Manuals and guidelines
EMCDDA operating guidelines for the European Union Early Warning System on new psychoactive substances
These guidelines provide the rationale, steps, procedures, roles, and responsibilities for the operation of the EU Early Warning System. They reflect the requirements of Regulation (EC) No 1920/2006 (as amended) and Council Framework Decision 2004/757/JHA (as amended) with respect to information...
Estimating the size of the main illicit retail drug markets in Europe: an update
This report includes estimates of the total size of the retail drug market in the European Union in 2017 for cannabis, heroin, cocaine, amphetamines and MDMA. This is a supporting publication to the 2019 EU Drug Markets Report.
Exchange prevention registry
Xchange is an online registry of evidence-based prevention interventions. It is updated approximated twice a year with new programmes and feedback from implementers. The registry makes available manualised interventions for which good European evaluation studies showed beneficial outcomes relating...
EU Drug Markets Report 2019
The EU Drug Markets Report 2019 is the third comprehensive overview of illicit drug markets in the European Union by the EMCDDA and Europol. The analysis presented in this report spans numerous topics such as the links between drugs and other crimes, the licit economy and society more generally as...
EMCDDA pilot study of drug-related homicide in Finland, the Netherlands and Sweden
This paper is part of the EMCDDA activity around the development and improvement of drug supply indicators, with a focus on drug-related homicide. It builds upon the 2017 review of the academic research and data sources on drug-related homicide at national and European/international levels by...
Methamphetamine in Europe: EMCDDA-Europol threat assessment
This report provides a comprehensive overview of the methamphetamine market in the European Union. It assesses the current threat situation regarding current trends in production, trafficking and distribution. This is a supporting publication to the 2019 EU Drug Markets Report.
Drug precursor developments in the European Union
This paper describes the significant developments that have occurred in the last 5 to 10 years in the field of drug precursors related to synthetic stimulant drugs produced in the EU. This includes describing the ‘pre-precursor’ phenomenon and responses to it, both by the EU and by the drug...
Using open-source information to improve the European drug monitoring system
This paper explains the methodology developed by the EMCDDA for open-source information monitoring in the area of drug markets. Initially designed to support the work of the EU Early Warning System in 2016, the technique has recently been expanded to cover open-source information through a pilot...
Cannabis policy news: status and recent developments (topic overview)
Under international laws, cultivation, supply and possession of cannabis should be allowed only for ‘medical and scientific purposes’. In general, possession of the drug for personal use should be a crime, to deter use, and most countries make this punishable by imprisonment. In recent years,...
The Reitox network: frequently asked questions
This information brochure has been produced by the EMCDDA to provide answers to the most commonly asked questions on the Reitox network of national focal points and more broadly on national drugs observatories. Compiled over several years, it is a reference tool for both EU Member States and...
Perspectives on Drugs (PODs)
The EU drugs strategy: a model for common action
On the basis of an external evaluation of the EU drugs strategy 2005-12, on 7 December 2012 the Justice and Home Affairs Council of the European Union endorsed a new EU drugs strategy (2013-20). The strategy was designed to be implemented by two consecutive 4-year action plans. An external...
Monitoring the elimination of viral hepatitis as a public health threat among people who inject drugs in Europe
This technical report focuses on an elimination barometer for viral hepatitis to help countries assess progress towards eliminating hepatitis C and B among people who inject drugs (PWID). The barometer is being developed by the EMCDDA together with its expert network on drug-related infectious...
European Prevention Curriculum (EUPC): a handbook for decision-makers, opinion-makers and policy-makers in science-based prevention of substance use
This handbook has been developed with the primary purpose of providing specific reference material for the European Prevention Curriculum (EUPC) training courses. It also serves to provide a more general introduction to prevention science and, in particular, to science-based interventions. The...
Evidence database of the Best practice portal
This database presents the latest evidence on drug-related interventions. The information is based on systematic searches is updated twice a year. Topics covered include harm reduction, social reintegration, treatment, prevention as well as emerging topics.
Take-home naloxone (topic overview)
Drug overdose continues to be the main cause of death among problem drug users. Heroin or other opioids — often consumed alongside other central nervous system depressants such as benzodiazepines and alcohol — are present in the majority of reported fatal overdoses. Overdose is common among opioid...
Frequently asked questions (FAQ): drug overdose deaths in Europe (topic overview)
These pages provide an update on drug-related deaths in Europe, presenting and analysing the latest data on and trends in drug-induced deaths in the European Union, Norway and Turkey. They draw on contributions from specialists from these countries, as well as on information provided by European...
Prevention of drug-related deaths – topic overview
This publication describes some of the factors that increase the risk of fatal and non-fatal overdoses and a number of interventions developed to prevent these events. Worldwide, overdose is the leading cause of avoidable death among people who inject drugs. It accounts for nearly half of all...
Drug-related deaths and mortality in Europe: update from the EMCDDA expert network
This publication provides an update on drug-related deaths in Europe, presenting and analysing the latest data and trends in drug-induced deaths and overall mortality among high-risk drug users in the European Union and beyond. It draws on contributions from specialists representing more than 40...