77 0.52 3.67 4.83 4.65 3.66 1.72 3.42 2.69 60.99601 24.46423 Paroinen Hämeenlinna FI: Hämeenlinna
2022 MDMA FI003 FI Helsinki 9.74 12.07 10.95 26.34 40.01 15.3 9.19 10.33 23.15 17.66 60.23 24.99 Viikinmäki Helsinki FI: Helsinki
2022 MDMA FI004 FI Joensuu 1.38 1.41 2.09 3.47 8.06 2.9 3.64 2.14 4.13 3.28 62.58 29.73 Kuhasalo Joensuu FI: Joensuu
2022 MDMA FI005 FI Jyväskylä 3.65 2.99 3.87 5.79 8.22 3.53 1.37 2.67 5.35 4.2 62.21 25.77 Nenäinniemi Jyväskylä FI: Jyväskylä
2022 MDMA FI006 FI Kajaani 1.33 0.9 1.05 1.51 0.94 0.51 0.5 0.91 1 0.96 64.227 27.7285 Peuraniemi Kajaani FI: Kajaani
2022 MDMA FI007 FI Kemi 3.15 2.9 6.73 9.84 20.13 9.72 8.37 4.81 11.6 8.69 65.73609 24.56363 Peurasaari Kemi FI: Kemi
2022 MDMA FI008 FI Kokkola 3.27 2.96 1.73 2.4 2.57 2.78 2.25 2.83 2.37 2.57 63.83848 23.13048 Hopeakivenlahti Kokkola FI: Kokkola
2022 MDMA FI009 FI Kotka 3.43 4.33 3.96 7.89 8.44 7.54 3.36 3.71 6.96 5.57 60.45 26.89 Mussalo Kotka FI: Kotka
2022 MDMA FI010 FI Kouvola 3.02 4.93 3.53 4.99 6.54 3.91 2.06 3.34 4.74 4.14 60.8679 26.70405 Mäkikylä Kouvola FI: Kouvola
2022 MDMA FI011 FI Kuopio 1.14 1.91 4.63 6.25 6.9 2.57 1.22 1.42 5.09 3.52 62.96 27.01 Lehtoniemi Kuopio FI: Kuopio
2022 MDMA FI012 FI Lahti 4.56 5.88 5.86 9.76 8.1 5.28 3.92 4.79 7.25 6.19 60.99 25.65 Kariniemi Lahti FI: Lahti
2022 MDMA FI013 FI Lappeenranta 6.67 6 12.18 20.39 19.88 11.29 7.83 6.83 15.94 12.03 60.93 27.3 Toikansuo Lappeenranta FI: Lappeenranta
2022 MDMA FI014 FI Mariehamn 0.4 0.2 2.35 6 5.06 4.23 3.67 1.42 4.41 3.13 60.09693 19.93482 Lotsbroverket Mariehamn FI: Mariehamn
2022 MDMA FI015 FI Mikkeli 0.74 1.51 2.13 4.94 5.03 2.06 1.48 1.24 3.54 2.56 61.68852 27.27217 Kenkäveronniemi Mikkeli FI: Mikkeli
2022 MDMA FI016 FI Oulu 11.13 7.55 6.33 13.02 14.53 10.69 7.07 8.58 11.14 10.05 65.05 25.41 Taskila Oulu FI: Oulu
2022 MDMA FI017 FI Pietarsaari 0.43 0.45 0.85 0.62 0.97 0.82 0.59 0.49 0.81 0.68 63.67486 22.70256 Alheda Pietarsaari FI: Pietarsaari
2022 MDMA FI018 FI Pori 2.72 2.25 4.49 6.17 4.09 3.3 2.29 2.42 4.51 3.62 61.48519 21.79746 Luotsinmäki Pori FI: Pori
2022 MDMA FI019 FI Rauma 2.29 1.59 2.48 7.78 7.8 5.47 1.89 1.92 5.88 4.19 61.12724 21.51127 Maanpäänniemi Rauma FI: Rauma
2022 MDMA FI020 FI Rovaniemi 4.3 6.8 4.3 5.11 8.19 5.67 2.94 4.68 5.82 5.33 66.5 25.72 Alakorkalo Rovaniemi FI: Rovaniemi
2022 MDMA FI021 FI Salo 0.75 1.74 1.9 2.42 3.2 1.63 1.56 1.35 2.29 1.88 60.38333 23.13333 Salo Salo FI: Salo
2022 MDMA FI022 FI Savonlinna 0.7 0.7 0.73 5.44 4.48 1.57 1.32 0.91 3.06 2.13 61.86 28.85 Pihlajaniemi Savonlinna FI: Savonlinna
2022 MDMA FI023 FI Seinäjoki 4.64 8.54 8.83 5.27 7.64 4.12 4.11 5.76 6.46 6.16 62.79446 22.82822 Seinäjoki Seinäjoki FI: Seinäjoki
2022 MDMA FI024 FI Tampere 5.58 24.69 7.19 17.9 7.36 2.54 2.2 10.82 8.75 9.64 61.49 23.77 Viinikanlahti Tampere FI: Tampere
2022 MDMA FI025 FI Turku 7.46 6.23 7.06 12.19 17.46 10.7 6.61 6.77 11.85 9.67 60.44 22.24 Kakolanmäki Turku FI: Turku
2022 MDMA FI026 FI Vaasa 9.52 3.34 4.01 4.43 7.56 3.49 2.3 5.05 4.87 4.95 63.1 21.62 Patt Vaasa FI: Vaasa
2022 MDMA FI027 FI Vihti 8.53 4.21 3.62 5.34 4.5 3.71 2.31 5.02 4.29 4.6 60.41699 24.31965 Nummela Vihti FI: Vihti
2022 MDMA GB001 GB Bristol     5.57 12.95         9.79 9.79 51.503457 -2.698444 Avonmouth Bristol GB: Bristol
2022 MDMA GR001 GR Athens 0.47 3.23 2.25 2.39 2.77 2.85 2.79 2.16 2.56 2.39 37.9928017 23.7658005 City of Athens WWTP Athens GR: Athens
2022 MDMA HR001 HR Zagreb 16.68 10.06 65.18 43.48 10.52 24.44 17.67 14.8 35.9 26.86 45.7929993 15.9463997 Central wastewater treatment plant of the city of Zagreb Zagreb HR: Zagreb
2022 MDMA IS002 IS Reykjavik Klettagarðar 14.89 41.03 20.93 57.4 64.57 34.58 43.07 33 44.37 39.5 64.126521 -21.817439 Klettagarðar Reykjavik Klettagarðar IS: Reykjavik Klettagarðar
2022 MDMA IT001 IT Bozen 1.93 3 2.19 6.43 5.35 2.91 1.95 2.29 4.22 3.39 46.49672 11.358 Kläranlage Bozen Bozen IT: Bozen
2022 MDMA LT001 LT Kaunas 7.42 6.16 6.13 20.83 32.81 21.26 10.7 8.09 20.26 15.04 54.89687 23.89243 Kaunas Kaunas LT: Kaunas
2022 MDMA LT002 LT Klaipeda 5.92 4.92 4.48 5.06 11.51 12.98 8.4 6.41 8.51 7.61 55.78282 21.49279 Klaipeda Klaipeda LT: Klaipeda
2022 MDMA LT003 LT Vilnius 10.71 10.2 11.13 50.88 76.41 36.71 18 12.97 43.78 30.58 54.687156 25.279651 Vilniaus vandenys Vilnius LT: Vilnius
2022 MDMA LV001 LV Riga 23.24 20.16 20.91 46.07 58.67 43.98 23.81 22.4 42.41 33.84 56.94965 24.105186 Riga Riga LV: Riga
2022 MDMA NL001 NL Amsterdam 108.87 82.9 112.13 181.26 308.23 305.84 176.98 122.92 226.87 182.32 52.375 4.8666668 RWZI Amsterdam-WEST Amsterdam NL: Amsterdam
2022 MDMA NL002 NL Eindhoven 59.08 40.56 45.92 75.35 156.46 113.61 76.1 58.58 97.83 81.01 51.4421082 5.4800701 RWZI Eindhoven Eindhoven NL: Eindhoven
2022 MDMA NL005 NL Utrecht 53.62 46.93 65.98 160.13 220.87 154.45 79.4 59.98 150.35 111.62 52.0858002 5.1308398 RWZI Utrecht Utrecht NL: Utrecht
2022 MDMA PT001 PT Almada 5.33 9.29 15.21 23.69 41.12 36.84 33.57 16.06 29.21 23.58 38.675187 -9.154345 Mutela Almada PT: Almada
2022 MDMA PT002 PT Lisbon 32.09 26.19 32.09 143.08 376.06 204.33 38.7 32.33 188.89 121.79 38.7044907 -9.1754999 Alcântara Lisbon PT: Lisbon
2022 MDMA PT003 PT Porto 13.95 8.26 7.07 19.01 31.49 24.42 11.69 11.3 20.5 16.56 41.157944 -8.629105   Porto PT: Porto
2022 MDMA SE001 SE Gävle 11.9 7.67 6.45 9.06 12.5 7.42 7.47 9.01 8.86 8.93 60.674622 17.14183 Duvbacken Gävle SE: Gävle
2022 MDMA SE003 SE Sandviken   0.86 0.94 1.01 0.98 6.86 0.88 0.87 2.45 1.92 60.61667 16.76667 Hedåsen ARV Sandviken SE: Sandviken
2022 MDMA SE004 SE Söderhamn 2.6 4.5 3.41 4.76 6.71 5.52 0.36 2.49 5.1 3.98 61.30373 17.05921 Granskär ARV Söderhamn SE: Söderhamn
2022 MDMA SI001 SI Domžale-Kamnik 5.57 3.19 2.39 6.95 12.77 13.83 8.33 5.7 8.98 7.58 46.13788 14.59384 Domžale-Kamnik Domžale-Kamnik SI: Domžale-Kamnik
2022 MDMA SI002 SI Koper 1.86 1.31 1.64 6.97 12.43 4.72 4.01 2.39 6.44 4.71 45.548058 13.730188 Central wastewater treatment plant Koper Koper SI: Koper
2022 MDMA SI003 SI Kranj 4.91 3.12 4.42 38.29 16.8 6.06 3.79 3.94 16.39 11.06 46.242834 14.355542   Kranj SI: Kranj
2022 MDMA SI004 SI Ljubljana 9.76 8.58 10.42 29.36 36.34 17.2 15.18 11.17 23.33 18.12 46.056947 14.505751 Central wastewater treatment plant Ljubljana Ljubljana SI: Ljubljana
2022 MDMA SI005 SI Maribor 16.06 12.92 7.44 14.66 18.51 14.47 12.44 13.81 13.77 13.79 46.55734 15.64591 Maribor Maribor SI: Maribor
2022 MDMA SI006 SI Novo mesto 2.3 1.59 3.2 2.4 2.79 4.64 3.71 2.53 3.26 2.95 45.804211 15.16969 Wastewater treatment plant Novo mesto Novo mesto SI: Novo mesto
2022 MDMA SI007 SI Velenje 5.6 5.88 6.96 14.32 11.99 12.12 6.28 5.92 11.35 9.02 46.362274 15.110658 Central wastewater treatment plant Šaleške Doline (Šalek Valley) Velenje SI: Velenje
2022 MDMA SK002 SK Bratislava C 4.55 6.84 23.72 24.61 12.44 7.12 6.18 5.86 16.97 12.21 48.14925 17.106991 Central Bratislava C SK: Bratislava C
2022 MDMA SK004 SK Piestany 3.26 0.45 0.52 7.33 4.9 0.48 0.47 1.39 3.31 2.49 48.5918007 17.8019009   Piestany SK: Piestany
2022 MDMA TR001 TR Adana 7.96 6.96 6.36 8.83 12.7 8.42 8.17 7.69 9.08 8.48 36.991421 35.33083 Seyhan Adana TR: Adana
2022 MDMA TR003 TR Istanbul (II-VII) 4.87 6.12 3.81 6.57 8.94 9.55 5.6 5.53 7.22 6.49 41.013 28.9748 Istanbul (II-VII) Istanbul (II-VII) TR: Istanbul (II-VII)

