Subjective Opiate Withdrawal Scale

Original/alternative title:  SOWS


Self-administered screening/evaluation scale for grading opioid withdrawal symptoms. It contains 16 symptoms whose intensity the patient rates on a scale of 0 (not at all) to 4 (extremely).

The scale items reflect the common motor, gastrointestinal, musculoskeletal, psychic, and autonomic signs and symptoms of opiate withdrawal.

Additional information

Handelsman L, Cochrane KJ, Aronson MJ, Ness R, Rubinstein KJ, Kanof PD. Two new rating scales for opiate withdrawal. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse 1987;13(3):293-308

Dijkstra BAG, Krabbe PFM, Riezebos TGM, van der Staak CPF, De Jong CAJ. Psychometric evaluation of the Dutch version of the Subjective Opiate Withdrawal Scale (SOWS). Eur Addict Res 2007;13:81-88