Low-THC cannabis products in Europe


An increase in the open sale of cannabis products in Europe has raised questions around the possible legal and commercial status of these products. The products are marketed for their low THC (tetrahydrocannabinol) content, which sellers claim exempt them from control by drug laws, or as sources of CBD (cannabidiol). This publication presents an initial overview of the situation, covering the types of low-THC product available, user profiles, associated harms and regulatory responses in Europe. Low-THC products that take forms similar to illicit cannabis products, such as smoking mixtures, oils and edibles, are a primary focus of this study. The report highlights the challenges facing policymakers and suppliers of low-THC products, including the legal status of the products and the regulatory frameworks that may apply to their sale.

Notes on translations:
Czech: translated and produced by the Czech national monitoring centre for drugs and addiction.

Table of contents

  • Introduction and rationale
    • What are low-THC cannabis products?
  • The situation in Europe regarding low-THC products
    • Types of low-THC products
    • The sale of low-THC products in Europe
    • Types of retailers
    • Origin of the products
    • Product quality
    • Marketing of low-THC products
    • Product labelling and disclaimers
    • Characteristics and motivations of users of low-THC products
    • The regulatory context for low-THC products
  • Recent regulatory responses to the rise in low-THC products
    • Regulating THC levels at national level
    • Regulating CBD products
    • Quality control and law enforcement
  • Looking to the future: what traction do low-THC products have?
  • References
  • Resources
  • Acknowledgements