Source table for Figure 7

Changes in the mean weekly MDMA metabolites from wastewater analyses in selected European cities between 2021 and 2022
Country City Metabolite Current measurement (mg/1000p/day) Previous measurement (mg/1000p/day) Year current measurement Year Previous measurement Percentage change Change evaluation SiteID latitude longitude Population served by facility Institution
TR Adana MDMA 8.48 13.68 2022 2021 -38.01169591 decrease TR001 36.991421 35.33083 1159215 Adana- Lab139
CY Agia Napa MDMA 2.29 28.53 2022 2021 -91.97336137 decrease CY001 34.99075444704176 33.99998142 48201 Nireas IWRC
PT Almada MDMA 23.58 20.39 2022 2021 15.64492398 increase PT001 38.675187 -9.154345 138685 INMLCF
NL Amsterdam MDMA 182.32 125 2022 2021 45.856 increase NL001 52.375 4.8666668 669917 KWR
BE Antwerp Zuid MDMA 134.12 92.46 2022 2021 45.05732209 increase BE002 51.2 4.39 130218 Toxicological Centre
GR Athens MDMA 2.39 3.38 2022 2021 -29.28994083 decrease GR001 37.9928017 23.7658005 3700000 National and Kapodistrian University of Athens
ES Barcelona MDMA 45.53 25.43 2022 2021 79.04050334 increase ES001 41.43 1.97 1185619 IDAEA-CSIC
CH Basel MDMA 21.68 17.65 2022 2021 22.83286119 increase CH001 47.56 7.59 273075 Ecole des Sciences Criminelles, University of Lausanne
DE Berlin (4) MDMA 47.55 59.54 2022 2018 -20.13772254 decrease DE001 52.52 13.4 3993500 IFT Institut für Therapieforschung
CH Berne MDMA 21 19.19 2022 2021 9.431995831 stable CH002 46.83 7.62 224557 Ecole des Sciences Criminelles, University of Lausanne
IT Bozen MDMA 3.39 1.36 2022 2021 149.2647059 increase IT001 46.49672 11.358 282747 Medical University Innsbruck
SK Bratislava C MDMA 12.21 4.38 2022 2021 178.7671233 increase SK002 48.14925 17.106991 450000 FFPW, USB
GB Bristol MDMA 9.79 18.07 2022 2021 -45.8218041 decrease GB001 51.503457 -2.698444 890154 University of Bath
CZ Brno MDMA 16.58 26.36 2022 2021 -37.1016692 decrease CZ001 49.19506 16.606837 445000 FFPW, USB
BE Brussels MDMA 53.7 25.09 2022 2021 114.0294938 increase BE005 50.86 4.36 953987 Toxicological Centre
CZ České Budějovice MDMA 15.2 15.85 2022 2021 -4.100946372 stable CZ002 48.96 14.46 110000 FFPW, USB
ES Castellon MDMA 23.32 5.82 2022 2021 300.6872852 increase ES002 40.23 -0.12 178141 UJI
DE Chemnitz MDMA 7.34 7.79 2022 2021 -5.776636714 stable DE008 50.827845 12.92137 239402 Clinical Pharmacology TU Dresden
DK Copenhagen MDMA 29.25 34.65 2022 2021 -15.58441558 decrease DK001 55.69 12.62 685000 Department of forensic medicine, University of Copenhagen
SI Domžale-Kamnik MDMA 7.58 6.33 2022 2021 19.74723539 increase SI001 46.13788 14.59384 77981 Jožef Stefan Institute, Environmental department, Laboratory for organic analysis
DE Dortmund MDMA 11.62 16.75 2022 2021 -30.62686567 decrease DE009 51.52 7.46 399700 Clinical Pharmacology TU Dresden
DE Dresden MDMA 8.18 12.72 2022 2021 -35.6918239 decrease DE010 51.05089 13.73832 671806 Clinical Pharmacology TU Dresden
DE Dülmen MDMA 4.23 14.37 2022 2021 -70.56367432 decrease DE011 51.84 7.28 34733 Clinical Pharmacology TU Dresden
NL Eindhoven MDMA 81.01 82.63 2022 2021 -1.960547017 stable NL002 51.4421082 5.4800701 457153 KWR
DE Erfurt MDMA 13.45 17.54 2022 2021 -23.31812999 decrease DE012 50.984768 11.02988 215323 Clinical Pharmacology TU Dresden
FI Espoo MDMA 8.3 18.92 2022 2021 -56.13107822 decrease FI001 60.16 24.71 390000 Forensic Chemistry Unit / Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare
SE Gävle MDMA 8.93 13.56 2022 2021 -34.14454277 decrease SE001 60.674622 17.14183 90114 RISE
CH Geneva MDMA 30.56 14.7 2022 2021 107.8911565 increase CH003 46.2 6.17 454433 Ecole des Sciences Criminelles, University of Lausanne
AT Graz MDMA 12.43 9.64 2022 2021 28.94190871 increase AT001 47.070713 15.439504 475333 Medical University Innsbruck
AT Hall-Wattens MDMA 5.73 4.27 2022 2021 34.19203747 increase AT002 47.29168 11.59284 70353 Medical University Innsbruck
FI Hämeenlinna MDMA 2.69 9.9 2022 2020 -72.82828283 decrease FI002 60.99601 24.46423 67000 Forensic Chemistry Unit / Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare
FI Helsinki MDMA 17.66 22.54 2022 2021 -21.65039929 decrease FI003 60.23 24.99 860000 Forensic Chemistry Unit / Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare
AT Innsbruck MDMA 15.59 14.58 2022 2021 6.927297668 stable AT004 47.269212 11.404102 266478 Medical University Innsbruck
TR Istanbul (II-VII) MDMA 6.49 26.33 2022 2020 -75.35131029 decrease TR003 41.013 28.9748 16525000 Forensic Toxicology Labs. Institute of Forensic Sciences and Legal Medicine, Istanbul University-Cerrahpasa
FI Joensuu MDMA 3.28 11.6 2022 2020 -71.72413793 decrease FI004 62.58 29.73 82667 Forensic Chemistry Unit / Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare
FI Jyväskylä MDMA 4.2 10.64 2022 2020 -60.52631579 decrease FI005 62.21 25.77 155000 National Institute for Health and Welfare (THL)
FI Kajaani MDMA 0.96 5.91 2022 2020 -83.75634518 decrease FI006 64.227 27.7285 33714 Forensic Chemistry Unit / Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare
AT Kapfenberg MDMA 5.58 3.59 2022 2021 55.43175487 increase AT005 47.443562 15.2901 37058 Medical University Innsbruck
CZ Karlovy Vary MDMA 10.06 0 2022 2021              
LT Kaunas MDMA 15.04 17.65 2022 2021 -14.78753541 decrease LT001 54.89687 23.89243 291333 Toxicological Centre
FI Kemi MDMA 8.69 10.34 2022 2020 -15.95744681 decrease FI007 65.73609 24.56363 25000 Forensic Chemistry Unit / Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare
AT Klagenfurt MDMA 9.89   2022     no previous data AT006     207812 Medical University Innsbruck
LT Klaipeda MDMA 7.61 7.29 2022 2021 4.38957476 stable LT002 55.78282 21.49279 387400 Toxicological Centre
FI Kokkola MDMA 2.57 20.42 2022 2020 -87.41429971 decrease FI008 63.83848 23.13048 36000 Forensic Chemistry Unit / Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare
SI Koper MDMA 4.71 6.42 2022 2021 -26.63551402 decrease SI002 45.548058 13.730188 49843 Jožef Stefan Institute, Environmental department, Laboratory for organic analysis
FI Kotka MDMA 5.57 19.22 2022 2020 -71.01977107 decrease FI009 60.45 26.89 72500 Forensic Chemistry Unit / Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare
FI Kouvola MDMA 4.14 25.52 2022 2020 -83.77742947 decrease FI010 60.8679 26.70405 70000 National Institute for Health and Welfare (THL)
AT Kufstein MDMA 16.65 3.07 2022 2021 442.3452769 increase AT010 47.582958 12.17077 44537 Medical University Innsbruck
FI Kuopio MDMA 3.52 17.47 2022 2020 -79.85117344 decrease FI011 62.96 27.01 90697 Forensic Chemistry Unit / Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare
FI Lahti MDMA 6.19 38.8 2022 2020 -84.04639175 decrease FI012 60.99 25.65 63000 Forensic Chemistry Unit / Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare
FI Lappeenranta MDMA 12.03 15.07 2022 2020 -20.1725282 decrease FI013 60.93 27.3 60000 Forensic Chemistry Unit / Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare
CY Larnaca MDMA 1.13 1.28 2022 2021 -11.71875 decrease CY002 34.915164353041064 33.63619883 92442 Nireas IWRC
CY Limassol MDMA 3.06 3.69 2022 2021 -17.07317073 decrease CY003 34.69 33.02 239936 Nireas IWRC
PT Lisbon MDMA 121.79 48.68 2022 2021 150.1848809 increase PT002 38.7044907 -9.1754999 426964 INMLCF
SI Ljubljana MDMA 18.12 7.49 2022 2021 141.9225634 increase SI004 46.056947 14.505751 270305 Jožef Stefan Institute, Environmental department, Laboratory for organic analysis
DE Magdeburg MDMA 13.04 13.53 2022 2021 -3.62158167 stable DE023 52.120533 11.627624 278000 Clinical Pharmacology TU Dresden
SI Maribor MDMA 13.79 6.86 2022 2021 101.0204082 increase SI005 46.55734 15.64591 129000 Jožef Stefan Institute, Environmental department, Laboratory for organic analysis
FI Mariehamn MDMA 3.13 0.83 2022 2020 277.1084337 increase FI014 60.09693 19.93482 20000 Forensic Chemistry Unit / Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare
FI Mikkeli MDMA 2.56 36.11 2022 2020 -92.91055109 decrease FI015 61.68852 27.27217 48626 Forensic Chemistry Unit / Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare
DE Munich Gut Großlappen MDMA 11.74 13.55 2022 2021 -13.35793358 decrease DE026 48.14 11.58 1156000 Clinical Pharmacology TU Dresden
CY Nicosia (2) MDMA 1.04 3.34 2022 2021 -68.86227545 decrease CY005 35.17 33.4 94602  
SI Novo mesto MDMA 2.95 4.59 2022 2021 -35.72984749 decrease SI006 45.804211 15.16969 25414 Jožef Stefan Institute, Environmental department, Laboratory for organic analysis
DE Nuremberg MDMA 6.15 12.14 2022 2021 -49.34102142 decrease DE028 49.452102 11.076665 445593 Clinical Pharmacology TU Dresden
FI Oulu MDMA 10.05 19.57 2022 2020 -48.64588656 decrease FI016 65.05 25.41 200526 Forensic Chemistry Unit / Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare
CY Paphos MDMA 0.64 1.86 2022 2021 -65.59139785 decrease CY007 34.775853627551825 32.421595 132836 Nireas IWRC
SK Piestany MDMA 2.49 2.01 2022 2021 23.88059701 increase SK004 48.5918007 17.8019009 30000 FFPW, USB
FI Pietarsaari MDMA 0.68 2.94 2022 2020 -76.8707483 decrease FI017 63.67486 22.70256 41100 Forensic Chemistry Unit / Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare
FI Pori MDMA 3.62 17.44 2022 2020 -79.24311927 decrease FI018 61.48519 21.79746 114000 Forensic Chemistry Unit / Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare
PT Porto MDMA 16.56 8.04 2022 2021 105.9701493 increase PT003 41.157944 -8.629105 150000 USC
CZ Prague (2) MDMA 51.44 26.6 2022 2021 93.38345865 increase CZ005 50.08 14.43 1212000 South Bohemian Research Center of Aquaculture and Biodiversity of Hydrocenoses, University of South Bohemia in Ceske Budejovice
AT Purgstall MDMA 5.91 4.11 2022 2021 43.79562044 increase AT013 48.057812 15.13545 8681 Medical University Innsbruck
FI Rauma MDMA 4.19 8.16 2022 2020 -48.65196078 decrease FI019 61.12724 21.51127 40000 Forensic Chemistry Unit / Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare
AT Region Millstättersee MDMA 4.46 0 2022 2021              
IS Reykjavik Klettagarðar MDMA 39.5 44.14 2022 2020 -10.51200725 decrease IS002 64.126521 -21.817439 107000 Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Iceland
LV Riga MDMA 33.84 29.05 2022 2021 16.48881239 increase LV001 56.94965 24.105186 619703 Toxicological Centre
FI Rovaniemi MDMA 5.33 21.99 2022 2020 -75.76170987 decrease FI020 66.5 25.72 55000 Forensic Chemistry Unit / Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare
DE Saarbrücken (2) MDMA 15.59 34.34 2022 2021 -54.60104834 decrease DE030 49.240157 6.996933 203643 IFT Institut für Therapieforschung
FI Salo MDMA 1.88 12.4 2022 2020 -84.83870968 decrease FI021 60.38333 23.13333 34400 Forensic Chemistry Unit / Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare
SE Sandviken MDMA 1.92 4.81 2022 2021 -60.08316008 decrease SE003 60.61667 16.76667 27000 RISE
ES Santiago MDMA 30.41 17.78 2022 2021 71.03487064 increase ES006 42.88 -8.54 136500 IAQBUS
FI Savonlinna MDMA 2.13 7.86 2022 2020 -72.90076336 decrease FI022 61.86 28.85 24000 Forensic Chemistry Unit / Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare
FI Seinäjoki MDMA 6.16 17.35 2022 2020 -64.49567723 decrease FI023 62.79446 22.82822 55000 Forensic Chemistry Unit / Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare
SE Söderhamn MDMA 3.98 13.67 2022 2021 -70.88514996 decrease SE004 61.30373 17.05921 75512 RISE
AT Strass im Zillertal MDMA 8.93 5.73 2022 2021 55.84642234 increase AT016 47.395748 11.82211 123102 Medical University Innsbruck
FI Tampere MDMA 9.64 18.06 2022 2021 -46.62236988 decrease FI024 61.49 23.77 200000 Forensic Chemistry Unit / Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare
FI Turku MDMA 9.67 14.5 2022 2021 -33.31034483 decrease FI025 60.44 22.24 300000 Forensic Chemistry Unit / Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare
NL Utrecht MDMA 111.62 101 2022 2021 10.51485149 increase NL005 52.0858002 5.1308398 267739 KWR
FI Vaasa MDMA 4.95 24.56 2022 2020 -79.84527687 decrease FI026 63.1 21.62 69252 Forensic Chemistry Unit / Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare
SI Velenje MDMA 9.02 7.59 2022 2021 18.84057971 increase SI007 46.362274 15.110658 32583 Jožef Stefan Institute, Environmental department, Laboratory for organic analysis
FI Vihti MDMA 4.6 23.27 2022 2020 -80.23205844 decrease FI027 60.41699 24.31965 17500 Forensic Chemistry Unit / Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare
LT Vilnius MDMA 30.58 19.38 2022 2021 57.79153767 increase LT003 54.687156 25.279651 576727 Toxicological Centre
AT Wasserverband Hofsteig MDMA 6.58 9.28 2022 2021 -29.09482759 decrease AT003 47.4852 9.6762 99818 Medical University Innsbruck
HR Zagreb MDMA 26.86 28.26 2022 2021 -4.953998585 stable HR001 45.7929993 15.9463997 650000 Laboratory for analytical chemistry and biogeochemistry of organic compounds
CH Zurich MDMA 42.12 27.37 2022 2021 53.89112167 increase CH008 47.37 8.51 471275 Ecole des Sciences Criminelles, University of Lausanne

