Exploring drug supply, associated violence and exploitation of vulnerable groups in Denmark
This report provides an analysis of current drug supply models and the related violence and exploitation of vulnerable groups in Denmark. Recent years have seen a growth in criminals’ exploitation of vulnerable groups for drug-related crimes. This development appears to be driven by several...
Ad hoc publication
Methamphetamine developments in South Asia: the situation in Iran and the implications for the EU and its neighbours — EU4MD special report
Iran is a key transhipment point for illicit drugs along the Balkan and Southern trafficking routes and this report examines the threats posed by its potential emergence as a transhipment point for Afghan methamphetamine (‘shisheh’). The study is based on interviews with Iranian drug treatment...
Ad hoc publication
Emerging evidence of Afghanistan’s role as a producer and supplier of ephedrine and methamphetamine
This paper provides an analysis of the available data that suggest that a methamphetamine industry is rapidly being established in Afghanistan. The analysis provided is based on information from key informants, documentary sources and the analysis of satellite imagery. The paper also highlights an...
Drug-related homicide in Europe: data protocol
This report is part of the EMCDDA activity around the development and improvement of drug supply indicators, which are designed to reflect developments in drug markets as well as the markets’ wider harms and impact. The protocol in this document provides a framework for standardised drug-related...
EU Drug Markets — Impact of COVID-19
What effect is COVID-19 having on the drug market in the EU? This joint publication from the EMCDDA and Europol analyses the impact of the pandemic on the market for the main drug types (cannabis, heroin, cocaine, amphetamines, NPS), including demand, production, trafficking and availability. It...
Ad hoc publication
Resources on COVID-19 and drug markets
This page describes the EMCDDA's ongoing work on the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on drug markets in the EU. As well as showcasing EMCDDA publications on the topic, it also provides the reader with useful relevant resources from partner organisations. This resource is online only and may be...
Ad hoc publication
EMCDDA special report: COVID-19 and drugs – Drug supply via darknet markets
This report is a rapid and preliminary analysis of the impact of COVID-19 on selected online markets. Three relatively large darknet markets were reviewed for the purposes of this study, selected because of their importance to the EU market and because they could be accessed to provide information...
Estimating the size of the main illicit retail drug markets in Europe: an update
This report includes estimates of the total size of the retail drug market in the European Union in 2017 for cannabis, heroin, cocaine, amphetamines and MDMA. This is a supporting publication to the 2019 EU Drug Markets Report.
EU Drug Markets Report 2019
The EU Drug Markets Report 2019 is the third comprehensive overview of illicit drug markets in the European Union by the EMCDDA and Europol. The analysis presented in this report spans numerous topics such as the links between drugs and other crimes, the licit economy and society more generally as...
EMCDDA pilot study of drug-related homicide in Finland, the Netherlands and Sweden
This paper is part of the EMCDDA activity around the development and improvement of drug supply indicators, with a focus on drug-related homicide. It builds upon the 2017 review of the academic research and data sources on drug-related homicide at national and European/international levels by...
Methamphetamine in Europe: EMCDDA-Europol threat assessment
This report provides a comprehensive overview of the methamphetamine market in the European Union. It assesses the current threat situation regarding current trends in production, trafficking and distribution. This is a supporting publication to the 2019 EU Drug Markets Report.
Drug precursor developments in the European Union
This paper describes the significant developments that have occurred in the last 5 to 10 years in the field of drug precursors related to synthetic stimulant drugs produced in the EU. This includes describing the ‘pre-precursor’ phenomenon and responses to it, both by the EU and by the drug...
Using open-source information to improve the European drug monitoring system
This paper explains the methodology developed by the EMCDDA for open-source information monitoring in the area of drug markets. Initially designed to support the work of the EU Early Warning System in 2016, the technique has recently been expanded to cover open-source information through a pilot...
Improved drug supply indicators for Europe: progress report
This report provides a summary of the key findings from the assessment of progress of the EU Member States, Norway and Turkey towards the implementation of the revised drug supply indicators, as developed by the EMCDDA in line with the Council conclusions of November 2013. The report gives also an...
Darknet markets ecosystem – Lifetimes and reasons for closure of over 100 global darknet markets offering drugs, sorted by date
Darknet markets — also known as cryptomarkets — provide a largely anonymous platform for trading in a range of illicit goods and services. It is estimated that around two thirds of the offers on darknet markets are drug-related. Drug sales on these markets, although modest when compared to the...
Drugs and the darknet: perspectives for enforcement, research and policy
This joint report prepared by the EMCDDA and Europol considers the latest findings from international research, fresh empirical data, and operational information and intelligence in order to illuminate how darknet markets function and how they relate to criminal behaviour. The publication adopts an...
The future of drug supply monitoring in Europe (poster)
Drug markets can be seen from the perspective of supply and demand. Market-related indicators, therefore, particularly administrative data, such as seizures, price, purity and drug-related offences, are used in most countries for assessment of the drug situation and policy evaluation. However, the ...
Perspectives on Drugs (PODs)
Changes in Europe’s cannabis resin market (Perspectives on drugs)
The European market for hashish is currently one of the world’s largest and most profitable. About 647 tonnes of cannabis herb and 641 tonnes of hashish were consumed in the European Union in 2013 and the retail market has an overall value estimated conservatively to be about EUR 9.3 billion in...
Drug supply reduction: an overview of EU policies and measures
Illicit drug markets have a global reach. This paper provides an overview of EU policies and responses to the production and trafficking of illicit drugs within the international context. It considers the different strategic areas involved, the EU structures concerned, along with some of the key...