Interventions to prevent opioid-related death by intended aim and evidence of benefit

Interventions where there is evidence of benefit in preventing opioid-related deaths and where we can have a high or reasonable confidence in the available evidence, are highlighted in a bolder frame namely naloxone administration and opioid agonist treatment, retention and continuity of care. Much of the current evidence on interventions listed in this figure is either emerging or deemed insufficient, in part because of the practical and methodological difficulties of conducting research, especially in developing randomised controlled trials (see Spotlight on... Understanding and using evidence) and also because service delivery models often differ considerably.

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