Source table for Figure 8

Relative geographical distribution of amphetamine residues as detected in European cities, 2022 (daily mean)
Year Metabolite Site ID Country City Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday Sunday Monday Tuesday Weekday mean Weekend mean Daily mean Latitude Longitude Location City Country: City
2022 amphetamine AT001 AT Graz 24 20.9 24.22 27.86 28.27 23.8 22.2 22.37 26.03 24.46 47.070713 15.439504 ARA Graz Graz AT: Graz
2022 amphetamine AT002 AT Hall-Wattens 9.01 13.61 9.28 11.82 11.08 11.31 6.84 9.82 10.87 10.42 47.29168 11.59284 Abwasserverband Hall in Tirol-Fritzens Hall-Wattens AT: Hall-Wattens
2022 amphetamine AT004 AT Innsbruck 10.18 9.8 11.7 16.02 14.86 13.35 19.45 13.14 13.98 13.62 47.269212 11.404102 ARA-Innsbruck Innsbruck AT: Innsbruck
2022 amphetamine AT005 AT Kapfenberg 32.16 28.14 30.94 21.49 21.35 23.8 12.96 24.42 24.4 24.41 47.443562 15.2901 Kläranlage Kapfenberg Kapfenberg AT: Kapfenberg
2022 amphetamine AT006 AT Klagenfurt 6.74 6.87 12.77 9.57 11.62 7.86 6.65 6.76 10.46 8.87 46.6357 14.311817   Klagenfurt AT: Klagenfurt
2022 amphetamine AT008 AT Knittelfeld 10.71 16.92 18.09 20.1 29.02 25.66 11.38 13 23.22 18.84 47.21595 14.82719   Knittelfeld AT: Knittelfeld
2022 amphetamine AT009 AT Korneuburg 22.82 17.16 9.94 22.64 17.14 15.2 12.95 17.64 16.23 16.83 48.34472 16.33149   Korneuburg AT: Korneuburg
2022 amphetamine AT010 AT Kufstein 9.17 8.31 9 10.58 14.45 13.37 17.61 11.7 11.85 11.78 47.582958 12.17077 Abwasserverband Kufstein Kufstein AT: Kufstein
2022 amphetamine AT013 AT Purgstall 29.71 22.69 17.08 43.89 47.43 13.62 35.98 29.46 30.5 30.06 48.057812 15.13545 GAV Erlauftal Purgstall AT: Purgstall
2022 amphetamine AT011 AT Region Millstättersee 1.2 0.93 0.43 1.23 1.25 3.17 3.94 2.02 1.52 1.74 46.81924 13.52146 Wasserverband Millstaettersee Region Millstättersee AT: Region Millstättersee
2022 amphetamine AT014 AT Salzburg 23.92 22.21 22.85 19.55 24.79 23.23 23.31 23.15 22.6 22.84 47.811195 13.033229   Salzburg AT: Salzburg
2022 amphetamine AT015 AT Steyr 24.24 19.93 29.36 61.68 40.31 24.56 20.87 21.68 38.98 31.56 48.05009 14.41827   Steyr AT: Steyr
2022 amphetamine AT016 AT Strass im Zillertal 16.99 11.02 12.01 12.77 12.13 11.57 14.05 14.02 12.12 12.93 47.395748 11.82211 AIZ Abwasserverband Strass im Zillertal AT: Strass im Zillertal
2022 amphetamine AT003 AT Wasserverband Hofsteig 14.74 14.87 13.26 17.21 16.21 16.75 14.82 14.81 15.86 15.41 47.4852 9.6762 ARA Hofsteig Wasserverband Hofsteig AT: Wasserverband Hofsteig
2022 amphetamine AT017 AT Wien 32.4 37.52 43.85 41.01 42.27 39.87 36.73 35.55 41.75 39.09 48.210033 16.363449   Wien AT: Wien
2022 amphetamine AT018 AT Wiener Neustadt 25.3 29.96 22.24 29.95 31.59 30.28 27.4 27.55 28.51 28.1 47.80279 16.23318   Wiener Neustadt AT: Wiener Neustadt
2022 amphetamine AT019 AT Wildon 17.99 16.53 13.86 16.6 18.23 15.19 15.47 16.66 15.97 16.27 46.885708 15.518532   Wildon AT: Wildon
2022 amphetamine BE002 BE Antwerp Zuid 434.92 790.31 521.83 311.25 425.45 714.6 476.57 567.27 493.28 524.99 51.2 4.39 Antwerpen-Zuid Antwerp Zuid BE: Antwerp Zuid
2022 amphetamine BE005 BE Brussels 69.35 65.36 63.07 68 208.73 52.55 340.81 158.51 98.09 123.98 50.86 4.36 Brussel-Noord Brussels BE: Brussels
2022 amphetamine CH001 CH Basel 40.02 37.96 39.16 56.53 39.21 39.49 68.61 48.87 43.6 45.85 47.56 7.59 ARA Basel Basel CH: Basel
2022 amphetamine CH002 CH Berne 55.87 55.89 69.79 71.17 64.12 63.36 56.9 56.22 67.11 62.44 46.83 7.62 ARA Bern Berne CH: Berne
2022 amphetamine CH003 CH Geneva 15.01 16.99 15.17 15.42 25.54 15.8 14.98 15.66 17.98 16.99 46.2 6.17 STEP SIG Geneva CH: Geneva
2022 amphetamine CH008 CH Zurich 54.6 45.51 51.97 55.36 60.88 49.73 52.79 50.97 54.48 52.98 47.37 8.51 Werdhölzli Zurich CH: Zurich
2022 amphetamine CY001 CY Agia Napa 26.68 19.24 3.64 10.77 2.19 8.78 16.33 20.75 6.34 12.52 34.9907544470418 33.9999814169353 Sewage treatment plant of Agia Napa-Paralimni Agia Napa CY: Agia Napa
2022 amphetamine CY002 CY Larnaca 1.66 2.49 1.35 1.04 3.74 0.41 2.3 2.15 1.64 1.86 34.9151643530411 33.6361988334665 Sewage Bioard of Larnaca Larnaca CY: Larnaca
2022 amphetamine CY003 CY Limassol 3.22 2.13 2.27 4.63 4.33 6.07 3.1 2.82 4.33 3.68 34.69 33.02 Sewerage Board of Limassol-Amathus (SBLA) Limassol CY: Limassol
2022 amphetamine CY005 CY Nicosia (2) 2.27 4.73 3.79 3.31 3.04 3.38 1.78 2.93 3.38 3.19 35.17 33.4 Sewage treatment plant of Pano Deftera (Anthoupoli)-Sewerage Board of Nicosia; Sewage treatment plant of Vathia Gonia-Sewerage Board of Nicosia Nicosia (2) CY: Nicosia (2)
2022 amphetamine CY007 CY Paphos 9.04 9.85 5.48 1.73 2.49 9.37 10.22 9.7 4.77 6.88 34.7758536275518 32.4215949998929 Sewage Borad of Pafos Paphos CY: Paphos
2022 amphetamine CZ001 CZ Brno 21.42 33.03 31.69 28.22 38.98 37.11 43.97 32.81 34 33.49 49.19506 16.606837 Waterworks and sewage of city Brno Brno CZ: Brno
2022 amphetamine CZ002 CZ České Budějovice 39.81 22.26 28.01 20.71 25.11 35.36 30.82 30.96 27.3 28.87 48.96 14.46 UCOV CB České Budějovice CZ: České Budějovice
2022 amphetamine CZ003 CZ Karlovy Vary 50.16 53.07 44.54 63.48 39.98 37.81 37.45 46.89 46.45 46.64 50.23204 12.87099 COV Karloy Vary Karlovy Vary CZ: Karlovy Vary
2022 amphetamine CZ004 CZ Ostrava 114.28 82.44 87.19 94.97 96.94 82.12 97.71 98.14 90.3 93.66 49.833864 18.281034 UCOV Ostrava Ostrava CZ: Ostrava
2022 amphetamine CZ005 CZ Prague (2) 77.51 74.37 63.61 75.17 78.28 82.91 69.97 73.95 74.99 74.54 50.08 14.43 UCOV Praha Prague (2) CZ: Prague (2)
2022 amphetamine DE001 DE Berlin (4) 142.86 145.28 191.58 175.2 237.77 230.72 162.55 151.16 209.69 185.87 52.52 13.4 Berlin 4 plants Berlin (4) DE: Berlin (4)
2022 amphetamine DE008 DE Chemnitz 23.22 24.5 35.01 20.59 29.56 37.42   23.86 30.64 28.38 50.827845 12.92137 Chemnitz Chemnitz DE: Chemnitz
2022 amphetamine DE009 DE Dortmund 187.6 211.08 187.81 163.83 213.56 186.86   199.34 188.02 191.79 51.52 7.46 Deusen Dortmund DE: Dortmund
2022 amphetamine DE010 DE Dresden 29.31 42.24 35.18 43.57 43.22 42.28 41.18 37.58 41.06 39.57 51.05089 13.73832 Dresden-Kaditz Dresden DE: Dresden
2022 amphetamine DE011 DE Dülmen 733.58 183.95 141.09 187.77 183.83   158.08 358.54 170.9 264.72 51.84 7.28 Dülmen Dülmen DE: Dülmen
2022 amphetamine DE012 DE Erfurt 71.11 68.45 38.65 63.23 69.34 53.44 33.88 57.81 56.17 56.87 50.984768 11.02988 Erfurt Erfurt DE: Erfurt
2022 amphetamine DE023 DE Magdeburg 113.28 162.88 125.97 147.69 161.06 166.7 150.05 142.07 150.35 146.8 52.120533 11.627624   Magdeburg DE: Magdeburg
2022 amphetamine DE026 DE Munich Gut Großlappen 33.58 28.93 30.07 32.21 39.35 29.91 27.63 30.05 32.89 31.67 48.14 11.58 Gut_Grosslappen Munich Gut Großlappen DE: Munich Gut Großlappen
2022 amphetamine DE028 DE Nuremberg 56.51 50.88 65.17 73.17 68.57 59.61 53.36 53.58 66.63 61.04 49.452102 11.076665 Nürnberg Nuremberg DE: Nuremberg
2022 amphetamine DE030 DE Saarbrücken (2) 404.98 334.87 266.23 322.78 357.77 419.63 414.26 384.7 341.6 360.08 49.240157 6.996933 Saarbrucken 2 plants Saarbrücken (2) DE: Saarbrücken (2)
2022 amphetamine DK001 DK Copenhagen 63.67 61.03 72.96 80.27 76.94 69.48 69.76 64.82 74.91 70.59 55.69 12.62 Lynetten Copenhagen DK: Copenhagen
2022 amphetamine EE001 EE Kohtla-Järve (2) 108.72 131.9 114.26 76.89 143.28 158.34 167.66 136.09 123.2 128.72 59.397474 27.279751   Kohtla-Järve (2) EE: Kohtla-Järve (2)
2022 amphetamine EE005 EE Tallinn 101.23 87.72 136.98 79.79 91.73 103.73 125.42 104.79 103.06 103.8 59.436962 24.753574   Tallinn EE: Tallinn
2022 amphetamine ES001 ES Barcelona 13.3 12.82 25.05 29.29 33.64 30.56 28.91 18.34 29.64 24.8 41.43 1.97 Baix Llobregat Barcelona ES: Barcelona
2022 amphetamine ES002 ES Castellon 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 40.23 -0.12 EDAR Castellón Castellon ES: Castellon
2022 amphetamine ES003 ES Lleida 20.56 19.84 21.14 35.43 37.28 25.44 19.12 19.84 29.83 25.55 41.617592 0.620015   Lleida ES: Lleida
2022 amphetamine ES006 ES Santiago 7.58 10.28 11.93 2.16 8.52 8.18 9.79 9.22 7.69 8.35 42.88 -8.54 Silvouta Santiago ES: Santiago
2022 amphetamine ES007 ES Tarragona 51.64 62.12 56.43 58.21 66.45 54.28 55.49 56.42 58.84 57.8 41.1190145116416 1.24570728603803 Tarragona Tarragona ES: Tarragona
2022 amphetamine FI001 FI Espoo 83.81 75.8 84.67 96.97 89.63 86.89 74.67 78.09 89.54 84.63 60.16 24.71 Suomenoja Espoo FI: Espoo
2022 amphetamine FI002 FI Hämeenlinna 66.12 68.16 70.8 84.01 75.4 66.96 64.53 66.27 74.29 70.86 60.99601 24.46423 Paroinen Hämeenlinna FI: Hämeenlinna
2022 amphetamine FI003 FI Helsinki 129.47 138.43 143.54 177.12 183.42 136.28 135.47 134.46 160.09 149.1 60.23 24.99 Viikinmäki Helsinki FI: Helsinki
2022 amphetamine FI004 FI Joensuu 62.43 64.86 58.66 73.07 76.24 75.18 60.69 62.66 70.79 67.3 62.58 29.73 Kuhasalo Joensuu FI: Joensuu
2022 amphetamine FI005 FI Jyväskylä 105.64 108.52 90.09 97.36 89.25 77.69 90.79 101.65 88.6 94.19 62.21 25.77 Nenäinniemi Jyväskylä FI: Jyväskylä
2022 amphetamine FI006 FI Kajaani 84.13 82.1 93.12 100.99 76.09 55.28 53.62 73.28 81.37 77.91 64.227 27.7285 Peuraniemi Kajaani FI: Kajaani
2022 amphetamine FI007 FI Kemi 80.2 70.58 103.57 130.85 160.2 105.21 106.5 85.76 124.96 108.16 65.73609 24.56363 Peurasaari Kemi FI: Kemi
2022 amphetamine FI008 FI Kokkola 64.91 53.58 55.27 63.18 60.42 67.13 62.97 60.48 61.5 61.06 63.83848 23.13048 Hopeakivenlahti Kokkola FI: Kokkola
2022 amphetamine FI009 FI Kotka 160.48 181.93 183.75 198.31 189.6 162.79 160.05 167.49 183.61 176.7 60.45 26.89 Mussalo Kotka FI: Kotka
2022 amphetamine FI010 FI Kouvola 150.38 160.57 182.21 250.09 214.6 158.52 141.12 150.69 201.36 179.64 60.8679 26.70405 Mäkikylä Kouvola FI: Kouvola
2022 amphetamine FI011 FI Kuopio 93.56 92.85 89.66 101.34 140.54 85.17 80.42 88.95 104.18 97.65 62.96 27.01 Lehtoniemi Kuopio FI: Kuopio
2022 amphetamine FI012 FI Lahti 147.5 176.19 174.57 183.22 131.24 154.54 148.63 157.44 160.89 159.41 60.99 25.65 Kariniemi Lahti FI: Lahti
2022 amphetamine FI013 FI Lappeenranta 125.38 137.08 135.92 161.57 137 112.23 113.23 125.23 136.68 131.77 60.93 27.3 Toikansuo Lappeenranta FI: Lappeenranta
2022 amphetamine FI014 FI Mariehamn 58.71 61.5 60.81 89.94 78.75 64.57 54.57 58.26 73.52 66.98 60.09693 19.93482 Lotsbroverket Mariehamn FI: Mariehamn
2022 amphetamine FI015 FI Mikkeli 64.86 70.8 72.09 68.7 79.87 57.07 61.52 65.73 69.43 67.84 61.68852 27.27217 Kenkäveronniemi Mikkeli FI: Mikkeli
2022 amphetamine FI016 FI Oulu 48.5 36.56 45.22 50.34 64.48 48.83 55.92 46.99 52.22 49.98 65.05 25.41 Taskila Oulu FI: Oulu
2022 amphetamine FI017 FI Pietarsaari 15.88 14.14 18.09 17.28 15.59 15.51 21.05 17.02 16.62 16.79 63.67486 22.70256 Alheda Pietarsaari FI: Pietarsaari
2022 amphetamine FI018 FI Pori 53.91 61.43 65.36 63.46 62.27 61.3 59.23 58.19 63.1 60.99 61.48519 21.79746 Luotsinmäki Pori FI: Pori
2022 amphetamine FI019 FI Rauma 41.98 38.19 46.63 73.1 66.55 43.31 153.11 77.76 57.4 66.12 61.12724 21.51127 Maanpäänniemi Rauma FI: Rauma
2022 amphetamine FI020 FI Rovaniemi 72.75 76.02 82.57 91.98 98.53 70.18 60.12 69.63 85.82 78.88 66.5 25.72 Alakorkalo Rovaniemi FI: Rovaniemi
2022 amphetamine FI021 FI Salo 30.2 33.87 34.16 30.03 22.91 21.78 32.29 32.12 27.22 29.32 60.38333 23.13333 Salo Salo FI: Salo
2022 amphetamine FI022 FI Savonlinna 34.8 32.39 61.99 60.91 54.03 44.18 57.67 41.62 55.28 49.42 61.86 28.85 Pihlajaniemi Savonlinna FI: Savonlinna
2022 amphetamine FI023 FI Seinäjoki 24.14 33.49 33.99 28.99 37.45 39.33 146.62 68.08 34.94 49.15 62.79446 22.82822 Seinäjoki Seinäjoki FI: Seinäjoki
2022 amphetamine FI024 FI Tampere 69.03 81.93 91.37 105.14 68.53 63.08 64.79 71.91 82.03 77.69 61.49 23.77 Viinikanlahti Tampere FI: Tampere
2022 amphetamine FI025 FI Turku 66.18 68.55 67.91 74.21 79.6 59.49 62.76 65.83 70.3 68.39 60.44 22.24 Kakolanmäki Turku FI: Turku
2022 amphetamine FI026 FI Vaasa 46.75 55.51 61.73 69.87 62.99 48.87 54.53 52.26 60.86 57.18 63.1 21.62 Patt Vaasa FI: Vaasa
2022 amphetamine FI027 FI Vihti 31.48 74.63 73.33 94.34 97.29 95.98 48.61 51.58 90.23 73.67 60.41699 24.31965 Nummela Vihti FI: Vihti
2022 amphetamine GB001 GB Bristol     28.34 26.42         27.24 27.24 51.503457 -2.698444 Avonmouth Bristol GB: Bristol
2022 amphetamine GR001 GR Athens 4.89 3.61 4.12 6.25 5.34 4.75 5.58 4.69 5.11 4.93 37.9928017 23.7658005 City of Athens WWTP Athens GR: Athens
2022 amphetamine HR001 HR Zagreb 85.47 62.52 156.14 105.15 110.94 104.08 74.33 74.11 119.08 99.81 45.7929993 15.9463997 Central wastewater treatment plant of the city of Zagreb Zagreb HR: Zagreb
2022 amphetamine IT001 IT Bozen 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 46.49672 11.358 Kläranlage Bozen Bozen IT: Bozen
2022 amphetamine IT002 IT Milan 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 45.4337997 9.2213602 Nosedo Milan IT: Milan
2022 amphetamine LT001 LT Kaunas 94.91 624.52 119.94 105.02 126.75 94.86 41.41 253.61 111.64 172.49 54.89687 23.89243 Kaunas Kaunas LT: Kaunas
2022 amphetamine LT002 LT Klaipeda 9.9 12.48 13.88 9.08 10.67 13.21 9.7 10.69 11.71 11.28 55.78282 21.49279 Klaipeda Klaipeda LT: Klaipeda
2022 amphetamine LT003 LT Vilnius 70.67 80 79.77 106.28 85.79 74.01 68.37 73.02 86.47 80.7 54.687156 25.279651 Vilniaus vandenys Vilnius LT: Vilnius
2022 amphetamine LV001 LV Riga 106.91 91.53 102.09 107.43 123.92 124 89.39 95.94 114.36 106.47 56.94965 24.105186 Riga Riga LV: Riga
2022 amphetamine NL001 NL Amsterdam 137.44 122.94 127.27 128.67 157.85 139.21 228.24 162.87 138.25 148.8 52.375 4.8666668 RWZI Amsterdam-WEST Amsterdam NL: Amsterdam
2022 amphetamine NL005 NL Utrecht 192.45 179.29 269.41 234.05 213.16 270.05 194.09 188.61 246.67 221.78 52.0858002 5.1308398 RWZI Utrecht Utrecht NL: Utrecht
2022 amphetamine PL003 PL Krakow P 26.8 45.8 34.82 42 37.89 39.59 31.86 34.82 38.57 36.97 50.06 19.94 Krakow Plaszow Krakow P PL: Krakow P
2022 amphetamine PT001 PT Almada 7.91 3.42 2.56 7.68 6.44 5.54 3.26 4.87 5.56 5.26 38.675187 -9.154345 Mutela Almada PT: Almada
2022 amphetamine PT002 PT Lisbon 14.83 14.23 14.77 13.87 18.21 14.77 13.08 14.05 15.41 14.82 38.7044907 -9.1754999 Alcântara Lisbon PT: Lisbon
2022 amphetamine PT003 PT Porto 7.59 6.81 5.44 4.55 9.08 6.8 10.57 8.32 6.47 7.26 41.157944 -8.629105   Porto PT: Porto
2022 amphetamine SE001 SE Gävle 866.67 791 878.2 982.04 763.25 928.81 903.44 853.7 888.08 873.35 60.674622 17.14183 Duvbacken Gävle SE: Gävle
2022 amphetamine SE003 SE Sandviken   671.23 600.93 744.83 754.76 759.07 643.42 657.32 714.9 695.71 60.61667 16.76667 Hedåsen ARV Sandviken SE: Sandviken
2022 amphetamine SE004 SE Söderhamn 191.56 152.69 152.47 178.34 155.02 151.18 96.7 146.99 159.26 154 61.30373 17.05921 Granskär ARV Söderhamn SE: Söderhamn
2022 amphetamine SI001 SI Domžale-Kamnik 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 46.13788 14.59384 Domžale-Kamnik Domžale-Kamnik SI: Domžale-Kamnik
2022 amphetamine SI002 SI Koper 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 45.548058 13.730188 Central wastewater treatment plant Koper Koper SI: Koper
2022 amphetamine SI003 SI Kranj 4.67 4.08 4.05 9.57 9.24 6.36 5.1 4.62 7.31 6.15 46.242834 14.355542   Kranj SI: Kranj
2022 amphetamine SI004 SI Ljubljana 16.52 19.58 16.07 17.42 17.5 28.36 21.17 19.09 19.84 19.52 46.056947 14.505751 Central wastewater treatment plant Ljubljana Ljubljana SI: Ljubljana
2022 amphetamine SI005 SI Maribor 19.95 19.54 19.84 27.85 20.6 19.35 14.57 18.02 21.91 20.24 46.55734 15.64591 Maribor Maribor SI: Maribor
2022 amphetamine SI006 SI Novo mesto 2.23 2.25 2.36 2.33 17.6 11.17 7.85 4.11 8.37 6.54 45.804211 15.16969 Wastewater treatment plant Novo mesto Novo mesto SI: Novo mesto
2022 amphetamine SI007 SI Velenje 60.41 57.26 58.13 68.62 68.86 90.06 53.04 56.91 71.42 65.2 46.362274 15.110658 Central wastewater treatment plant Šaleške Doline (Šalek Valley) Velenje SI: Velenje
2022 amphetamine SK002 SK Bratislava C 15.11 26.78 19.5 26.55 23.92 21.76 17.89 19.93 22.93 21.64 48.14925 17.106991 Central Bratislava C SK: Bratislava C
2022 amphetamine SK004 SK Piestany 0.16 12.21 0.19 21.98 20.26 0.17 0.17 4.18 10.65 7.88 48.5918007 17.8019009   Piestany SK: Piestany
2022 amphetamine TR003 TR Istanbul (II-VII) 12.96 15.47 11.03 12.74 13.3 14.75 13.31 13.91 12.95 13.37 41.013 28.9748 Istanbul (II-VII) Istanbul (II-VII) TR: Istanbul (II-VII)

