At a glance
The KiVa programme is a school-wide approach to decrease the incidence and negative effects of bullying on student well-being at school. The programme’s impact is measured through self and peer-rated reports of bullying, victimisation, defending victims, feeling empathy towards victims, bystanders reinforcing bullying behaviour, anxiety, self-esteem, depression, liking school, and academic motivation and performance, among other factors. The programme is based on the idea that how peer bystanders behave when witnessing bullying plays a critical role in perpetuating or ending the incident. As a result, the intervention is designed to modify peer attitudes, perceptions, and understanding of bullying. The programme specifically encourages students to support victimised peers rather than embolden bullying behaviour and, furthermore, provides teachers and parents with information about how to prevent and address the incidence of bullying.
KiVa includes both universal actions to prevent the occurrence of bullying and indicated actions to intervene in individual bullying cases. The programme has three different developmentally appropriate versions for grades 1–3 (7 –9 years of age) (Unit 1), grades 4–6 (10 –12 years of age) (Unit 2), and grades 7–9 (age 13 –15 years) (Unit 3).
The indicated actions implemented in each school are the team of three teachers (or other school personnel), along with classroom teacher, address each case of bullying that is witnessed or revealed. In addition, the classroom teacher meets with a few prosocial and high-status classmates to encourage the support of the victimised child. The universal actions include 20 hours of student lessons (10 double lessons) given by classroom teachers during school year. The central aims of the lessons are to: (a) raise awareness of the role that the group plays in maintaining bullying, (b) increase empathy toward victims, and (c) promote children’s strategies of supporting the victim and thus their self-efficacy to do so.
Prof. Chistina Salmivalli,
Ph.D, University of Turku, Finland,
Overview of results from the European studies
The programme has been evaluated in four studies in Finland, one pragmatic cluster randomized controlled trial in United Kingdom (2020), one randomised controlled trial in the Netherlands (2020), and one in Italy (2016).
The Italian RCT involved 2042 students in grades 4 and 6 (approx. 8 to 11 years old) in 13 randomly assigned school to intervention group (KiVa) and to control group (usual school provision). The study focused on different outcomes, such as bullying, victimisation, pro-bullying attitudes, pro-victim attitudes, and empathy toward victims. Multilevel models showed that KiVa reduced bullying and victimisation and increased pro-victim attitudes and empathy toward the victim in grade 4, with ES = 0.24 to -.40. In grade 6, KiVa reduced bullying, victimisation and pro-bullying attitudes, the effect was smaller, but also significant (d>= 0.20). The study showed that the odds of being a victim were 1.93 times higher for a control group than for intervention group.
The Dutch RCT evaluated a programme in 4383 students in grades 3 – 4 (aged 8-9) from 98 schools who volunteered to participate in the research. There were five waves of the measurement collected in three years. At the baseline, two-third of schools were randomly assigned to the intervention group (KiVa or KiVa+, with an additional intervention component of network feedback to teachers) and one-third to the control group (waiting list, case as usual). The study showed that self-reported victimisation and bullying reduced more strongly in KiVa-schools compared with control schools, and with stronger effects after two school years of implementation. Moreover, it showed that the odds of being a victim were 1.29 – 1.63 times higher for control group, and the odds of being a bully were 1.19 – 1.66 higher than for KiVa students. There were no significant differences between KiVa and KiVa+.
The British two-arm waitlist control cluster RCT involved 3214 students (aged 7-11) in 22 primary schools. The schools were randomly allocated to the intervention group and waitlist control group (usual school provision) with the 1:1 ratio. The outcomes targeted were student-reported victimisation and bullying perpetration, teacher reported child behaviour and emotional well-being, and school absenteeism (administrative reports). There was no statistically significant effect on the primary outcome of child-reported victimisation or on the secondary outcomes. The impact on victimisation was not moderated by gender, age or victimisation status at baseline. The trial found insufficient evidence to conclude that KiVa had an effect on the primary outcome. A larger trial of KiVa in the UK is underway (Trial registration: Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN23999021 Date 10-6-13).
The programme has been rated as Promising by Blueprints for Healthy Youth Development based on the review of studies conducted worldwide.
Countries where evaluated
Description of programme
KiVa includes both universal and indicated actions to prevent the occurrence of bullying as well as to intervene in individual bullying cases. The programme has three different developmentally appropriate versions for Grades 1–3, 4–6, and 7–9 (i.e., for 7–9, 10–12, and 13–15 years of age).
Indicated actions. In each school, a team of three teachers (or other school personnel), along with the classroom teacher, address each case of bullying that is witnessed or revealed. Cases are handled through a set of individual and small group discussions with the victims and with the bullies, and systematic follow-up meetings. In addition, the classroom teacher meets with two to four prosocial and high-status classmates, encouraging them to support the victimized child.
Universal actions. The KiVa programme for Grades 4–6 (10 –12 years of age) includes 20 hours of student lessons (10 double lessons) given by classroom teachers during a school year. The central aims of the lessons are to: (a) raise awareness of the role that the group plays in maintaining bullying, (b) increase empathy toward victims, and (c) promote children’s strategies of supporting the victim and thus their self-efficacy to do so. The lessons involve discussion, group work, role-play exercises, and short films about bullying. As the lessons proceed, class rules based on the central themes of the lessons are successively adopted one at a time. A unique feature of KiVa is an antibullying computer game included in the primary school versions of the programme. Students play the game during and between the lessons described earlier. Students acquire new information and test their existing knowledge about bullying, learn new skills to act in appropriate ways in bullying situations, and are encouraged to make use of their knowledge and skills in real-life situations.
KiVa provides prominent symbols such as bright vests for the recess supervisors to enhance their visibility and signal that bullying is taken seriously in the school and posters to remind students and school personnel about the KiVa programme. Parents also receive a guide that includes information about bullying and advice about what parents can do to prevent and reduce the problem.
Support to implement the programme is given to teachers and schools in several ways. In addition to two full days of face-to-face training, networks of school teams are created, consisting of three school teams each. The network members meet three times during the school year with one person from the KiVa project guiding the network.
KiVa naturally shares some features with existing antibullying programmes, such as the Olweus’s bullying prevention programme. Both Olweus and KiVa include actions at the level of individual students, classrooms, and schools, both tackle acute bullying cases through discussions with the students involved, and both suggest developing class rules against bullying. KiVa, however, has at least three features that, when taken together, differentiate it from Olweus and other antibullying programmes. First, KiVa includes a broad and encompassing array of concrete and professionally prepared materials for students, teachers, and parents. Second, KiVa harnesses the powerful learning opportunities provided by the Internet and virtual learning environments. Third, while focusing on the bystanders, or witnesses of bullying, KiVa goes beyond “emphasising the role of bystanders” that is mentioned in the context of several intervention programmes; it also provides ways to enhance empathy, self-efficacy, and efforts to support the victimized peers.