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Table PDU-0. Estimates of prevalence of problem drug use at national and subnational level: bibliographic references

CountryRef. no.Bibliographic reference
EU99EMCDDA project (2003). National Prevalence Estimates of Problem Drug Use in the European Union, 1995-2000. CT.00.RTX.23, emcdda, Lisbon, coordinated by the Institut fur Therapieforschung, Munich.
Belgium1Walckiers D., Sartor F., Sasse A. (2001). Country Report : Belgium. National estimates of problem drug use prevalence IPH, 2001.
Belgium2Driesen G., De Maere W., Kinable H., Todts S. (1997). Risicogedrag bij injecterende druggebruikers in Vlaanderen. Rapport van het GIG-project.
Belgium3Ledoux Y, Preumont C, Bils L. Prevalence of opiate use in the French Community of Belgium. CCAD - Brussels, September 1999.
Belgium4National Focal Point (Unpublished Data).
Belgium5National seroprevalence study: Plasschaert S, Ameye L, De Clercq T, Walckiers D, Sartor F, Micalessi I, et al. Study on HCV, HBV and HIV seroprevalence in a sample of drug users in contact with treatment centres or in prisons in Belgium, 2004-2005. Brussels: Scientific Institute of Public Health - Unit of Epidemiology; 2005. Report No.: IPH/EPI Reports Nº 2005-029
Bulgaria1Annual Report of the NFP on the state of drug related problems in Bulgaria - 2005, National Focal Point, Sofia, 2005.
Bulgaria2Annual Report of the NFP on the state of drug related problems in Bulgaria - 201, National Focal Point, Sofia, 2011.
Czech Republic1Mravcík, V., Korcišová, B., Lejcková, P., Miovská, L., Škrdlantová, E., Petroš, O., Radimecký, J., Sklenár, V., Gajdošíková, H., Vopravil, J. (2004). Výrocní zpráva o stavu ve vecech drog v Ceské republice v roce 2003 [Annual Report on Drug Situation 2003 – Czech Republic]. Praha: Úrad vlády CR.
Czech Republic2National Focal Point (unpublished data).
Czech Republic3Mravcík, V., Zábranský, T., Korcišová, B., Lejcková, P., Škrdlantová, E., Štastná, L., Macek, V., Petroš, O., Gajdošíková, H., Miovský, M., Kalina, K., Vopravil, J. (2003). Výrocní zpráva o stavu ve vecech v Ceské republice v r. 2002 (Annual Report on Drug Situation 2002 – Czech Republic). Praha: Úrad vlády CR. ISBN 80-86734-06-4
Czech Republic4Mravcík, V., Korcišová, B., Lejcková, P., Miovská, L., Škrdlantová, E., Petroš, O., Sklenár, V. and Vopravil, J. (2005) Výrocní zpráva o stavu ve vecech drog v Ceské republice v roce 2004. [Annual Report on Drug Situation 2004 - Czech Republic].
Czech Republic5Mravcík, V., Lejcková, P., Orlíková, B., Petrošová, B., Škrdlantová E., Trojácková, A., Petroš, O., Sklenár, V., Vopravil, J. (2006). Výrocní zpráva o stavu ve vecech drog v Ceské republice v roce 2005 [Annual Report on Drug Situation 2005 - Czech Republic]. Praha: Úrad vlády CR.
Czech Republic6Mravcík, V., homynová, P., Orlíková, B., Škrdlantová E., Trojácková, A., Petroš, O., Vopravil, J., Vacek, J. (2007). Výrocní zpráva o stavu ve vecech drog v Ceské republice v roce 2006 [Annual Report on Drug Situation 2006 - Czech Republic]. Praha: Úrad vlády CR.
Czech Republic7National Focal Point (Unpublished Data)
Denmark1Eva Hammerby, Nye Tal fra Sundhedsstyrelsen nr.16 2003.
Denmark2Lene Haastrup: Estimates of the number of deaths among drug users and the number of drug useres in Denmark, Nye tal fra Sundhedsstyrelsen, aargang 3, no 3, 1999.
Denmark3Mortality and causes of death among drug users received in Treatment in 1996 in ‘Nye tal fra National Board of Health’, 1999, Vol. 3, no 3 pages 18.
Denmark4National focal point, (unpublished data).
Denmark5‘Hvor mange stofmisbrugere er der i København’, published by Forebyggelsesudvalget vedrørende stofmisbrug og Hiv-smitte, Københavns kommune,” Stadslaegen” July 1999.
