Performance- and image-enhancing drugs (PIEDs) include a wide range of drugs across various pharmacological categories and are subject to different legal controls and medicinal regulation across European countries. Their common feature is the function of their use: the alteration of physical performance or appearance.
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This paper was commissioned by the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA) to provide background information to inform and contribute to the drafting of Health and social responses to drug problems: a European guide.
This background paper was produced under contract CT.19.HEA.0073.1.0 and we are grateful for the valuable contribution of the author. The paper has been cited within Health and social responses to drug problems and is also being made available online for those who would like further information on the topic. However, the views, interpretations and conclusions set out in this publication are those of the author and are not necessarily those of the EMCDDA or its partners, any EU Member State or any agency or institution of the European Union.