Source table for Figure 9

Changes in the mean weekly amphetamine metabolites from wastewater analyses in selected European cities between 2021 and 2022
Country City Metabolite Current measurement (mg/1000p/day) Previous measurement (mg/1000p/day) Year currernt measurement Year Previous measurement Percentage change Change evaluationo SiteID latitude longitude Population served by facility Institution
CY Agia Napa amphetamine 12.52 12.65 2022 2021 -1.027667984 stable CY001 34.99075444704176 33.99998142 48201 Nireas IWRC
PT Almada amphetamine 5.26 3.47 2022 2021 51.58501441 increase PT001 38.675187 -9.154345 138685 INMLCF
NL Amsterdam amphetamine 148.8 146.77 2022 2021 1.383116441 stable NL001 52.375 4.8666668 669917 KWR
BE Antwerp Zuid amphetamine 524.99 426.1 2022 2021 23.2081671 increase BE002 51.2 4.39 130218 Toxicological Centre
GR Athens amphetamine 4.93 12.13 2022 2021 -59.3569662 decrease GR001 37.9928017 23.7658005 3700000 National and Kapodistrian University of Athens
ES Barcelona amphetamine 24.8 29.42 2022 2021 -15.70360299 decrease ES001 41.43 1.97 1185619 IDAEA-CSIC
CH Basel amphetamine 45.85 39.77 2022 2021 15.28790546 increase CH001 47.56 7.59 273075 Ecole des Sciences Criminelles, University of Lausanne
DE Berlin (4) amphetamine 185.87 144.28 2022 2018 28.82589409 increase DE001 52.52 13.4 3993500 IFT Institut für Therapieforschung
CH Berne amphetamine 62.44 58.39 2022 2021 6.936119198 stable CH002 46.83 7.62 224557 Ecole des Sciences Criminelles, University of Lausanne
IT Bozen amphetamine 0 5.68 2022 2021 -100 decrease IT001 46.49672 11.358 282747 Medical University Innsbruck
SK Bratislava C amphetamine 21.64 12.83 2022 2021 68.66718628 increase SK002 48.14925 17.106991 450000 FFPW, USB
GB Bristol amphetamine 27.24 31.41 2022 2021 -13.27602674 decrease GB001 51.503457 -2.698444 890154 University of Bath
CZ Brno amphetamine 33.49 47.06 2022 2021 -28.83552911 decrease CZ001 49.19506 16.606837 445000 FFPW, USB
BE Brussels amphetamine 123.98 75.58 2022 2021 64.03810532 increase BE005 50.86 4.36 953987 Toxicological Centre
CZ České Budějovice amphetamine 28.87 26.34 2022 2021 9.60516325 stable CZ002 48.96 14.46 110000 FFPW, USB
ES Castellon amphetamine 0 0 2022 2020              
DE Chemnitz amphetamine 28.38 19.73 2022 2020 43.84186518 increase DE008 50.827845 12.92137 239402 Clinical Pharmacology TU Dresden
DK Copenhagen amphetamine 70.59 91.51 2022 2021 -22.86088952 decrease DK001 55.69 12.62 685000 Department of forensic medicine, University of Copenhagen
SI Domžale-Kamnik amphetamine 0 0 2022 2021              
DE Dortmund amphetamine 191.79 143.13 2022 2020 33.9970656 increase DE009 51.52 7.46 399700 Clinical Pharmacology TU Dresden
DE Dresden amphetamine 39.57 28.32 2022 2020 39.72457627 increase DE010 51.05089 13.73832 671806 Clinical Pharmacology TU Dresden
DE Dülmen amphetamine 264.72 142.01 2022 2020 86.40940779 increase DE011 51.84 7.28 34733 Clinical Pharmacology TU Dresden
DE Erfurt amphetamine 56.87 44.31 2022 2020 28.34574588 increase DE012 50.984768 11.02988 215323 Clinical Pharmacology TU Dresden
FI Espoo amphetamine 84.63 195.07 2022 2021 -56.6155739 decrease FI001 60.16 24.71 390000 Forensic Chemistry Unit / Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare
SE Gävle amphetamine 873.35 411.35 2022 2021 112.3131154 increase SE001 60.674622 17.14183 90114 RISE
CH Geneva amphetamine 16.99 12.25 2022 2021 38.69387755 increase CH003 46.2 6.17 454433 Ecole des Sciences Criminelles, University of Lausanne
AT Graz amphetamine 24.46 38.57 2022 2021 -36.5828364 decrease AT001 47.070713 15.439504 475333 Medical University Innsbruck
AT Hall-Wattens amphetamine 10.42 6.97 2022 2021 49.49784792 increase AT002 47.29168 11.59284 70353 Medical University Innsbruck
FI Hämeenlinna amphetamine 70.86 120.85 2022 2020 -41.36532892 decrease FI002 60.99601 24.46423 67000 Forensic Chemistry Unit / Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare
FI Helsinki amphetamine 149.1 315.53 2022 2021 -52.74617311 decrease FI003 60.23 24.99 860000 Forensic Chemistry Unit / Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare
AT Innsbruck amphetamine 13.62 22.02 2022 2021 -38.14713896 decrease AT004 47.269212 11.404102 266478 Medical University Innsbruck
TR Istanbul (II-VII) amphetamine 13.37 12.21 2022 2021 9.5004095 stable TR003 41.013 28.9748 16525000 Forensic Toxicology Labs. Institute of Forensic Sciences and Legal Medicine, Istanbul University-Cerrahpasa
FI Joensuu amphetamine 67.3 133.61 2022 2020 -49.62951875 decrease FI004 62.58 29.73 82667 Forensic Chemistry Unit / Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare
FI Jyväskylä amphetamine 94.19 96.09 2022 2020 -1.977312936 stable FI005 62.21 25.77 155000 National Institute for Health and Welfare (THL)
FI Kajaani amphetamine 77.91 51.8 2022 2020 50.40540541 increase FI006 64.227 27.7285 33714 Forensic Chemistry Unit / Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare
AT Kapfenberg amphetamine 24.41 29.46 2022 2021 -17.1418873 decrease AT005 47.443562 15.2901 37058 Medical University Innsbruck
CZ Karlovy Vary amphetamine 46.64 33.83 2022 2021 37.86579959 increase CZ003 50.23204 12.87099 67544 T. G. Masaryk Water Resesrch institute, p. r. i., Prague
LT Kaunas amphetamine 172.49 58.12 2022 2021 196.7825189 increase LT001 54.89687 23.89243 291333 Toxicological Centre
FI Kemi amphetamine 108.16 265 2022 2020 -59.18490566 decrease FI007 65.73609 24.56363 25000 Forensic Chemistry Unit / Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare
AT Klagenfurt amphetamine 8.87   2022     no previous data AT006     207812 Medical University Innsbruck
LT Klaipeda amphetamine 11.28 42.85 2022 2021 -73.6756126 decrease LT002 55.78282 21.49279 387400 Toxicological Centre
FI Kokkola amphetamine 61.06 30.65 2022 2020 99.21696574 increase FI008 63.83848 23.13048 36000 Forensic Chemistry Unit / Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare
SI Koper amphetamine 0 0 2022 2021              
FI Kotka amphetamine 176.7 193.19 2022 2020 -8.535638491 stable FI009 60.45 26.89 72500 Forensic Chemistry Unit / Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare
FI Kouvola amphetamine 179.64 238.7 2022 2020 -24.74235442 decrease FI010 60.8679 26.70405 70000 National Institute for Health and Welfare (THL)
PL Krakow P amphetamine 36.97 100.28 2022 2021 -63.13322696 decrease PL003 50.06 19.94 680000 Istituto Mario Negri
AT Kufstein amphetamine 11.78 19.8 2022 2021 -40.50505051 decrease AT010 47.582958 12.17077 44537 Medical University Innsbruck
FI Kuopio amphetamine 97.65 190.48 2022 2020 -48.7347753 decrease FI011 62.96 27.01 90697 Forensic Chemistry Unit / Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare
FI Lahti amphetamine 159.41 342.78 2022 2020 -53.49495303 decrease FI012 60.99 25.65 63000 Forensic Chemistry Unit / Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare
FI Lappeenranta amphetamine 131.77 86.31 2022 2020 52.67060596 increase FI013 60.93 27.3 60000 Forensic Chemistry Unit / Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare
CY Larnaca amphetamine 1.86 5.59 2022 2021 -66.72629696 decrease CY002 34.915164353041064 33.63619883 92442 Nireas IWRC
CY Limassol amphetamine 3.68 7.26 2022 2021 -49.31129477 decrease CY003 34.69 33.02 239936 Nireas IWRC
PT Lisbon amphetamine 14.82 5.66 2022 2021 161.8374558 increase PT002 38.7044907 -9.1754999 426964 INMLCF
SI Ljubljana amphetamine 19.52 6.78 2022 2021 187.9056047 increase SI004 46.056947 14.505751 270305 Jožef Stefan Institute, Environmental department, Laboratory for organic analysis
DE Magdeburg amphetamine 146.8 114.45 2022 2020 28.26561817 increase DE023 52.120533 11.627624 278000 Clinical Pharmacology TU Dresden
SI Maribor amphetamine 20.24 0 2022 2021              
FI Mariehamn amphetamine 66.98 18.4 2022 2020 264.0217391 increase FI014 60.09693 19.93482 20000 Forensic Chemistry Unit / Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare
FI Mikkeli amphetamine 67.84 126.83 2022 2020 -46.51107782 decrease FI015 61.68852 27.27217 48626 Forensic Chemistry Unit / Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare
IT Milan amphetamine 0 0 2022 2021              
DE Munich Gut Großlappen amphetamine 31.67 14.14 2022 2020 123.9745403 increase DE026 48.14 11.58 1156000 Clinical Pharmacology TU Dresden
CY Nicosia (2) amphetamine 3.19 4.14 2022 2021 -22.9468599 decrease CY005 35.17 33.4 94602  
SI Novo mesto amphetamine 6.54 28.71 2022 2021 -77.22048067 decrease SI006 45.804211 15.16969 25414 Jožef Stefan Institute, Environmental department, Laboratory for organic analysis
DE Nuremberg amphetamine 61.04 33.18 2022 2020 83.96624473 increase DE028 49.452102 11.076665 445593 Clinical Pharmacology TU Dresden
CZ Ostrava amphetamine 93.66 76.77 2022 2021 22.00078156 increase CZ004 49.833864 18.281034 250000 T. G. Masaryk Water Resesrch institute, p. r. i., Prague
FI Oulu amphetamine 49.98 106.73 2022 2020 -53.17155439 decrease FI016 65.05 25.41 200526 Forensic Chemistry Unit / Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare
CY Paphos amphetamine 6.88 4.22 2022 2021 63.03317536 increase CY007 34.775853627551825 32.421595 132836 Nireas IWRC
SK Piestany amphetamine 7.88 11.45 2022 2021 -31.1790393 decrease SK004 48.5918007 17.8019009 30000 FFPW, USB
FI Pietarsaari amphetamine 16.79 27.96 2022 2020 -39.94992847 decrease FI017 63.67486 22.70256 41100 Forensic Chemistry Unit / Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare
FI Pori amphetamine 60.99 78.45 2022 2020 -22.25621415 decrease FI018 61.48519 21.79746 114000 Forensic Chemistry Unit / Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare
PT Porto amphetamine 7.26 0 2022 2021              
CZ Prague (2) amphetamine 74.54 40.07 2022 2021 86.0244572 increase CZ005 50.08 14.43 1212000 South Bohemian Research Center of Aquaculture and Biodiversity of Hydrocenoses, University of South Bohemia in Ceske Budejovice
AT Purgstall amphetamine 30.06 23.44 2022 2021 28.24232082 increase AT013 48.057812 15.13545 8681 Medical University Innsbruck
FI Rauma amphetamine 66.12 61.17 2022 2020 8.09220206 stable FI019 61.12724 21.51127 40000 Forensic Chemistry Unit / Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare
AT Region Millstättersee amphetamine 1.74 4.94 2022 2021 -64.77732794 decrease AT011 46.81924 13.52146 60745 Medical University Innsbruck
LV Riga amphetamine 106.47 40.96 2022 2021 159.9365234 increase LV001 56.94965 24.105186 619703 Toxicological Centre
FI Rovaniemi amphetamine 78.88 170.03 2022 2020 -53.60818679 decrease FI020 66.5 25.72 55000 Forensic Chemistry Unit / Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare
DE Saarbrücken (2) amphetamine 360.08 288.32 2022 2020 24.88901221 increase DE030 49.240157 6.996933 203643 IFT Institut für Therapieforschung
FI Salo amphetamine 29.32 165.05 2022 2020 -82.23568616 decrease FI021 60.38333 23.13333 34400 Forensic Chemistry Unit / Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare
SE Sandviken amphetamine 695.71 503.04 2022 2021 38.30112913 increase SE003 60.61667 16.76667 27000 RISE
ES Santiago amphetamine 8.35 14.46 2022 2021 -42.25449516 decrease ES006 42.88 -8.54 136500 IAQBUS
FI Savonlinna amphetamine 49.42 40.75 2022 2020 21.27607362 increase FI022 61.86 28.85 24000 Forensic Chemistry Unit / Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare
FI Seinäjoki amphetamine 49.15 53.87 2022 2020 -8.761834045 stable FI023 62.79446 22.82822 55000 Forensic Chemistry Unit / Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare
SE Söderhamn amphetamine 154 442.95 2022 2021 -65.23309629 decrease SE004 61.30373 17.05921 75512 RISE
AT Strass im Zillertal amphetamine 12.93 13.1 2022 2021 -1.297709924 stable AT016 47.395748 11.82211 123102 Medical University Innsbruck
FI Tampere amphetamine 77.69 155.12 2022 2021 -49.91619391 decrease FI024 61.49 23.77 200000 Forensic Chemistry Unit / Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare
ES Tarragona amphetamine 57.8 31.28 2022 2021 84.7826087 increase ES007 41.11901451164164 1.245707286 115567 URV
FI Turku amphetamine 68.39 195.64 2022 2021 -65.042936 decrease FI025 60.44 22.24 300000 Forensic Chemistry Unit / Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare
NL Utrecht amphetamine 221.78 236.8 2022 2021 -6.342905405 stable NL005 52.0858002 5.1308398 267739 KWR
FI Vaasa amphetamine 57.18 178.68 2022 2020 -67.99865682 decrease FI026 63.1 21.62 69252 Forensic Chemistry Unit / Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare
SI Velenje amphetamine 65.2 84.66 2022 2021 -22.98606189 decrease SI007 46.362274 15.110658 32583 Jožef Stefan Institute, Environmental department, Laboratory for organic analysis
FI Vihti amphetamine 73.67 158.56 2022 2020 -53.53809284 decrease FI027 60.41699 24.31965 17500 Forensic Chemistry Unit / Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare
LT Vilnius amphetamine 80.7 70.02 2022 2021 15.25278492 increase LT003 54.687156 25.279651 576727 Toxicological Centre
AT Wasserverband Hofsteig amphetamine 15.41 26.32 2022 2021 -41.45136778 decrease AT003 47.4852 9.6762 99818 Medical University Innsbruck
HR Zagreb amphetamine 99.81 151.41 2022 2021 -34.07965128 decrease HR001 45.7929993 15.9463997 650000 Laboratory for analytical chemistry and biogeochemistry of organic compounds
CH Zurich amphetamine 52.98 54.7 2022 2021 -3.144424132 stable CH008 47.37 8.51 471275 Ecole des Sciences Criminelles, University of Lausanne