Denmark6National Board of Health — the estimate will be published by the National Board of Health in the journal 'Nye Tal Fra Sundhedsstyrelsen', November 2006. (Mette Thorup Eriksen, mee@sst.dk).
Denmark7National Report on the Drug Situation 2009
Denmark8National Focal Point (Unpublished Data)
Germany1Kraus, L., Augustin, R., Frischer, M., Kümmler, P., Uhl, A,. Wiessing L., Estimating prevalence of problem drug use at national level in countries of the European Union and Norway. Addiction 2003; 98: pp. 471-85.
Germany2Augustin, R. & Kraus, L.. Changes in prevalence of problem opiate use in Germany between 1990 and 2000. European Addiction Research, in press.
Germany3Bundeskriminalamt OA 21(1996), Rauschgiftjahresbericht 1995 Bundesrepublik Deutschland.Wiesbaden: Bundeskriminalamt.
Germany4Bundeskriminalamt OA 21(2000), Rauschgiftjahresbericht 2000 Bundesrepublik Deutschland.Wiesbaden: Bundeskriminalamt.
Germany5Robert Koch Institut (Hrsg.) (2001). Aktuelle epidemiologische Daten (http://www.rki.de). Berlin: RKI.
Germany6Kraus, L., Augustin, R., Simon, R. (2002) Country Report Germany. In: Simon, R., Kraus, L., Augustin, R., Wiessing, L., Hartnoll, R. . Prevalence and Pattern of Probem Drug Use. Final Report project CT.RTX.23. Lisbon: EMCDDA.
Germany7Strobl, M., Pelzel, K.-H., Bader, G., Zahn, H., Lange S. N. (2001). Jahresauswertung EBIS-A 2000 — Ambulante Suchtkrankenhilfe.
Germany8Tauscher, M., Simon, R., Hüllinghorst, R., Bühringer, G., Helas, I., Schmidtobreick, B. (1996).Erweiterte Jahresstatistik 1995 der ambulanten Beratungs- und Behandlungsstellen für Suchtkranke in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland (Tabellenband). Hamm: EBIS-AG bei der DHS.
Germany9Kraus, Augustin & Orth 2004.
Germany10BKA 2004.
Germany11Kraus et al 2004.
Germany12National focal point, (unpublished data).
Germany13Kraus, L., Beloch, E., Quammou-Engel, M. & Müller-Kalthoff, Th. (in press). Verbesserung der therapeutischen Situation für Drogenkonsumenten in Augsburg unter besonderer Berücksichtigung von Maßnahmen zur Reduzierung der Zahl der Todesfälle.(Improving Health Care Conditions of Drug Addicts in Augsburg with Special Attention to Reducing the Number of DRD.) IFT - Bericht Bd. 119: München (Improving Health Care Conditions of Drug Addicts in Augsburg with Special Attention to Reducing the Number of DRD.) IFT - Bericht Bd. 119: München.
Germany14Zenker C., Greiser, E. Eprobungsvorhaben zur Pravalenzschätzung des regionalen illegalen Drogenmißbrauchs und seiner Folgen. Bremen: Bremer Institut für Präventions-forschung und Sozialmedizin (BIPS), 1998.
Germany15Kirschner W, Kunert M. Berlin: EFB, 1996.
Germany16Bundeskriminalamt (BKA) (Hrsg.) (2005a). Bundeslagebild Rauschgift 2004. BKA, Wiesbaden.
Germany17Strobl, M., Klapper, J., Pelzel, K.-H., Bader, Zahn, H. & Lange, N. (2005a). Suchthilfestatistik 2004 für Deutschland. Tabellenband für die ambulante Suchtkrankenhilfe;Strobl, M., Klapper, J., Pelzel, K.-H., Bader, Zahn, H. & Lange, N. (2005b). Suchthilfestatistik 2004 für Deutschland. Tabellenband für die stationäre Suchtkrankenhilfe.
Germany18Bundeskriminalamt (BKA) (Hrsg.) (2006). Bundeslagebild Rauschgift 2004. BKA, Wiesbaden.
Germany19Sonntag, Bauer & Hellwich (2007). Deutsche Suchthilfestatistik 2006. Sucht, (in press).
Germany20Statistisches Bundesamt (2007a). Diagnosedaten der Patientinnen und Patienten in Krankenh?usern (einschl. Sterbe- und Stundenf?lle) 2005. Fachserie 12, Reihe 6.2.1. Wiesbaden: Statistisches Bundesamt.
Germany21Bundeskriminalamt (BKA) (Hrsg.) (2007). Bundeslagebild Rauschgift 2006. BKA, Wiesbaden.
