In Romania, drug-related emergencies have been monitored nationwide since 2010. In 2017, over 3 000 emergencies caused by illicit psychoactive substances were reported, a stable figure compared with 2016. More than one third of the cases were linked primarily to the use of new psychoactive substances (NPS), followed by cannabis (reported for one fifth of the cases) and opioids (reported for fewer than 1 out of 10 cases). In about one fifth of the reported emergencies, more than one illicit substance or alcohol was involved. Young males were the group most likely to seek emergency help as a result of illicit substance use.