Source table for Figure 10

Relative geographical distribution of methamphetamine residues as detected in European cities, 2022 (daily mean)
Year Metabolite Site ID Country City Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday Sunday Monday Tuesday Weekday mean Weekend mean Daily mean Latitude Longitude Location City Country: City
2022 methamphetamine AT001 AT Graz 7.94 6.62 6.82 6.48 7.99 7.79 9.02 7.86 7.27 7.52 47.070713 15.439504 ARA Graz Graz AT: Graz
2022 methamphetamine AT002 AT Hall-Wattens 6.12 4.01 3.04 5.51 7.94 7.82 4.49 4.88 6.08 5.56 47.29168 11.59284 Abwasserverband Hall in Tirol-Fritzens Hall-Wattens AT: Hall-Wattens
2022 methamphetamine AT004 AT Innsbruck 12.24 11.5 11.12 16.83 15.68 15.47 12.92 12.22 14.77 13.68 47.269212 11.404102 ARA-Innsbruck Innsbruck AT: Innsbruck
2022 methamphetamine AT005 AT Kapfenberg 2.82 1.85 2.64 1.82 2.28 2.64 3.97 2.88 2.35 2.58 47.443562 15.2901 Kläranlage Kapfenberg Kapfenberg AT: Kapfenberg
2022 methamphetamine AT006 AT Klagenfurt 1.48 1.47 1.66 1.91 1.32 2.11 1.48 1.48 1.75 1.63 46.6357 14.311817   Klagenfurt AT: Klagenfurt
2022 methamphetamine AT008 AT Knittelfeld 0.52 1.36 0.65 1.18 0.52 0.54 0.51 0.8 0.72 0.76 47.21595 14.82719   Knittelfeld AT: Knittelfeld
2022 methamphetamine AT009 AT Korneuburg 5.31 3.91 0.59 1.47 1.25 1.4 3.14 4.12 1.18 2.44 48.34472 16.33149   Korneuburg AT: Korneuburg
2022 methamphetamine AT010 AT Kufstein 2.89 3.29 2.15 2.71 1.57 1.28 0.51 2.23 1.93 2.06 47.582958 12.17077 Abwasserverband Kufstein Kufstein AT: Kufstein
2022 methamphetamine AT013 AT Purgstall 0.88 0.74 0.8 3.48 8.91 0.61 8.04 3.22 3.45 3.35 48.057812 15.13545 GAV Erlauftal Purgstall AT: Purgstall
2022 methamphetamine AT011 AT Region Millstättersee 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 46.81924 13.52146 Wasserverband Millstaettersee Region Millstättersee AT: Region Millstättersee
2022 methamphetamine AT014 AT Salzburg 1.64 1.88 3.31 2.15 2.48 2.1 2.01 1.85 2.51 2.22 47.811195 13.033229   Salzburg AT: Salzburg
2022 methamphetamine AT015 AT Steyr 28.91 14.64 21.82 40.64 30.41 19.47 16.86 20.14 28.08 24.68 48.05009 14.41827   Steyr AT: Steyr
2022 methamphetamine AT016 AT Strass im Zillertal 9.46 7.34 11.79 13.86 12.13 9.49 11.2 9.34 11.82 10.75 47.395748 11.82211 AIZ Abwasserverband Strass im Zillertal AT: Strass im Zillertal
2022 methamphetamine AT003 AT Wasserverband Hofsteig 5.86 3.29 3.26 2.84 2.98 3.14 2.29 3.81 3.05 3.38 47.4852 9.6762 ARA Hofsteig Wasserverband Hofsteig AT: Wasserverband Hofsteig
2022 methamphetamine AT017 AT Wien 25.72 25.79 28.72 30.72 28.9 27.66 28.82 26.78 29 28.05 48.210033 16.363449   Wien AT: Wien
2022 methamphetamine AT018 AT Wiener Neustadt 34.81 35.28 28.42 28.09 30.17 31.76 28.7 32.93 29.61 31.03 47.80279 16.23318   Wiener Neustadt AT: Wiener Neustadt
2022 methamphetamine AT019 AT Wildon 6.15 6.17 5.25 6.09 7.91 7.2 8.03 6.78 6.61 6.69 46.885708 15.518532   Wildon AT: Wildon
2022 methamphetamine BE002 BE Antwerp Zuid 43.14 86.94 49.16 27.23 33.66 74.21 48.74 59.61 46.06 51.87 51.2 4.39 Antwerpen-Zuid Antwerp Zuid BE: Antwerp Zuid
2022 methamphetamine BE005 BE Brussels 31.6 29.08 23 28.35 29.07 24.32 28.66 29.78 26.19 27.73 50.86 4.36 Brussel-Noord Brussels BE: Brussels
2022 methamphetamine CH001 CH Basel 30.19 35.85 31.1 39.09 33.48 33.49 38.28 34.78 34.29 34.5 47.56 7.59 ARA Basel Basel CH: Basel
2022 methamphetamine CH002 CH Berne 29.64 28.09 31.35 25.74 25.58 25.99 33.69 30.47 27.16 28.58 46.83 7.62 ARA Bern Berne CH: Berne
2022 methamphetamine CH003 CH Geneva 11.25 9.71 13.88 11.57 11.89 9.3 8.85 9.94 11.66 10.92 46.2 6.17 STEP SIG Geneva CH: Geneva
2022 methamphetamine CH008 CH Zurich 92.56 65.93 65.12 66.99 69.62 76.88 63.35 73.95 69.65 71.49 47.37 8.51 Werdhölzli Zurich CH: Zurich
2022 methamphetamine CY001 CY Agia Napa 16.41 2.4 2.83 2.28 4.18 3.76 4.36 7.72 3.26 5.17 34.9907544470418 33.9999814169353 Sewage treatment plant of Agia Napa-Paralimni Agia Napa CY: Agia Napa
2022 methamphetamine CY002 CY Larnaca 31.82 7.7 2.48 9.8 21.91 271.8 57.36 32.29 76.5 57.55 34.9151643530411 33.6361988334665 Sewage Bioard of Larnaca Larnaca CY: Larnaca
2022 methamphetamine CY003 CY Limassol 82.52 54.44 16.55 15.95 43.46 38.09 18.84 51.94 28.51 38.55 34.69 33.02 Sewerage Board of Limassol-Amathus (SBLA) Limassol CY: Limassol
2022 methamphetamine CY005 CY Nicosia (2) 26.73 23.48 21.33 15.95 24.47 18.36 10.29 20.17 20.03 20.09 35.17 33.4 Sewage treatment plant of Pano Deftera (Anthoupoli)-Sewerage Board of Nicosia; Sewage treatment plant of Vathia Gonia-Sewerage Board of Nicosia Nicosia (2) CY: Nicosia (2)
2022 methamphetamine CY007 CY Paphos 12.74 17.15 17.7 18.66 15.81 15.01 18.62 16.17 16.79 16.53 34.7758536275518 32.4215949998929 Sewage Borad of Pafos Paphos CY: Paphos
2022 methamphetamine CZ003 CZ Karlovy Vary 429.91 476.25 526.04 709.46 350.88 373.41 350.01 418.72 489.95 459.42 50.23204 12.87099 COV Karloy Vary Karlovy Vary CZ: Karlovy Vary
2022 methamphetamine CZ004 CZ Ostrava 921.76 951.99 869.36 890.66 1008.94 808.85 951.34 941.7 894.45 914.7 49.833864 18.281034 UCOV Ostrava Ostrava CZ: Ostrava
2022 methamphetamine CZ005 CZ Prague (2) 653.02 625.23 571.42 600.68 728.21 631.29 590.7 622.98 632.9 628.65 50.08 14.43 UCOV Praha Prague (2) CZ: Prague (2)
2022 methamphetamine DE001 DE Berlin (4) 30.96 27.67 34.14 32.82 40.73 21.23 31.61 29.97 31 30.58 52.52 13.4 Berlin 4 plants Berlin (4) DE: Berlin (4)
2022 methamphetamine DE008 DE Chemnitz 224.09 245.88 376.02 224.41 240.2 366.3   234.99 301.73 279.49 50.827845 12.92137 Chemnitz Chemnitz DE: Chemnitz
2022 methamphetamine DE009 DE Dortmund 1.27 9.51 2.11 2.47 1.55 2.37   5.39 2.13 3.22 51.52 7.46 Deusen Dortmund DE: Dortmund
2022 methamphetamine DE010 DE Dresden 222.64 282.15 269.29 298.94 241.23 287.65 266.81 257.2 274.28 266.96 51.05089 13.73832 Dresden-Kaditz Dresden DE: Dresden
2022 methamphetamine DE011 DE Dülmen 0 0 0 0 0   0 0 0 0 51.84 7.28 Dülmen Dülmen DE: Dülmen
2022 methamphetamine DE012 DE Erfurt 216.9 280.46 170.74 253.41 255.84 242.39 165.13 220.83 230.59 226.41 50.984768 11.02988 Erfurt Erfurt DE: Erfurt
2022 methamphetamine DE023 DE Magdeburg 125.72 163.44 118.18 144.96 179.62 168.38 165.29 151.48 152.78 152.23 52.120533 11.627624   Magdeburg DE: Magdeburg
2022 methamphetamine DE026 DE Munich Gut Großlappen 14.77 14.08 12.21 14.23 15.95 15.59 11.88 13.58 14.49 14.1 48.14 11.58 Gut_Grosslappen Munich Gut Großlappen DE: Munich Gut Großlappen
2022 methamphetamine DE028 DE Nuremberg 110.85 117.7 181.17 136.59 130.85 122.29 127.4 118.65 142.72 132.41 49.452102 11.076665 Nürnberg Nuremberg DE: Nuremberg
2022 methamphetamine DE030 DE Saarbrücken (2) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 49.240157 6.996933 Saarbrucken 2 plants Saarbrücken (2) DE: Saarbrücken (2)
2022 methamphetamine DK001 DK Copenhagen 22.27 21.42 25.38 29.63 29.45 25.23 23.05 22.25 27.42 25.2 55.69 12.62 Lynetten Copenhagen DK: Copenhagen
2022 methamphetamine EE001 EE Kohtla-Järve (2) 2.58 2.35 2.77 1.57 1.85 2.37 4.1 3.01 2.14 2.51 59.397474 27.279751   Kohtla-Järve (2) EE: Kohtla-Järve (2)
2022 methamphetamine EE005 EE Tallinn 23.08 24.5 33.15 20.95 28.74 34.64 26.82 24.8 29.37 27.41 59.436962 24.753574   Tallinn EE: Tallinn
2022 methamphetamine ES001 ES Barcelona 41.42 41.97 57.64 69.08 63.08 58.62 60.79 48.06 62.11 56.09 41.43 1.97 Baix Llobregat Barcelona ES: Barcelona
2022 methamphetamine ES002 ES Castellon 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 40.23 -0.12 EDAR Castellón Castellon ES: Castellon
2022 methamphetamine ES003 ES Lleida 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 41.617592 0.620015   Lleida ES: Lleida
2022 methamphetamine ES006 ES Santiago 1.18 4.28 1.1 1.08 1.01 1.02 1.22 2.23 1.05 1.56 42.88 -8.54 Silvouta Santiago ES: Santiago
2022 methamphetamine ES007 ES Tarragona 9.04 9.21 10.81 8.2 8.02 10.25 8.35 8.86 9.32 9.12 41.1190145116416 1.24570728603803 Tarragona Tarragona ES: Tarragona
2022 methamphetamine FI001 FI Espoo 28.32 29.44 29.33 33.58 33.04 31.44 32.12 29.96 31.85 31.04 60.16 24.71 Suomenoja Espoo FI: Espoo
2022 methamphetamine FI002 FI Hämeenlinna 3.86 7.97 6.27 12.12 12.97 6.2 6.99 6.27 9.39 8.05 60.99601 24.46423 Paroinen Hämeenlinna FI: Hämeenlinna
2022 methamphetamine FI003 FI Helsinki 49.41 62.12 59.3 58.36 57.99 51.45 55.64 55.72 56.78 56.33 60.23 24.99 Viikinmäki Helsinki FI: Helsinki
2022 methamphetamine FI004 FI Joensuu 2.17 3.43 6.49 9.11 10.37 6.53 9.47 5.02 8.12 6.79 62.58 29.73 Kuhasalo Joensuu FI: Joensuu
2022 methamphetamine FI005 FI Jyväskylä 3.65 4.83 4.78 4.46 4.11 3.53 4.39 4.29 4.22 4.25 62.21 25.77 Nenäinniemi Jyväskylä FI: Jyväskylä
2022 methamphetamine FI006 FI Kajaani 2 2.03 2.11 1.95 2.35 2.03 1.49 1.84 2.11 1.99 64.227 27.7285 Peuraniemi Kajaani FI: Kajaani
2022 methamphetamine FI007 FI Kemi 3.35 0.97 1.15 2.51 2.1 0.86 0.86 1.73 1.66 1.69 65.73609 24.56363 Peurasaari Kemi FI: Kemi
2022 methamphetamine FI008 FI Kokkola 3.02 2.69 2.47 3.89 5.46 5.22 3.86 3.19 4.26 3.8 63.83848 23.13048 Hopeakivenlahti Kokkola FI: Kokkola
2022 methamphetamine FI009 FI Kotka 20.17 24.26 34.29 51.3 50.07 39.6 36.99 27.14 43.82 36.67 60.45 26.89 Mussalo Kotka FI: Kotka
2022 methamphetamine FI010 FI Kouvola 3.36 2.82 3.18 5.45 10.35 7.83 7.54 4.57 6.7 5.79 60.8679 26.70405 Mäkikylä Kouvola FI: Kouvola
2022 methamphetamine FI011 FI Kuopio 1.33 2.48 2.41 2.34 2.71 1.87 4.4 2.74 2.33 2.51 62.96 27.01 Lehtoniemi Kuopio FI: Kuopio
2022 methamphetamine FI012 FI Lahti 4.02 4.01 3.9 5.49 5.51 3.87 2.85 3.63 4.69 4.24 60.99 25.65 Kariniemi Lahti FI: Lahti
2022 methamphetamine FI013 FI Lappeenranta 11.47 11.99 13 19.78 19.57 19.59 13.71 12.39 17.98 15.59 60.93 27.3 Toikansuo Lappeenranta FI: Lappeenranta
2022 methamphetamine FI014 FI Mariehamn 0.2 0.2 1.57 1.5 0.18 0.19 0.2 0.2 0.86 0.58 60.09693 19.93482 Lotsbroverket Mariehamn FI: Mariehamn
2022 methamphetamine FI015 FI Mikkeli 0.74 0.76 0.58 0.1 0.69 0.13 0.12 0.54 0.37 0.45 61.68852 27.27217 Kenkäveronniemi Mikkeli FI: Mikkeli
2022 methamphetamine FI016 FI Oulu 4.77 4.12 4.05 4.17 5.17 4.04 3.03 3.97 4.36 4.19 65.05 25.41 Taskila Oulu FI: Oulu
2022 methamphetamine FI017 FI Pietarsaari 0.64 0.11 0.11 0.1 0.12 0.14 0.59 0.45 0.12 0.26 63.67486 22.70256 Alheda Pietarsaari FI: Pietarsaari
2022 methamphetamine FI018 FI Pori 2.72 2.82 3.65 2.94 4.72 4.94 5.56 3.7 4.06 3.91 61.48519 21.79746 Luotsinmäki Pori FI: Pori
2022 methamphetamine FI019 FI Rauma 5.73 3.98 4.54 4.28 4.93 5.47 8.03 5.91 4.8 5.28 61.12724 21.51127 Maanpäänniemi Rauma FI: Rauma
2022 methamphetamine FI020 FI Rovaniemi 0.98 1.03 1.37 1.23 1.11 2.18 2.94 1.65 1.47 1.55 66.5 25.72 Alakorkalo Rovaniemi FI: Rovaniemi
2022 methamphetamine FI021 FI Salo 29.46 33.87 30.74 34.39 27.71 22.33 23.96 29.09 28.79 28.92 60.38333 23.13333 Salo Salo FI: Salo
2022 methamphetamine FI022 FI Savonlinna 1.17 1.17 1.46 1.56 1.68 1.25 1.32 1.22 1.49 1.37 61.86 28.85 Pihlajaniemi Savonlinna FI: Savonlinna
2022 methamphetamine FI023 FI Seinäjoki 4.02 5.25 5.56 3.62 3.06 2.74 2.28 3.85 3.75 3.79 62.79446 22.82822 Seinäjoki Seinäjoki FI: Seinäjoki
2022 methamphetamine FI024 FI Tampere 18.13 16.46 24.46 17.9 9.29 5.93 7.49 14.03 14.39 14.24 61.49 23.77 Viinikanlahti Tampere FI: Tampere
2022 methamphetamine FI025 FI Turku 19.46 17.66 17.48 22.59 26.4 23.11 20.64 19.25 22.39 21.05 60.44 22.24 Kakolanmäki Turku FI: Turku
2022 methamphetamine FI026 FI Vaasa 0.87 0.91 2.16 1.26 2.16 1.94 4.22 2 1.88 1.93 63.1 21.62 Patt Vaasa FI: Vaasa
2022 methamphetamine FI027 FI Vihti 18.97 21.62 15.43 17.8 13.06 11.67 13.37 17.99 14.49 15.99 60.41699 24.31965 Nummela Vihti FI: Vihti
2022 methamphetamine GB001 GB Bristol     4.91 4.71         4.79 4.79 51.503457 -2.698444 Avonmouth Bristol GB: Bristol
2022 methamphetamine HR001 HR Zagreb 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 45.7929993 15.9463997 Central wastewater treatment plant of the city of Zagreb Zagreb HR: Zagreb
2022 methamphetamine IS002 IS Reykjavik Klettagarðar 61.69 28.72 35.88 48.49 46.69 39.82 46.04 45.48 42.72 43.9 64.126521 -21.817439 Klettagarðar Reykjavik Klettagarðar IS: Reykjavik Klettagarðar
2022 methamphetamine IT001 IT Bozen 0.48 0.5 0.48 0.45 0.87 0.48 0.49 0.49 0.57 0.54 46.49672 11.358 Kläranlage Bozen Bozen IT: Bozen
2022 methamphetamine IT002 IT Milan 9.19 10.23 8.84 10.21 9.89 10.18 9.33 9.58 9.78 9.7 45.4337997 9.2213602 Nosedo Milan IT: Milan
2022 methamphetamine LT001 LT Kaunas 23.02 38.47 26.98 26.97 33.26 31.54 15.59 25.69 29.69 27.98 54.89687 23.89243 Kaunas Kaunas LT: Kaunas
2022 methamphetamine LT002 LT Klaipeda 3.41 3.78 3.18 1.38 1.57 2.55 2.26 3.15 2.17 2.59 55.78282 21.49279 Klaipeda Klaipeda LT: Klaipeda
2022 methamphetamine LT003 LT Vilnius 8.24 7 6.72 6.22 7.04 7.77 5.66 6.97 6.94 6.95 54.687156 25.279651 Vilniaus vandenys Vilnius LT: Vilnius
2022 methamphetamine LV001 LV Riga 171.46 145.12 163.19 178.36 187.7 183.85 146.1 154.23 178.28 167.97 56.94965 24.105186 Riga Riga LV: Riga
2022 methamphetamine NL001 NL Amsterdam 37.88 38.31 39.94 40.86 42.45 38.81 41.48 39.22 40.51 39.96 52.375 4.8666668 RWZI Amsterdam-WEST Amsterdam NL: Amsterdam
2022 methamphetamine NL005 NL Utrecht 5.86 6.13 7.61 9.5 8.62 6.07 4.23 5.41 7.95 6.86 52.0858002 5.1308398 RWZI Utrecht Utrecht NL: Utrecht
2022 methamphetamine PL003 PL Krakow P 1.66 3.82 3.32 3.27 3.33 5.12 2.14 2.54 3.76 3.24 50.06 19.94 Krakow Plaszow Krakow P PL: Krakow P
2022 methamphetamine PT001 PT Almada 0.32 0.33 0.64 0.48 1.32 0.72 1.3 0.65 0.79 0.73 38.675187 -9.154345 Mutela Almada PT: Almada
2022 methamphetamine PT002 PT Lisbon 10.9 8.82 11.08 10.34 9.75 9.14 8.45 9.39 10.08 9.78 38.7044907 -9.1754999 Alcântara Lisbon PT: Lisbon
2022 methamphetamine PT003 PT Porto 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 41.157944 -8.629105   Porto PT: Porto
2022 methamphetamine SE001 SE Gävle 7.14 3.84 7.45 8.55 8 8.91 8.47 6.48 8.23 7.48 60.674622 17.14183 Duvbacken Gävle SE: Gävle
2022 methamphetamine SE003 SE Sandviken   1.73 1.26 1.35 0.65 1.14 1.17 1.45 1.1 1.22 60.61667 16.76667 Hedåsen ARV Sandviken SE: Sandviken
2022 methamphetamine SE004 SE Söderhamn 0.12 0.24 0.46 0.23 0.69 0.23 0.24 0.2 0.4 0.31 61.30373 17.05921 Granskär ARV Söderhamn SE: Söderhamn
2022 methamphetamine SI001 SI Domžale-Kamnik 0.86 1.06 0.26 0.26 0.26 1.22 0.68 0.87 0.5 0.66 46.13788 14.59384 Domžale-Kamnik Domžale-Kamnik SI: Domžale-Kamnik
2022 methamphetamine SI002 SI Koper 2.65 4.47 2.19 2.51 4.7 4.46 5.26 4.13 3.46 3.75 45.548058 13.730188 Central wastewater treatment plant Koper Koper SI: Koper
2022 methamphetamine SI003 SI Kranj 0.15 1.08 0.86 1.15 1.12 0.18 0.17 0.47 0.83 0.67 46.242834 14.355542   Kranj SI: Kranj
2022 methamphetamine SI004 SI Ljubljana 8.26 8.58 13.42 13.39 16.15 10.43 9.74 8.86 13.35 11.42 46.056947 14.505751 Central wastewater treatment plant Ljubljana Ljubljana SI: Ljubljana
2022 methamphetamine SI005 SI Maribor 1.01 0.95 0.93 1.1 0.18 0.2 0.2 0.72 0.6 0.65 46.55734 15.64591 Maribor Maribor SI: Maribor
2022 methamphetamine SI006 SI Novo mesto 0.58 0.17 0.18 0.45 0.18 0.17 0.17 0.31 0.25 0.27 45.804211 15.16969 Wastewater treatment plant Novo mesto Novo mesto SI: Novo mesto
2022 methamphetamine SI007 SI Velenje 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 46.362274 15.110658 Central wastewater treatment plant Šaleške Doline (Šalek Valley) Velenje SI: Velenje
2022 methamphetamine TR001 TR Adana 38.77 40.43 48.42 51.39 55.33 48.67 40.44 39.88 50.95 46.21 36.991421 35.33083 Seyhan Adana TR: Adana
2022 methamphetamine TR003 TR Istanbul (II-VII) 88.65 107.22 73.62 88.99 91.27 102.97 92.12 96 89.21 92.12 41.013 28.9748 Istanbul (II-VII) Istanbul (II-VII) TR: Istanbul (II-VII)

Source table for Figure 11

Changes in the mean weekly methamphetamine metabolites from wastewater analyses in selected European cities between 2021 and 2022
Country City Metabolite Current measurement (mg/1000p/day) Previous measurement (mg/1000p/day) Year current measurement Year Previous measurement Percentage change Change evaluation SiteID latitude longitude Population served by facility Institution
TR Adana methamphetamine 46.21 18.67 2022 2021 147.5093733 increase TR001 36.991421 35.33083 1159215 Adana- Lab139
CY Agia Napa methamphetamine 5.17 3.28 2022 2021 57.62195122 increase CY001 34.99075444704176 33.99998142 48201 Nireas IWRC
PT Almada methamphetamine 0.73 1.03 2022 2021 -29.12621359 decrease PT001 38.675187 -9.154345 138685 INMLCF
NL Amsterdam methamphetamine 39.96 38.18 2022 2021 4.662126768 stable NL001 52.375 4.8666668 669917 KWR
BE Antwerp Zuid methamphetamine 51.87 92.49 2022 2021 -43.91826143 decrease BE002 51.2 4.39 130218 Toxicological Centre
ES Barcelona methamphetamine 56.09 62.13 2022 2021 -9.721551585 stable ES001 41.43 1.97 1185619 IDAEA-CSIC
CH Basel methamphetamine 34.5 53.6 2022 2021 -35.63432836 decrease CH001 47.56 7.59 273075 Ecole des Sciences Criminelles, University of Lausanne
DE Berlin (4) methamphetamine 30.58 18.04 2022 2018 69.51219512 increase DE001 52.52 13.4 3993500 IFT Institut für Therapieforschung
CH Berne methamphetamine 28.58 42.34 2022 2021 -32.49881908 decrease CH002 46.83 7.62 224557 Ecole des Sciences Criminelles, University of Lausanne
IT Bozen methamphetamine 0.54 1.74 2022 2021 -68.96551724 decrease IT001 46.49672 11.358 282747 Medical University Innsbruck
GB Bristol methamphetamine 4.79 6.94 2022 2021 -30.97982709 decrease GB001 51.503457 -2.698444 890154 University of Bath
BE Brussels methamphetamine 27.73 17.58 2022 2021 57.73606371 increase BE005 50.86 4.36 953987 Toxicological Centre
ES Castellon methamphetamine 0 0 2022 2020              
DE Chemnitz methamphetamine 279.49 82.69 2022 2021 237.9973395 increase DE008 50.827845 12.92137 239402 Clinical Pharmacology TU Dresden
DK Copenhagen methamphetamine 25.2 42.91 2022 2021 -41.27243067 decrease DK001 55.69 12.62 685000 Department of forensic medicine, University of Copenhagen
SI Domžale-Kamnik methamphetamine 0.66 0.64 2022 2021 3.125 stable SI001 46.13788 14.59384 77981 Jožef Stefan Institute, Environmental department, Laboratory for organic analysis
DE Dortmund methamphetamine 3.22 1.83 2022 2021 75.95628415 increase DE009 51.52 7.46 399700 Clinical Pharmacology TU Dresden
DE Dresden methamphetamine 266.96 120.71 2022 2021 121.1581476 increase DE010 51.05089 13.73832 671806 Clinical Pharmacology TU Dresden
DE Dülmen methamphetamine 0 1.46 2022 2021 -100 decrease DE011 51.84 7.28 34733 Clinical Pharmacology TU Dresden
DE Erfurt methamphetamine 226.41 112.63 2022 2021 101.0210424 increase DE012 50.984768 11.02988 215323 Clinical Pharmacology TU Dresden
FI Espoo methamphetamine 31.04 1.55 2022 2021 1902.580645 increase FI001 60.16 24.71 390000 Forensic Chemistry Unit / Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare
SE Gävle methamphetamine 7.48 3.1 2022 2021 141.2903226 increase SE001 60.674622 17.14183 90114 RISE
CH Geneva methamphetamine 10.92 16.24 2022 2021 -32.75862069 decrease CH003 46.2 6.17 454433 Ecole des Sciences Criminelles, University of Lausanne
AT Graz methamphetamine 7.52 13.09 2022 2021 -42.55156608 decrease AT001 47.070713 15.439504 475333 Medical University Innsbruck
AT Hall-Wattens methamphetamine 5.56 3.96 2022 2021 40.4040404 increase AT002 47.29168 11.59284 70353 Medical University Innsbruck
FI Hämeenlinna methamphetamine 8.05 2.47 2022 2020 225.9109312 increase FI002 60.99601 24.46423 67000 Forensic Chemistry Unit / Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare
FI Helsinki methamphetamine 56.33 2.94 2022 2021 1815.986395 increase FI003 60.23 24.99 860000 Forensic Chemistry Unit / Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare
AT Innsbruck methamphetamine 13.68 5.8 2022 2021 135.862069 increase AT004 47.269212 11.404102 266478 Medical University Innsbruck
TR Istanbul (II-VII) methamphetamine 92.12 72.49 2022 2021 27.07959719 increase TR003 41.013 28.9748 16525000 Forensic Toxicology Labs. Institute of Forensic Sciences and Legal Medicine, Istanbul University-Cerrahpasa
FI Joensuu methamphetamine 6.79 1.32 2022 2020 414.3939394 increase FI004 62.58 29.73 82667 Forensic Chemistry Unit / Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare
FI Jyväskylä methamphetamine 4.25 1.85 2022 2020 129.7297297 increase FI005 62.21 25.77 155000 National Institute for Health and Welfare (THL)
FI Kajaani methamphetamine 1.99 1.11 2022 2020 79.27927928 increase FI006 64.227 27.7285 33714 Forensic Chemistry Unit / Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare
AT Kapfenberg methamphetamine 2.58 1.64 2022 2021 57.31707317 increase AT005 47.443562 15.2901 37058 Medical University Innsbruck
CZ Karlovy Vary methamphetamine 459.42 339.12 2022 2021 35.47416844 increase CZ003 50.23204 12.87099 67544 T. G. Masaryk Water Resesrch institute, p. r. i., Prague
LT Kaunas methamphetamine 27.98 43.73 2022 2021 -36.01646467 decrease LT001 54.89687 23.89243 291333 Toxicological Centre
FI Kemi methamphetamine 1.69 1.02 2022 2020 65.68627451 increase FI007 65.73609 24.56363 25000 Forensic Chemistry Unit / Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare
AT Klagenfurt methamphetamine 1.63   2022     no previous data AT006     207812 Medical University Innsbruck
LT Klaipeda methamphetamine 2.59 13.97 2022 2021 -81.46027201 decrease LT002 55.78282 21.49279 387400 Toxicological Centre
FI Kokkola methamphetamine 3.8 0.71 2022 2020 435.2112676 increase FI008 63.83848 23.13048 36000 Forensic Chemistry Unit / Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare
SI Koper methamphetamine 3.75 1.14 2022 2021 228.9473684 increase SI002 45.548058 13.730188 49843 Jožef Stefan Institute, Environmental department, Laboratory for organic analysis
FI Kotka methamphetamine 36.67 2.96 2022 2020 1138.851351 increase FI009 60.45 26.89 72500 Forensic Chemistry Unit / Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare
FI Kouvola methamphetamine 5.79 2.08 2022 2020 178.3653846 increase FI010 60.8679 26.70405 70000 National Institute for Health and Welfare (THL)
PL Krakow P methamphetamine 3.24 3.97 2022 2021 -18.38790932 decrease PL003 50.06 19.94 680000 Istituto Mario Negri
AT Kufstein methamphetamine 2.06 1.27 2022 2021 62.20472441 increase AT010 47.582958 12.17077 44537 Medical University Innsbruck
FI Kuopio methamphetamine 2.51 1.77 2022 2020 41.8079096 increase FI011 62.96 27.01 90697 Forensic Chemistry Unit / Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare
FI Lahti methamphetamine 4.24 19.39 2022 2020 -78.13305828 decrease FI012 60.99 25.65 63000 Forensic Chemistry Unit / Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare
FI Lappeenranta methamphetamine 15.59 0.72 2022 2020 2065.277778 increase FI013 60.93 27.3 60000 Forensic Chemistry Unit / Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare
CY Larnaca methamphetamine 57.55 5.64 2022 2021 920.3900709 increase CY002 34.915164353041064 33.63619883 92442 Nireas IWRC
CY Limassol methamphetamine 38.55 9.24 2022 2021 317.2077922 increase CY003 34.69 33.02 239936 Nireas IWRC
PT Lisbon methamphetamine 9.78 7.92 2022 2021 23.48484848 increase PT002 38.7044907 -9.1754999 426964 INMLCF
SI Ljubljana methamphetamine 11.42 3.75 2022 2021 204.5333333 increase SI004 46.056947 14.505751 270305 Jožef Stefan Institute, Environmental department, Laboratory for organic analysis
DE Magdeburg methamphetamine 152.23 48.67 2022 2021 212.7799466 increase DE023 52.120533 11.627624 278000 Clinical Pharmacology TU Dresden
SI Maribor methamphetamine 0.65 0 2022 2021              
FI Mariehamn methamphetamine 0.58 0 2022 2020              
FI Mikkeli methamphetamine 0.45 4.7 2022 2020 -90.42553191 decrease FI015 61.68852 27.27217 48626 Forensic Chemistry Unit / Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare
IT Milan methamphetamine 9.7 12.67 2022 2021 -23.44119968 decrease IT002 45.4337997 9.2213602 1034715 Istituto Mario negri
DE Munich Gut Großlappen methamphetamine 14.1 4.94 2022 2021 185.4251012 increase DE026 48.14 11.58 1156000 Clinical Pharmacology TU Dresden
CY Nicosia (2) methamphetamine 20.09 10.44 2022 2021 92.43295019 increase CY005 35.17 33.4 94602  
SI Novo mesto methamphetamine 0.27 0 2022 2021              
DE Nuremberg methamphetamine 132.41 57.61 2022 2021 129.8385697 increase DE028 49.452102 11.076665 445593 Clinical Pharmacology TU Dresden
CZ Ostrava methamphetamine 914.7 684.14 2022 2021 33.70070453 increase CZ004 49.833864 18.281034 250000 T. G. Masaryk Water Resesrch institute, p. r. i., Prague
FI Oulu methamphetamine 4.19 1.21 2022 2020 246.2809917 increase FI016 65.05 25.41 200526 Forensic Chemistry Unit / Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare
CY Paphos methamphetamine 16.53 13.96 2022 2021 18.40974212 increase CY007 34.775853627551825 32.421595 132836 Nireas IWRC
FI Pietarsaari methamphetamine 0.26 0 2022 2020              
FI Pori methamphetamine 3.91 1.49 2022 2020 162.4161074 increase FI018 61.48519 21.79746 114000 Forensic Chemistry Unit / Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare
PT Porto methamphetamine 0 0 2022 2021              
CZ Prague (2) methamphetamine 628.65 328.77 2022 2021 91.21270189 increase CZ005 50.08 14.43 1212000 South Bohemian Research Center of Aquaculture and Biodiversity of Hydrocenoses, University of South Bohemia in Ceske Budejovice
AT Purgstall methamphetamine 3.35 2.66 2022 2021 25.93984962 increase AT013 48.057812 15.13545 8681 Medical University Innsbruck
FI Rauma methamphetamine 5.28 1.72 2022 2020 206.9767442 increase FI019 61.12724 21.51127 40000 Forensic Chemistry Unit / Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare
AT Region Millstättersee methamphetamine 0 0 2022 2021              
IS Reykjavik Klettagarðar methamphetamine 43.9 35.78 2022 2020 22.69424259 increase IS002 64.126521 -21.817439 107000 Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Iceland
LV Riga methamphetamine 167.97 225.56 2022 2021 -25.53200922 decrease LV001 56.94965 24.105186 619703 Toxicological Centre
FI Rovaniemi methamphetamine 1.55 1.87 2022 2020 -17.11229947 decrease FI020 66.5 25.72 55000 Forensic Chemistry Unit / Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare
DE Saarbrücken (2) methamphetamine 0 1.46 2022 2021 -100 decrease DE030 49.240157 6.996933 203643 IFT Institut für Therapieforschung
FI Salo methamphetamine 28.92 7.54 2022 2020 283.5543767 increase FI021 60.38333 23.13333 34400 Forensic Chemistry Unit / Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare
SE Sandviken methamphetamine 1.22 0.73 2022 2021 67.12328767 increase SE003 60.61667 16.76667 27000 RISE
ES Santiago methamphetamine 1.56 0 2022 2021              
FI Savonlinna methamphetamine 1.37 1.4 2022 2020 -2.142857143 stable FI022 61.86 28.85 24000 Forensic Chemistry Unit / Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare
FI Seinäjoki methamphetamine 3.79 1.67 2022 2020 126.9461078 increase FI023 62.79446 22.82822 55000 Forensic Chemistry Unit / Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare
SE Söderhamn methamphetamine 0.31 4.56 2022 2021 -93.20175439 decrease SE004 61.30373 17.05921 75512 RISE
AT Strass im Zillertal methamphetamine 10.75 5.64 2022 2021 90.60283688 increase AT016 47.395748 11.82211 123102 Medical University Innsbruck
FI Tampere methamphetamine 14.24 1.09 2022 2021 1206.422018 increase FI024 61.49 23.77 200000 Forensic Chemistry Unit / Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare
ES Tarragona methamphetamine 9.12 6.78 2022 2021 34.51327434 increase ES007 41.11901451164164 1.245707286 115567 URV
FI Turku methamphetamine 21.05 2.45 2022 2021 759.1836735 increase FI025 60.44 22.24 300000 Forensic Chemistry Unit / Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare
NL Utrecht methamphetamine 6.86 5.7 2022 2021 20.35087719 increase NL005 52.0858002 5.1308398 267739 KWR
FI Vaasa methamphetamine 1.93 3.07 2022 2020 -37.13355049 decrease FI026 63.1 21.62 69252 Forensic Chemistry Unit / Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare
SI Velenje methamphetamine 0 2.5 2022 2021 -100 decrease SI007 46.362274 15.110658 32583 Jožef Stefan Institute, Environmental department, Laboratory for organic analysis
FI Vihti methamphetamine 15.99 2.94 2022 2020 443.877551 increase FI027 60.41699 24.31965 17500 Forensic Chemistry Unit / Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare
LT Vilnius methamphetamine 6.95 29.25 2022 2021 -76.23931624 decrease LT003 54.687156 25.279651 576727 Toxicological Centre
AT Wasserverband Hofsteig methamphetamine 3.38 0 2022 2021              
HR Zagreb methamphetamine 0 0 2022 2021              
CH Zurich methamphetamine 71.49 74.02 2022 2021 -3.417995136 stable CH008 47.37 8.51 471275 Ecole des Sciences Criminelles, University of Lausanne

