Needle and syringe programmes (NSP) to reduce injecting risk behaviour

Summary of the evidence

  • Beneficial

A review of reviews (MacArthur et al., 2014, N=25 reviews), without meta-analysis, concluded that there is:

  • sufficient evidence to support the effectiveness of NSPs in reducing self-reported injecting risk behaviour among IDUs (N=43 studies, 39 positive, 1 negative, 3 no association).