Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale

Original/alternative title:  CES-D 10


The CES-D scale is a brief self-report scale designed to measure self-reported symptoms associated with depression experienced in the past week, specifically developed for older populations. It is not recommended for screening of clinical depression or major depression.

The CES-D is a 10-items questionnaire composed of six scales reflecting major facets of depression: depressed mood, feelings of guilt and worthlessness, feelings of helplessness and hopelessness, psychomotor retardation, loss of appetite, and sleep disturbance.

Additional information

Radloff, L.S. (1977). The CES-D scale: A self-report depression scale for research in the general population. Applied Psychological Measurement, 1, 385-401.

Carleton, R., N., et al (2013), The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale: A Review with a Theoretical and Empirical Examination of Item Content and Factor Structure, PLoS One. 2013; 8(3): e58067  -