Source table for Figure 12

Relative geographical distribution of ketamine residues as detected in European cities, 2022 (daily mean)
Year Metabolite Site ID Country City Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday Sunday Monday Tuesday Weekday mean Weekend mean Daily mean Latitude Longitude Location City Country: City
2022 ketamine CY001 CY Agia Napa 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 34.9907544470418 33.9999814169353 Sewage treatment plant of Agia Napa-Paralimni Agia Napa CY: Agia Napa
2022 ketamine CY002 CY Larnaca 2 2.06 0.71 1.96 1.92 2.41 2.19 2.08 1.75 1.89 34.9151643530411 33.6361988334665 Sewage Bioard of Larnaca Larnaca CY: Larnaca
2022 ketamine CY003 CY Limassol 0.8 1.63 0.79 0.8 1.48 0.74 0.77 1.07 0.96 1 34.69 33.02 Sewerage Board of Limassol-Amathus (SBLA) Limassol CY: Limassol
2022 ketamine CY005 CY Nicosia (2) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 35.17 33.4 Sewage treatment plant of Pano Deftera (Anthoupoli)-Sewerage Board of Nicosia; Sewage treatment plant of Vathia Gonia-Sewerage Board of Nicosia Nicosia (2) CY: Nicosia (2)
2022 ketamine CY007 CY Paphos 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 34.7758536275518 32.4215949998929 Sewage Borad of Pafos Paphos CY: Paphos
2022 ketamine CZ001 CZ Brno 1.36 0.78 0.75 0.66 1.77 2.15 1.47 1.2 1.33 1.28 49.19506 16.606837 Waterworks and sewage of city Brno Brno CZ: Brno
2022 ketamine CZ002 CZ České Budějovice 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 48.96 14.46 UCOV CB České Budějovice CZ: České Budějovice
2022 ketamine DK001 DK Copenhagen 13.05 14.15 18.44 22.94 22.15 14.36 12.65 13.28 19.47 16.82 55.69 12.62 Lynetten Copenhagen DK: Copenhagen
2022 ketamine ES001 ES Barcelona 27.86 20.98 31.28 34.46 33.49 29 29.08 25.98 32.06 29.45 41.43 1.97 Baix Llobregat Barcelona ES: Barcelona
2022 ketamine ES002 ES Castellon 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 40.23 -0.12 EDAR Castellón Castellon ES: Castellon
2022 ketamine ES003 ES Lleida 6.4 3.13 4.08 4.14 6.48 1.63 3.69 4.41 4.08 4.22 41.617592 0.620015 N/A Lleida ES: Lleida
2022 ketamine GB001 GB Bristol     184.79 217.74         203.62 203.62 51.503457 -2.698444 Avonmouth Bristol GB: Bristol
2022 ketamine GR001 GR Athens 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 37.9928017 23.7658005 City of Athens WWTP Athens GR: Athens
2022 ketamine IT002 IT Milan 11.41 12.15 13.58 22.53 14.25 11.72 11.19 11.58 15.52 13.83 45.4337997 9.2213602 Nosedo Milan IT: Milan
2022 ketamine PL003 PL Krakow P 0.71 2.54 1.66 1.63 2.29 2.1 0.71 1.32 1.92 1.66 50.06 19.94 Krakow Plaszow Krakow P PL: Krakow P
2022 ketamine PT001 PT Almada 1.45 1.79 1.44 2.24 2.81 2.15 1.47 1.57 2.16 1.91 38.675187 -9.154345 Mutela Almada PT: Almada
2022 ketamine PT002 PT Lisbon 24.52 12.81 16.76 21.49 25.65 21.45 11.17 16.17 21.34 19.12 38.7044907 -9.1754999 Alcântara Lisbon PT: Lisbon
2022 ketamine SE001 SE Gävle 0.95 0.96 1.99 2.01 1 0.49 1 0.97 1.37 1.2 60.674622 17.14183 Duvbacken Gävle SE: Gävle
2022 ketamine SE003 SE Sandviken   0.29 1.26 0.34 0.33 0.29 0.29 0.29 0.55 0.46 60.61667 16.76667 Hedåsen ARV Sandviken SE: Sandviken
2022 ketamine SE009 SE Växjö 0.24 0.12 0.11 0.11 0.23 0.12 0.12 0.16 0.14 0.15 56.858257 14.761215 N/A Växjö SE: Växjö
2022 ketamine SI001 SI Domžale-Kamnik 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 46.13788 14.59384 Domžale-Kamnik Domžale-Kamnik SI: Domžale-Kamnik
2022 ketamine SI002 SI Koper 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 45.548058 13.730188 Central wastewater treatment plant Koper Koper SI: Koper
2022 ketamine SI003 SI Kranj 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 46.242834 14.355542 N/A Kranj SI: Kranj
2022 ketamine SI004 SI Ljubljana 3.18 3.16 2.99 2.73 11.44 20.13 3.18 3.17 9.32 6.69 46.056947 14.505751 Central wastewater treatment plant Ljubljana Ljubljana SI: Ljubljana
2022 ketamine SI005 SI Maribor 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 46.55734 15.64591 Maribor Maribor SI: Maribor
2022 ketamine SI006 SI Novo mesto 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 45.804211 15.16969 Wastewater treatment plant Novo mesto Novo mesto SI: Novo mesto
2022 ketamine SI007 SI Velenje 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 46.362274 15.110658 Central wastewater treatment plant Šaleške Doline (Šalek Valley) Velenje SI: Velenje
2022 ketamine TR003 TR Istanbul (II-VII) 3.12 4.2 2.8 3.13 3.2 3.53 3.15 3.49 3.16 3.3 41.013 28.9748 Istanbul (II-VII) Istanbul (II-VII) TR: Istanbul (II-VII)

Wastewater sampling sites information

Wastewater sampling sites in CSV format

Table 1. Wastewater treatment centres information table
SiteID Country City Location Latitude Longitude Population Institution Website
AT001 AT Graz ARA Graz 47.070713 15.439504 475333 Medical University Innsbruck N/A
AT002 AT Hall-Wattens Abwasserverband Hall in Tirol-Fritzens 47.29168 11.59284 70353 Medical University Innsbruck N/A
AT004 AT Innsbruck ARA-Innsbruck 47.269212 11.404102 266478 Medical University Innsbruck N/A
AT005 AT Kapfenberg Kläranlage Kapfenberg 47.443562 15.2901 37058 Medical University Innsbruck N/A
AT006 AT Klagenfurt N/A 46.6357 14.311817 207812 Medical University Innsbruck N/A
AT008 AT Knittelfeld N/A 47.21595 14.82719 42632 Medical University Innsbruck N/A
AT009 AT Korneuburg N/A 48.34472 16.33149 38121 Medical University Innsbruck N/A
AT010 AT Kufstein Abwasserverband Kufstein 47.582958 12.17077 44537 Medical University Innsbruck N/A
AT013 AT Purgstall GAV Erlauftal 48.057812 15.13545 8681 Medical University Innsbruck N/A
AT011 AT Region Millstättersee Wasserverband Millstaettersee 46.81924 13.52146 60745 Medical University Innsbruck N/A
AT014 AT Salzburg N/A 47.811195 13.033229 458527 Medical University Innsbruck N/A
AT015 AT Steyr N/A 48.05009 14.41827 99164 Medical University Innsbruck N/A
AT016 AT Strass im Zillertal AIZ Abwasserverband 47.395748 11.82211 123102 Medical University Innsbruck N/A
AT003 AT Wasserverband Hofsteig ARA Hofsteig 47.4852 9.6762 99818 Medical University Innsbruck N/A
AT017 AT Wien N/A 48.210033 16.363449 2974265 Medical University Innsbruck N/A
AT018 AT Wiener Neustadt N/A 47.80279 16.23318 149821 Medical University Innsbruck N/A
AT019 AT Wildon N/A 46.885708 15.518532 76347 Medical University Innsbruck N/A
BE002 BE Antwerp Zuid Antwerpen-Zuid 51.2 4.39 130218 Toxicological Centre N/A
BE005 BE Brussels Brussel-Noord 50.86 4.36 953987 Toxicological Centre N/A
CH001 CH Basel ARA Basel 47.56 7.59 273075 Ecole des Sciences Criminelles, University of Lausanne N/A
CH002 CH Berne ARA Bern 46.83 7.62 224557 Ecole des Sciences Criminelles, University of Lausanne N/A
CH003 CH Geneva STEP SIG 46.2 6.17 454433 Ecole des Sciences Criminelles, University of Lausanne N/A
CH008 CH Zurich Werdhölzli 47.37 8.51 471275 Ecole des Sciences Criminelles, University of Lausanne N/A
CY001 CY Agia Napa Sewage treatment plant of Agia Napa-Paralimni 34.9907544470418 33.9999814169353 48201 Nireas IWRC N/A
CY002 CY Larnaca Sewage Bioard of Larnaca 34.9151643530411 33.6361988334665 92442 Nireas IWRC N/A
CY003 CY Limassol Sewerage Board of Limassol-Amathus (SBLA) 34.69 33.02 239936 Nireas IWRC N/A
CY005 CY Nicosia (2) Sewage treatment plant of Pano Deftera (Anthoupoli)-Sewerage Board of Nicosia; Sewage treatment plant of Vathia Gonia-Sewerage Board of Nicosia 35.17 33.4 94602 N/A N/A
CY007 CY Paphos Sewage Borad of Pafos 34.7758536275518 32.4215949998929 132836 Nireas IWRC N/A
CZ001 CZ Brno Waterworks and sewage of city Brno 49.19506 16.606837 445000 FFPW, USB N/A
CZ002 CZ České Budějovice UCOV CB 48.96 14.46 110000 FFPW, USB N/A
CZ003 CZ Karlovy Vary COV Karloy Vary 50.23204 12.87099 67544 T. G. Masaryk Water Resesrch institute, p. r. i., Prague N/A
CZ004 CZ Ostrava UCOV Ostrava 49.833864 18.281034 250000 T. G. Masaryk Water Resesrch institute, p. r. i., Prague N/A
CZ005 CZ Prague (2) UCOV Praha 50.08 14.43 1212000 South Bohemian Research Center of Aquaculture and Biodiversity of Hydrocenoses, University of South Bohemia in Ceske Budejovice www.frov.jcu.cz/en/
DE001 DE Berlin (4) Berlin 4 plants 52.52 13.4 3993500 IFT Institut für Therapieforschung www.ift.de/index.php
DE008 DE Chemnitz Chemnitz 50.827845 12.92137 239402 Clinical Pharmacology TU Dresden N/A
DE009 DE Dortmund Deusen 51.52 7.46 399700 Clinical Pharmacology TU Dresden N/A
DE010 DE Dresden Dresden-Kaditz 51.05089 13.73832 671806 Clinical Pharmacology TU Dresden N/A
DE011 DE Dülmen Dülmen 51.84 7.28 34733 Clinical Pharmacology TU Dresden N/A
DE012 DE Erfurt Erfurt 50.984768 11.02988 215323 Clinical Pharmacology TU Dresden N/A
DE023 DE Magdeburg N/A 52.120533 11.627624 278000 Clinical Pharmacology TU Dresden N/A
DE026 DE Munich Gut Großlappen Gut_Grosslappen 48.14 11.58 1156000 Clinical Pharmacology TU Dresden N/A
DE028 DE Nuremberg Nürnberg 49.452102 11.076665 445593 Clinical Pharmacology TU Dresden N/A
DE030 DE Saarbrücken (2) Saarbrucken 2 plants 49.240157 6.996933 203643 IFT Institut für Therapieforschung www.ift.de/index.php
DK001 DK Copenhagen Lynetten 55.69 12.62 685000 Department of forensic medicine, University of Copenhagen N/A
EE001 EE Kohtla-Järve (2) N/A 59.397474 27.279751 47325 N/A N/A
EE005 EE Tallinn N/A 59.436962 24.753574 480000 Forensic Science Institute N/A
ES001 ES Barcelona Baix Llobregat 41.43 1.97 1185619 IDAEA-CSIC N/A
ES002 ES Castellon EDAR Castellón 40.23 -0.12 178141 UJI N/A
ES003 ES Lleida N/A 41.617592 0.620015 146354 IDAEA-CSIC N/A
ES006 ES Santiago Silvouta 42.88 -8.54 136500 IAQBUS N/A
ES007 ES Tarragona Tarragona 41.1190145116416 1.24570728603803 115567 URV N/A
FI001 FI Espoo Suomenoja 60.16 24.71 390000 Forensic Chemistry Unit / Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare N/A
FI002 FI Hämeenlinna Paroinen 60.99601 24.46423 67000 Forensic Chemistry Unit / Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare N/A
FI003 FI Helsinki Viikinmäki 60.23 24.99 860000 Forensic Chemistry Unit / Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare N/A
FI004 FI Joensuu Kuhasalo 62.58 29.73 82667 Forensic Chemistry Unit / Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare N/A
FI005 FI Jyväskylä Nenäinniemi 62.21 25.77 155000 National Institute for Health and Welfare (THL) N/A
FI006 FI Kajaani Peuraniemi 64.227 27.7285 33714 Forensic Chemistry Unit / Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare N/A
FI007 FI Kemi Peurasaari 65.73609 24.56363 25000 Forensic Chemistry Unit / Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare N/A
FI008 FI Kokkola Hopeakivenlahti 63.83848 23.13048 36000 Forensic Chemistry Unit / Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare N/A
FI009 FI Kotka Mussalo 60.45 26.89 72500 Forensic Chemistry Unit / Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare N/A
FI010 FI Kouvola Mäkikylä 60.8679 26.70405 70000 National Institute for Health and Welfare (THL) N/A
FI011 FI Kuopio Lehtoniemi 62.96 27.01 90697 Forensic Chemistry Unit / Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare N/A
FI012 FI Lahti Kariniemi 60.99 25.65 63000 Forensic Chemistry Unit / Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare N/A
FI013 FI Lappeenranta Toikansuo 60.93 27.3 60000 Forensic Chemistry Unit / Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare N/A
FI014 FI Mariehamn Lotsbroverket 60.09693 19.93482 20000 Forensic Chemistry Unit / Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare N/A
FI015 FI Mikkeli Kenkäveronniemi 61.68852 27.27217 48626 Forensic Chemistry Unit / Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare N/A
FI016 FI Oulu Taskila 65.05 25.41 200526 Forensic Chemistry Unit / Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare N/A
FI017 FI Pietarsaari Alheda 63.67486 22.70256 41100 Forensic Chemistry Unit / Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare N/A
FI018 FI Pori Luotsinmäki 61.48519 21.79746 114000 Forensic Chemistry Unit / Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare N/A
FI019 FI Rauma Maanpäänniemi 61.12724 21.51127 40000 Forensic Chemistry Unit / Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare N/A
FI020 FI Rovaniemi Alakorkalo 66.5 25.72 55000 Forensic Chemistry Unit / Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare N/A
FI021 FI Salo Salo 60.38333 23.13333 34400 Forensic Chemistry Unit / Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare N/A
FI022 FI Savonlinna Pihlajaniemi 61.86 28.85 24000 Forensic Chemistry Unit / Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare N/A
FI023 FI Seinäjoki Seinäjoki 62.79446 22.82822 55000 Forensic Chemistry Unit / Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare N/A
FI024 FI Tampere Viinikanlahti 61.49 23.77 200000 Forensic Chemistry Unit / Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare N/A
FI025 FI Turku Kakolanmäki 60.44 22.24 300000 Forensic Chemistry Unit / Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare N/A
FI026 FI Vaasa Patt 63.1 21.62 69252 Forensic Chemistry Unit / Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare N/A
FI027 FI Vihti Nummela 60.41699 24.31965 17500 Forensic Chemistry Unit / Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare N/A
GB001 GB Bristol Avonmouth 51.503457 -2.698444 890154 University of Bath N/A
GR001 GR Athens City of Athens WWTP 37.9928017 23.7658005 3700000 National and Kapodistrian University of Athens N/A
HR001 HR Zagreb Central wastewater treatment plant of the city of Zagreb 45.7929993 15.9463997 650000 Laboratory for analytical chemistry and biogeochemistry of organic compounds N/A
IT001 IT Bozen Kläranlage Bozen 46.49672 11.358 282747 Medical University Innsbruck N/A
IT002 IT Milan Nosedo 45.4337997 9.2213602 1034715 Istituto Mario negri N/A
LT001 LT Kaunas Kaunas 54.89687 23.89243 291333 Toxicological Centre N/A
LT002 LT Klaipeda Klaipeda 55.78282 21.49279 387400 Toxicological Centre N/A
LT003 LT Vilnius Vilniaus vandenys 54.687156 25.279651 576727 Toxicological Centre N/A
LV001 LV Riga Riga 56.94965 24.105186 619703 Toxicological Centre N/A
NL001 NL Amsterdam RWZI Amsterdam-WEST 52.375 4.8666668 669917 KWR https://www.kwrwater.nl/en/
NL005 NL Utrecht RWZI Utrecht 52.0858002 5.1308398 267739 KWR https://www.kwrwater.nl/en/
PL003 PL Krakow P Krakow Plaszow 50.06 19.94 680000 Istituto Mario Negri N/A
PT001 PT Almada Mutela 38.675187 -9.154345 138685 INMLCF N/A
PT002 PT Lisbon Alcântara 38.7044907 -9.1754999 426964 INMLCF N/A
PT003 PT Porto N/A 41.157944 -8.629105 150000 USC N/A
SE001 SE Gävle Duvbacken 60.674622 17.14183 90114 RISE N/A
SE003 SE Sandviken Hedåsen ARV 60.61667 16.76667 27000 RISE N/A
SE009 SE Växjö N/A 56.858257 14.761215 75512 RISE N/A
SI001 SI Domžale-Kamnik Domžale-Kamnik 46.13788 14.59384 77981 Jožef Stefan Institute, Environmental department, Laboratory for organic analysis N/A
SI002 SI Koper Central wastewater treatment plant Koper 45.548058 13.730188 49843 Jožef Stefan Institute, Environmental department, Laboratory for organic analysis N/A
SI003 SI Kranj N/A 46.242834 14.355542 70000 Jožef Stefan Institute, Environmental department, Laboratory for organic analysis N/A
SI004 SI Ljubljana Central wastewater treatment plant Ljubljana 46.056947 14.505751 270305 Jožef Stefan Institute, Environmental department, Laboratory for organic analysis N/A
SI005 SI Maribor Maribor 46.55734 15.64591 129000 Jožef Stefan Institute, Environmental department, Laboratory for organic analysis N/A
SI006 SI Novo mesto Wastewater treatment plant Novo mesto 45.804211 15.16969 25414 Jožef Stefan Institute, Environmental department, Laboratory for organic analysis N/A
SI007 SI Velenje Central wastewater treatment plant Šaleške Doline (Šalek Valley) 46.362274 15.110658 32583 Jožef Stefan Institute, Environmental department, Laboratory for organic analysis N/A
SK002 SK Bratislava C Central 48.14925 17.106991 450000 FFPW, USB N/A
SK004 SK Piestany N/A 48.5918007 17.8019009 30000 FFPW, USB N/A
TR003 TR Istanbul (II-VII) Istanbul (II-VII) 41.013 28.9748 16525000 Forensic Toxicology Labs. Institute of Forensic Sciences and Legal Medicine, Istanbul University-Cerrahpasa https://adlitip.istanbulc.edu.tr/tr/_
ES008 ES Valencia (3) Valencia 3 plants 39.46 -0.33 1471771 Research Institute for Pesticides and Water, University Jaume I www.uji.es/institucional/estructura/instituts/iupa/?urlRedirect=http://www.uji.es/institucional/estructura/instituts/iupa/&url=/institu…
IS002 IS Reykjavik Klettagarðar Klettagarðar 64.126521 -21.817439 107000 Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Iceland http://english.hi.is/
NL002 NL Eindhoven RWZI Eindhoven 51.4421082 5.4800701 457153 KWR https://www.kwrwater.nl/en/
TR001 TR Adana Seyhan 36.991421 35.33083 1159215 Adana- Lab139 N/A
CH007 CH St. Gallen Hofen St. Gallen Hofen 47.42 9.38 37876 Faculté de droit, des sciences criminelles et d'administration publique - Lausanne, and Eawag - Urban Water Management N/A
DK002 DK Odense Ejby Mølle 55.401326821334 10.3875142603132 160000 N/A N/A
FR005 FR Paris Seine Centre Seine Centre 48.95 2.27 659184 Faculty of Pharmacy, University Paris Sud www.lspe.u-psud.fr/
NO001 NO Oslo VEAS 59.9156914 10.857625 612499 Norwegian Institute for Water Research (NIVA) www.niva.no/en
SE004 SE Söderhamn Granskär ARV 61.30373 17.05921 14500 RISE Research Institutes of Sweden https://www.ri.se/en
SE005 SE Stockholm (2) Henriksdal 1 and Sicklainloppet 59.329323 18.068581 860800 N/A N/A
SE008 SE Uppsala Site 1 59.858562 17.638927 200000 N/A N/A
EE004 EE Narva AS Narva Vesi 59.3749891460822 28.1922153733092 57212 N/A N/A
EE006 EE Tartu AS Tartu Veevärk 58.3770174887882 26.7297981416611 100000 N/A N/A
BE003 BE Boom Boom 51.08608 4.36633 30600 Toxicological Center, University of Antwerp www.uantwerpen.be/en/rg/tox/
DE017 DE Hamburg (2) Hamburg 2 plants 53.551085 9.993682 2050000 IFT Institut für Therapieforschung www.ift.de/index.php
RS002 RS Novi Sad N/A 45.3039017 19.8267002 310312 Faculty of Technical Sciences, University of Novi Sad http://www.uns.ac.rs/index.php/en/
GR002 GR Eleusis City of eleusis WWTP 38.323372 23.31678 25000 N/A N/A
AT012 AT Mürzzuschlag Kläranlage Langenwang 47.566639 15.6182 30200 N/A https://biomassspec.gmi.tirol/
BE007 BE Koksijde Wulpen 51.1 2.7 78441 Toxicological Center, University of Antwerp www.uantwerpen.be/en/rg/tox/
BE010 BE Oostende Oostende 51.21543 2.928656 159000 Toxicological Center, University of Antwerp www.uantwerpen.be/en/rg/tox/
ES004 ES Madrid VdlV Viveros de la Villa 40.41669 -3.70035 440800 Research Institute for Pesticides and Water, University Jaume I www.uji.es/institucional/estructura/instituts/iupa/?urlRedirect=http://www.uji.es/institucional/estructura/instituts/iupa/&url=/institu…
FR003 FR Bordeaux I Louis Fargue 44.837789 -0.58 254338 Faculty of Pharmacy, University Paris Sud www.lspe.u-psud.fr/
GB002 GB London Beckton 51.53 0.05 3400000 Analytical & Environmental Sciences Division, King's College London, UK http//www.kcl.ac.uk
BE004 BE Brugge Brugge 51.20942 3.2252 300000 Toxicological Center, University of Antwerp www.uantwerpen.be/en/rg/tox/
FR006 FR Paris South Suburbs South Suburbs 48.856614 2.352222 83951 Faculty of Pharmacy, University Paris Sud www.lspe.u-psud.fr/
TR002 TR Istanbul I Catalca-Ahmediye 41.013 28.9748 69000 Forensic Toxicology Labs. Institute of Forensic Sciences and Legal Medicine, Istanbul University-Cerrahpasa https://adlitip.istanbulc.edu.tr/tr/_
BE008 BE Merchtem Merchtem 50.95842 4.23244 16200 Toxicological Center, University of Antwerp www.uantwerpen.be/en/rg/tox/
BE011 BE Ruisbroek (Puurs) Ruisbroek 50.79035 4.29862 36000 Toxicological Center, University of Antwerp www.uantwerpen.be/en/rg/tox/
DE013 DE Frankfurt (3) Frankfurt 3 plants 50.110922 8.682127 1118389 IFT Institut für Therapieforschung www.ift.de/index.php
DE020 DE Hannover (2) Hannover 2 plants 52.375892 9.73201 740000 IFT Institut für Therapieforschung www.ift.de/index.php
DE024 DE Mainz Mainz 49.992862 8.247253 200344 IFT Institut für Therapieforschung www.ift.de/index.php
DE029 DE Rostock Rostock 54.092441 12.099147 237316 IFT Institut für Therapieforschung www.ift.de/index.php
DE033 DE Stuttgart Stuttgart 48.775846 9.182932 602000 IFT Institut für Therapieforschung www.ift.de/index.php
FR004 FR Fort-de-France P Pointe des Nègres 14.616065 -61.05878 19000 Faculty of Pharmacy, University Paris Sud www.lspe.u-psud.fr/
NL003 NL Nieuwegein Ijssel. RWZI Nieuwegein 52.024821 5.091819 96000 KWR https://www.kwrwater.nl/en/
NL004 NL Oudewater RWZI Oudewater 52.024163 4.868417 10110 KWR https://www.kwrwater.nl/en/
BE001 BE Antwerp Deurne Deurne 51.22 4.46 213876 Toxicological Center, University of Antwerp www.uantwerpen.be/en/rg/tox/
CH005 CH Lugano Bioggio 46.02 8.91 103561 Faculté de droit, des sciences criminelles et d'administration publique - Lausanne, and Eawag - Urban Water Management N/A
ES005 ES Molina de Segura N/A 38.051681 -1.207326 70709 Research Institute for Pesticides and Water, University Jaume I www.uji.es/institucional/estructura/instituts/iupa/?urlRedirect=http://www.uji.es/institucional/estructura/instituts/iupa/&url=/institu…
AT007 AT Klosterneuburg Klosterneuburg 48.309866 16.323772 30000 Insitute for Water quality, Resource and Waste management http//iwr.tuwien.ac.at/water/
BE006 BE Geraardsbergen Geraardsbergen 50.77 3.88 29047 Toxicological Center, University of Antwerp www.uantwerpen.be/en/rg/tox/
BE009 BE Ninove Ninove 50.85 4.03 36179 Toxicological Center, University of Antwerp www.uantwerpen.be/en/rg/tox/
CH004 CH Lausanne STEP Vidy 46.52 6.63 220000 Faculté de droit, des sciences criminelles et d'administration publique - Lausanne, and Eawag - Urban Water Management N/A
GR003 GR Mytilene N/A 39.106738 26.557275 26000 Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry, University of Athens N/A
MT001 MT Malta N/A 35.937496 14.375416 296297 N/A N/A
GR004 GR Thessaloniki N/A 40.640063 22.944419 850000 Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry, University of Athens N/A
BA001 BA Sarajevo Butile 43.87 18.29 130000 Hydro-Engineering Institute Sarajevo http//www.heis.com.ba/
RO001 RO Cluj Napoca N/A 46.7780991 23.6135998 350000 Toxicological Center, University of Antwerp https//www.uantwerpen.be/en/rg/tox/
RS001 RS Belgrade Sewer system Usce (outlet in Danube river) 44.8130989 20.4632607 284347 N/A N/A
SE002 SE Gothenburg Ryaverket 57.6828995 12.0728998 664441 Department of Chemistry, Umea University http//www.chemistry.umu.se/english/
SE007 SE Umea Ons avloppsreningsverk 63.8181992 20.3150005 115800 Department of Chemistry, Umea University http//www.chemistry.umu.se/english/

Source data for individual measurements

Source data for wastewater measurments in CSV format

Note that in the table below the 'Site ID' column refers to the treatment centre where the measurement was performed. Information about each site can be found in Table 1 above.

Table 2. All wastewater data, 2011-2022
Year Metabolite Site ID Country City Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday Sunday Monday Tuesday Weekday mean Weekend mean Daily mean
2022 amphetamine AT001 AT Graz 24 20.9 24.22 27.86 28.27 23.8 22.2 22.37 26.03 24.46
2022 amphetamine AT002 AT Hall-Wattens 9.01 13.61 9.28 11.82 11.08 11.31 6.84 9.82 10.87 10.42
2022 amphetamine AT004 AT Innsbruck 10.18 9.8 11.7 16.02 14.86 13.35 19.45 13.14 13.98 13.62
2022 amphetamine AT005 AT Kapfenberg 32.16 28.14 30.94 21.49 21.35 23.8 12.96 24.42 24.4 24.41
2022 amphetamine AT006 AT Klagenfurt 6.74 6.87 12.77 9.57 11.62 7.86 6.65 6.76 10.46 8.87
2022 amphetamine AT008 AT Knittelfeld 10.71 16.92 18.09 20.1 29.02 25.66 11.38 13 23.22 18.84
2022 amphetamine AT009 AT Korneuburg 22.82 17.16 9.94 22.64 17.14 15.2 12.95 17.64 16.23 16.83
2022 amphetamine AT010 AT Kufstein 9.17 8.31 9 10.58 14.45 13.37 17.61 11.7 11.85 11.78
2022 amphetamine AT013 AT Purgstall 29.71 22.69 17.08 43.89 47.43 13.62 35.98 29.46 30.5 30.06
2022 amphetamine AT011 AT Region Millstättersee 1.2 0.93 0.43 1.23 1.25 3.17 3.94 2.02 1.52 1.74
2022 amphetamine AT014 AT Salzburg 23.92 22.21 22.85 19.55 24.79 23.23 23.31 23.15 22.6 22.84
2022 amphetamine AT015 AT Steyr 24.24 19.93 29.36 61.68 40.31 24.56 20.87 21.68 38.98 31.56
2022 amphetamine AT016 AT Strass im Zillertal 16.99 11.02 12.01 12.77 12.13 11.57 14.05 14.02 12.12 12.93
2022 amphetamine AT003 AT Wasserverband Hofsteig 14.74 14.87 13.26 17.21 16.21 16.75 14.82 14.81 15.86 15.41
2022 amphetamine AT017 AT Wien 32.4 37.52 43.85 41.01 42.27 39.87 36.73 35.55 41.75 39.09
2022 amphetamine AT018 AT Wiener Neustadt 25.3 29.96 22.24 29.95 31.59 30.28 27.4 27.55 28.51 28.1
2022 amphetamine AT019 AT Wildon 17.99 16.53 13.86 16.6 18.23 15.19 15.47 16.66 15.97 16.27
2022 amphetamine BE002 BE Antwerp Zuid 434.92 790.31 521.83 311.25 425.45 714.6 476.57 567.27 493.28 524.99
2022 amphetamine BE005 BE Brussels 69.35 65.36 63.07 68 208.73 52.55 340.81 158.51 98.09 123.98
2022 amphetamine CH001 CH Basel 40.02 37.96 39.16 56.53 39.21 39.49 68.61 48.87 43.6 45.85
2022 amphetamine CH002 CH Berne 55.87 55.89 69.79 71.17 64.12 63.36 56.9 56.22 67.11 62.44
2022 amphetamine CH003 CH Geneva 15.01 16.99 15.17 15.42 25.54 15.8 14.98 15.66 17.98 16.99
2022 amphetamine CH008 CH Zurich 54.6 45.51 51.97 55.36 60.88 49.73 52.79 50.97 54.48 52.98
2022 amphetamine CY001 CY Agia Napa 26.68 19.24 3.64 10.77 2.19 8.78 16.33 20.75 6.34 12.52
2022 amphetamine CY002 CY Larnaca 1.66 2.49 1.35 1.04 3.74 0.41 2.3 2.15 1.64 1.86
2022 amphetamine CY003 CY Limassol 3.22 2.13 2.27 4.63 4.33 6.07 3.1 2.82 4.33 3.68
2022 amphetamine CY005 CY Nicosia (2) 2.27 4.73 3.79 3.31 3.04 3.38 1.78 2.93 3.38 3.19
2022 amphetamine CY007 CY Paphos 9.04 9.85 5.48 1.73 2.49 9.37 10.22 9.7 4.77 6.88
2022 amphetamine CZ001 CZ Brno 21.42 33.03 31.69 28.22 38.98 37.11 43.97 32.81 34 33.49
2022 amphetamine CZ002 CZ České Budějovice 39.81 22.26 28.01 20.71 25.11 35.36 30.82 30.96 27.3 28.87
2022 amphetamine CZ003 CZ Karlovy Vary 50.16 53.07 44.54 63.48 39.98 37.81 37.45 46.89 46.45 46.64
2022 amphetamine CZ004 CZ Ostrava 114.28 82.44   94.97 96.94 82.12 97.71 98.14 91.34 94.74
2022 amphetamine CZ005 CZ Prague (2) 77.51 74.37 63.61 75.17 78.28 82.91 69.97 73.95 74.99 74.54
2022 amphetamine DE001 DE Berlin (4) 142.86 145.28 191.58 175.2 237.77 230.72 162.55 151.16 209.69 185.87
2022 amphetamine DE008 DE Chemnitz 23.22 24.5 35.01 20.59 29.56 37.42   23.86 30.64 28.38
2022 amphetamine DE009 DE Dortmund 187.6 211.08 187.81 163.83 213.56 186.86   199.34 188.02 191.79
2022 amphetamine DE010 DE Dresden 29.31 42.24 35.18 43.57 43.22 42.28 41.18 37.58 41.06 39.57
2022 amphetamine DE011 DE Dülmen 733.58 183.95 141.09 187.77 183.83   158.08 358.54 170.9 264.72
2022 amphetamine DE012 DE Erfurt 71.11 68.45 38.65 63.23 69.34 53.44 33.88 57.81 56.17 56.87
2022 amphetamine DE023 DE Magdeburg 113.28 162.88 125.97 147.69 161.06 166.7 150.05 142.07 150.35 146.8
2022 amphetamine DE026 DE Munich Gut Großlappen 33.58 28.93 30.07 32.21 39.35 29.91 27.63 30.05 32.89 31.67
2022 amphetamine DE028 DE Nuremberg 56.51 50.88 65.17 73.17 68.57 59.61 53.36 53.58 66.63 61.04
2022 amphetamine DE030 DE Saarbrücken (2) 404.98 334.87 266.23 322.78 357.77 419.63 414.26 384.7 341.6 360.08
2022 amphetamine DK001 DK Copenhagen 63.67 61.03 72.96 80.27 76.94 69.48 69.76 64.82 74.91 70.59
2022 amphetamine EE001 EE Kohtla-Järve (2) 108.72 131.9 114.26 76.89 143.28 158.34 167.66 136.09 123.2 128.72
2022 amphetamine EE005 EE Tallinn 101.23 87.72 136.98 79.79 91.73 103.73 125.42 104.79 103.06 103.8
2022 amphetamine ES001 ES Barcelona 13.3 12.82 25.05 29.29 33.64 30.56 28.91 18.34 29.64 24.8
2022 amphetamine ES002 ES Castellon 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
2022 amphetamine ES003 ES Lleida 20.56 19.84 21.14 35.43 37.28 25.44 19.12 19.84 29.83 25.55
2022 amphetamine ES006 ES Santiago 7.58 10.28 11.93 2.16 8.52 8.18 9.79 9.22 7.69 8.35
2022 amphetamine ES007 ES Tarragona 51.64 62.12 56.43 58.21 66.45 54.28 55.49 56.42 58.84 57.8
2022 amphetamine FI001 FI Espoo 83.81 75.8 84.67 96.97 89.63 86.89 74.67 78.09 89.54 84.63
2022 amphetamine FI002 FI Hämeenlinna 66.12 68.16 70.8 84.01 75.4 66.96 64.53 66.27 74.29 70.86
2022 amphetamine FI003 FI Helsinki 129.47 138.43 143.54 177.12 183.42 136.28 135.47 134.46 160.09 149.1
2022 amphetamine FI004 FI Joensuu 62.43 64.86 58.66 73.07 76.24 75.18 60.69 62.66 70.79 67.3
2022 amphetamine FI005 FI Jyväskylä 105.64 108.52 90.09 97.36 89.25 77.69 90.79 101.65 88.6 94.19
2022 amphetamine FI006 FI Kajaani 84.13 82.1 93.12 100.99 76.09 55.28 53.62 73.28 81.37 77.91
2022 amphetamine FI007 FI Kemi 80.2 70.58 103.57 130.85 160.2 105.21 106.5 85.76 124.96 108.16
2022 amphetamine FI008 FI Kokkola 64.91 53.58 55.27 63.18 60.42 67.13 62.97 60.48 61.5 61.06
2022 amphetamine FI009 FI Kotka 160.48 181.93 183.75 198.31 189.6 162.79 160.05 167.49 183.61 176.7
2022 amphetamine FI010 FI Kouvola 150.38 160.57 182.21 250.09 214.6 158.52 141.12 150.69 201.36 179.64
2022 amphetamine FI011 FI Kuopio 93.56 92.85 89.66 101.34 140.54 85.17 80.42 88.95 104.18 97.65
2022 amphetamine FI012 FI Lahti 147.5 176.19 174.57 183.22 131.24 154.54 148.63 157.44 160.89 159.41
2022 amphetamine FI013 FI Lappeenranta 125.38 137.08 135.92 161.57 137 112.23 113.23 125.23 136.68 131.77
2022 amphetamine FI014 FI Mariehamn 58.71 61.5 60.81 89.94 78.75 64.57 54.57 58.26 73.52 66.98
2022 amphetamine FI015 FI Mikkeli 64.86 70.8 72.09 68.7 79.87 57.07 61.52 65.73 69.43 67.84
2022 amphetamine FI016 FI Oulu 48.5 36.56 45.22 50.34 64.48 48.83 55.92 46.99 52.22 49.98
2022 amphetamine FI017 FI Pietarsaari 15.88 14.14 18.09 17.28 15.59 15.51 21.05 17.02 16.62 16.79
2022 amphetamine FI018 FI Pori 53.91 61.43 65.36 63.46 62.27 61.3 59.23 58.19 63.1 60.99
2022 amphetamine FI019 FI Rauma 41.98 38.19 46.63 73.1 66.55 43.31 153.11 77.76 57.4 66.12
2022 amphetamine FI020 FI Rovaniemi 72.75 76.02 82.57 91.98 98.53 70.18 60.12 69.63 85.82 78.88
2022 amphetamine FI021 FI Salo 30.2 33.87 34.16 30.03 22.91 21.78 32.29 32.12 27.22 29.32
2022 amphetamine FI022 FI Savonlinna 34.8 32.39 61.99 60.91 54.03 44.18 57.67 41.62 55.28 49.42
2022 amphetamine FI023 FI Seinäjoki 24.14 33.49 33.99 28.99 37.45 39.33 146.62 68.08 34.94 49.15
2022 amphetamine FI024 FI Tampere 69.03 81.93 91.37 105.14 68.53 63.08 64.79 71.91 82.03 77.69
2022 amphetamine FI025 FI Turku 66.18 68.55 67.91 74.21 79.6 59.49 62.76 65.83 70.3 68.39
2022 amphetamine FI026 FI Vaasa 46.75 55.51 61.73 69.87 62.99 48.87 54.53 52.26 60.86 57.18
2022 amphetamine FI027 FI Vihti 31.48 74.63 73.33 94.34 97.29 95.98 48.61 51.58 90.23 73.67
2022 amphetamine GB001 GB Bristol     28.34 26.42         27.24 27.24
2022 amphetamine GR001 GR Athens 4.89 3.61 4.12 6.25 5.34 4.75 5.58 4.69 5.11 4.93
2022 amphetamine HR001 HR Zagreb 85.47 62.52 156.14 105.15 110.94 104.08 74.33 74.11 119.08 99.81
2022 amphetamine IT001 IT Bozen 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
2022 amphetamine IT002 IT Milan 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
2022 amphetamine LT001 LT Kaunas 94.91 624.52 119.94 105.02 126.75 94.86 41.41 253.61 111.64 172.49
2022 amphetamine LT002 LT Klaipeda 9.9 12.48 13.88 9.08 10.67 13.21 9.7 10.69 11.71 11.28
2022 amphetamine LT003 LT Vilnius 70.67 80 79.77 106.28 85.79 74.01 68.37 73.02 86.47 80.7
2022 amphetamine LV001 LV Riga 106.91 91.53 102.09 107.43 123.92 124 89.39 95.94 114.36 106.47
2022 amphetamine NL001 NL Amsterdam 137.44 122.94 127.27 128.67 157.85 139.21 228.24 162.87 138.25 148.8
2022 amphetamine NL005 NL Utrecht 192.45 179.29 269.41 234.05 213.16 270.05 194.09 188.61 246.67 221.78
2022 amphetamine PL003 PL Krakow P 26.8 45.8 34.82 42 37.89 39.59 31.86 34.82 38.57 36.97
2022 amphetamine PT001 PT Almada 7.91 3.42 2.56 7.68 6.44 5.54 3.26 4.87 5.56 5.26
2022 amphetamine PT002 PT Lisbon 14.83 14.23 14.77 13.87 18.21 14.77 13.08 14.05 15.41 14.82
2022 amphetamine PT003 PT Porto 7.59 6.81 5.44 4.55 9.08 6.8 10.57 8.32 6.47 7.26
2022 amphetamine SE001 SE Gävle 866.67 791 878.2 982.04 763.25 928.81 903.44 853.7 888.08 873.35
2022 amphetamine SE003 SE Sandviken   671.23 600.93 744.83 754.76 759.07 643.42 657.32 714.9 695.71
2022 amphetamine SE009 SE Växjö 191.56 152.69 152.47 178.34 155.02 151.18 96.7 146.99 159.26 154
2022 amphetamine SI001 SI Domžale-Kamnik 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
2022 amphetamine SI002 SI Koper 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
2022 amphetamine SI003 SI Kranj 4.67 4.08 4.05 9.57 9.24 6.36 5.1 4.62 7.31 6.15
2022 amphetamine SI004 SI Ljubljana 16.52 19.58 16.07 17.42 17.5 28.36 21.17 19.09 19.84 19.52
2022 amphetamine SI005 SI Maribor 19.95 19.54 19.84 27.85 20.6 19.35 14.57 18.02 21.91 20.24
2022 amphetamine SI006 SI Novo mesto 0.21 0.21 0.22 0.22 17.6 11.17 7.85 2.75 7.3 5.35
2022 amphetamine SI007 SI Velenje 60.41 57.26 58.13 68.62 68.86 90.06 53.04 56.91 71.42 65.2
2022 amphetamine SK002 SK Bratislava C 15.11 26.78 19.5 26.55 23.92 21.76 17.89 19.93 22.93 21.64
2022 amphetamine SK004 SK Piestany 0.16 12.21 0.19 21.98 20.26 0.17 0.17 4.18 10.65 7.88
2022 amphetamine TR003 TR Istanbul (II-VII) 12.96 15.47 11.03 12.74 13.3 14.75 13.31 13.91 12.95 13.37
2022 cannabis AT001 AT Graz 69.31 59.09 75.89 55.2 50.19 54.96 57 61.8 59.06 60.24
2022 cannabis AT002 AT Hall-Wattens 43.23 45.2 43.92 43.92 44.48 52.04 45.14 44.52 46.09 45.42
2022 cannabis AT004 AT Innsbruck 77.87 74.53 83.46 91.04 82.65 91.1 84.61 79 87.06 83.61
2022 cannabis AT005 AT Kapfenberg 18.43 17.59 21.95 14.88 13.2 34.91 28.83 21.61 21.23 21.4
2022 cannabis AT006 AT Klagenfurt 51.93 51.89 63.03 50.94 53.11 66.74 53.79 52.53 58.46 55.92
2022 cannabis AT008 AT Knittelfeld 43.28 93.2 52.96 38.57 50.67 45.26 43.77 60.08 46.86 52.53
2022 cannabis AT009 AT Korneuburg 61.56 51.31 46.31 90.98 49.46 53.64 41.07 51.31 60.1 56.33
2022 cannabis AT010 AT Kufstein 99.72 96.97 109.35 110.68 109.35 109.63 96.06 97.58 109.75 104.54
2022 cannabis AT013 AT Purgstall 34.75 28.37 29.61 36.13 26.1 23.58 31.76 31.63 28.85 30.04
2022 cannabis AT011 AT Region Millstättersee 44.24 43.71 40.85 48.34 60.77 48.08 44.2 44.05 49.51 47.17
2022 cannabis AT014 AT Salzburg 51.39 49.66 86.58 46.17 46.44 66.14 61.05 54.03 61.33 58.2
2022 cannabis AT015 AT Steyr 57.66 47.7 65.95 107.58 78.36 67.86 72.92 59.43 79.94 71.15
2022 cannabis AT016 AT Strass im Zillertal 33.41 30.54 31.01 38.59 31.02 37.71 36.25 33.4 34.58 34.07
2022 cannabis AT003 AT Wasserverband Hofsteig 47.76 50.68 57.82 46.15 45.99 60.01 45.52 47.99 52.49 50.56
2022 cannabis AT017 AT Wien 74 85.62 93.73 73.2 80.47 91.03 83.84 81.15 84.6 83.12
2022 cannabis AT018 AT Wiener Neustadt 73.26 83.72 66.1 58.24 59.13 69.03 58.27 71.75 63.13 66.82
2022 cannabis AT019 AT Wildon 51.24 48.71 49.55 44.75 48.54 43.81 49.01 49.65 46.66 47.94
2022 cannabis CH001 CH Basel 148.51 127.95 129.56 161.14 130.97 132.79 96.2 124.22 138.62 132.45
2022 cannabis CH002 CH Berne 119.58 103.3 130.42 82.29 95.82 114.17 125.56 116.14 105.68 110.16
2022 cannabis CH003 CH Geneva 217.59 138.38 209.45 214.44 165.11 179.09 141.6 165.86 192.02 180.81
2022 cannabis CH008 CH Zurich 172.64 124.28 118.03 113.05 126.57 149.18 123.94 140.29 126.71 132.53
2022 cannabis CZ001 CZ Brno 44.79 46.64 37.29 46.48 49.6 54.69 68.4 53.28 47.02 49.7
2022 cannabis CZ002 CZ České Budějovice 116.36 81.27 134.45 52.72 92.07 122.4 123.3 106.98 100.41 103.22
2022 cannabis CZ003 CZ Karlovy Vary 149.03 134.03 81.33 184.21 100.53 105.56 95.2 126.09 117.91 121.41
2022 cannabis CZ004 CZ Ostrava 70.08 77.38   74.8 93.97 69.77 71.48 72.98 79.51 76.25
2022 cannabis CZ005 CZ Prague (2) 109.53 116.09 73.22 120.59 146.88 133.91 86.41 104.01 118.65 112.38
2022 cannabis EE001 EE Kohtla-Järve (2) 58.45 46 27.39 29.61 33.65 44.02 96.19 66.88 33.67 47.9
2022 cannabis EE005 EE Tallinn 75.52 63.44 42.95 27.93 57.68 65.82 64.53 67.83 48.59 56.84
2022 cannabis ES001 ES Barcelona 220.15 149.21 114.96 123.6 149.53 115.99 184.3 184.55 126.02 151.1
2022 cannabis ES002 ES Castellon 46.08 54.31 58.77 51.12 45.47 69.67 56.29 52.23 56.26 54.53
2022 cannabis ES003 ES Lleida 83.58 92.25 104.61 89.27 74.57 84.16 96.26 90.7 88.15 89.24
2022 cannabis ES006 ES Santiago 57.32 80.52 109.1 95.75 84.78 102.23 119.94 85.93 97.97 92.81
2022 cannabis ES007 ES Tarragona 64.77 107.95 76.97 72.7 77.63 114.88 99.02 90.58 85.55 87.71
2022 cannabis ES008 ES Valencia (3) 89.16 76.99 94.23 83.04 71.8 146.64 95.7 87.28 98.93 93.94
2022 cannabis GB001 GB Bristol     0 0         0 0
2022 cannabis HR001 HR Zagreb 107.71 72.14 131.07 81.19 77.95 90.5 113.84 97.9 95.18 96.34
2022 cannabis IS002 IS Reykjavik Klettagarðar 105.3 106.67 119.6 99.95 110.27 129.94 179.7 130.56 114.94 121.63
2022 cannabis IT001 IT Bozen 39.35 45.57 44.39 44.6 43.94 44.41 41.85 42.26 44.34 43.44
2022 cannabis IT002 IT Milan 52.59 55.97 55.25 53.77 37.81 62.61 55.34 54.63 52.36 53.33
2022 cannabis NL001 NL Amsterdam 161.47 174.45 184.1 177.78 145.69 153.76 188.46 174.8 165.33 169.39
2022 cannabis NL002 NL Eindhoven 90.69 75.19 104.88 90.01 90.98 108.27 128.16 98.01 98.53 98.31
2022 cannabis NL005 NL Utrecht 79.71 93.28 109.75 76.15 93.74 122.6 121.67 98.22 100.56 99.56
2022 cannabis PL003 PL Krakow P 27.27 68.07 49.32 42 40.18 56.12 39.24 44.86 46.91 46.03
2022 cannabis PT001 PT Almada 154.89 150.74 134.62 138.46 89.5 116.77 153.02 152.88 119.84 134
2022 cannabis PT002 PT Lisbon 132.89 141.76 128.94 124.58 112.36 163.89 104.93 126.52 132.44 129.91
2022 cannabis PT003 PT Porto 61.97 71.62 54.4 34.09 90.44 66.64 69.69 67.76 61.39 64.12
2022 cannabis SE001 SE Gävle 63.77 45.54 56.59 50.31 51.02 65.32 55.78 55.03 55.81 55.48
2022 cannabis SE003 SE Sandviken   34.54 46.47 26.26 27.47 25.72 25.15 29.85 31.48 30.94
2022 cannabis SE009 SE Växjö 29.36 17.07 14.56 21.75 21.06 25.31 35.75 27.4 20.67 23.55
2022 cannabis SI001 SI Domžale-Kamnik 54.37 55.97 51.9 52.58 55.12 60.6 58.57 56.3 55.05 55.59
2022 cannabis SI002 SI Koper 67.05 86.21 72.69 85.83 92 74 96.23 83.16 81.13 82
2022 cannabis SI003 SI Kranj 36.12 50.4 36.98 37.71 30.52 39.67 34.68 40.4 36.22 38.01
2022 cannabis SI004 SI Ljubljana 77.36 77.56 79.11 78.71 76.72 91.5 78.7 77.87 81.51 79.95
2022 cannabis SI005 SI Maribor 57.48 56.1 59.36 98.59 48.07 52.16 59.57 57.72 64.54 61.62
2022 cannabis SI006 SI Novo mesto 66.14 52.72 53.55 53.71 53.53 58.63 63.92 60.93 54.85 57.46
2022 cannabis SI007 SI Velenje 90.82 80.79 71.36 80.61 43.85 67.2 71.88 81.17 65.75 72.36
2022 cannabis SK002 SK Bratislava C 34.58 56.98 32.18 43.21 43.36 44.9 36.27 42.61 40.91 41.64
2022 cannabis SK004 SK Piestany 6.84 48.21 7.48 43.47 31.04 28.6 21.41 25.49 27.65 26.72
2022 cannabis TR003 TR Istanbul (II-VII) 24.73 25.35 17.64 20.43 23.66 25.46 23.07 24.38 21.8 22.91
2022 cocaine AT001 AT Graz 163.63 153.52 193.23 241.92 225.36 146.9 139.79 152.32 201.85 180.62
2022 cocaine AT002 AT Hall-Wattens 250.21 254.08 283.7 356.65 343.63 246.85 200.89 235.06 307.71 276.57
2022 cocaine AT004 AT Innsbruck 301.15 324.95 373.86 486.61 432 305.2 288.61 304.9 399.42 358.91
2022 cocaine AT005