Germany22Sonntag, D., Bauer, C. & Hellwich, A. K. (2007). Deutsche Suchthilfestatistik 2006 f?r ambulante Einrichtungen. Sucht, 55 (Sonderheft 1), S7-S41.
Germany23Bundeskriminalamt (2008). Rauschgiftkriminalitaet. Bundeslagebild 2007 - Tabellenanhang. Wiesbaden: Bundeskriminalamt.
Germany24Statistisches Bundesamt (2008). Diagnosedaten der Patienten und Patientinnen in Krankenhaeusern (einschl. Sterbe- und Stundenfaelle) 2006. Fachserie 12, Reihe 6.2.1. Wiesbaden: Statistisches Bundesamt.
Germany25Sonntag, D., Bauer, C. and Eichmann, A. (2008). Deutsche Suchthilfestatistik 2007. Alle Bundeslaender. Tabellenband fuer ambulante Beratungsstellen. Bezugsgruppe: Zugaenge/Beender ohne Einmalkontakte. Muenchen: Institut für Therapieforschung.
Germany26Statistisches Bundesamt (2008). Diagnosedaten der Patienten und Patientinnen in Krankenhaeusern (einschl. Sterbe- und Stundenfaelle) 2007. Fachserie 12, Reihe 6.2.1. Wiesbaden: Statistisches Bundesamt.
Germany27Bundeskriminalamt (2009). Rauschgiftkriminalitaet. Bundeslagebild 2008 - Tabellenanhang. Wiesbaden: Bundeskriminalamt.
Germany28Pfeiffer-Gerschel, T., Hildebrand, A. & Wegmann, L. (2009). Deutsche Suchthilfestatistik 2008. Alle Bundeslaender. Tabellenband fuer ambulante Beratungsstellen. Bezugsgruppe: Zugaenge/Beender ohne Einmalkontakte. IFT Institut fuer Therapieforschung, Muenchen.
Germany29Statistisches Bundesamt (2009). Diagnosedaten der Patienten und Patientinnen in Krankenhaeusern (einschl. Sterbe- und Stundenfaelle) 2008. Fachserie 12, Reihe 6.2.1. Statistisches Bundesamt, Wiesbaden.
Germany30Bundeskriminalamt (BKA) (2010). Rauschgiftkriminalitaet Bundeslagebild 2009 - Tabellenanhang. Bundeskriminalamt, Wiesbaden.
Germany31Pfeiffer-Gerschel, T., Kipke, I. & Steppan, M. (2010). Deutsche Suchthilfestatistik 2009. Alle Bundeslaender. Tabellenband fuer ambulante Beratungsstellen. Bezugsgruppe: Zugaenge/Beender ohne Einmalkontakte. IFT Institut fuer Therapieforschung, Muenchen.
Germany32Pfeiffer-Gerschel, T., Kipke, I. & Steppan, M. (2010). Deutsche Suchthilfestatistik 2009. Alle Bundeslaender. Tabellenband fuer ambulante Beratungsstellen. Bezugsgruppe: Erstbehandelte ohne Einmalkontakte. IFT Institut fuer Therapieforschung, Muenchen.
Germany33Pfeiffer-Gerschel, T., Kipke, I. & Steppan, M. (2011). Deutsche Suchthilfestatistik 2010. Alle Bundeslaender. Tabellenband für ambulante Beratungsstellen. Bezugsgruppe: Zugaenge/Beender ohne Einmalkontakte. IFT Institut für Therapieforschung, München.
Germany34Statistisches Bundesamt (2011). Diagnosedaten der Patienten und Patientinnen in Krankenhaeusern (einschl. Sterbe- und Stundenfaelle) 2009. Fachserie 12, Reihe 6.2.1. Statistisches Bundesamt, Wiesbaden.
Germany35Bundeskriminalamt (BKA) (2011). Rauschgiftkriminalitaet Bundeslagebild 2010 - Tabellenanhang. Bundeskriminalamt, Wiesbaden.
Germany36Pfeiffer-Gerschel, T., Kipke, I. & Steppan, M. (2012). Deutsche Suchthilfestatistik 2011. Alle Bundeslaender. Tabellenband fuer (teil-)stationaere Rehabilitationseinrichtungen und Adaptionseinrichtungen. Bezugsgruppe: Beender mit Einmalkontakte. IFT Institut fuer Therapieforschung, Muenchen.
Germany37Bundeskriminalamt (BKA) (2012). Rauschgiftkriminalität. Bundeslagebild 2011 - Tabellenanhang. BKA, Wiesbaden.
Germany38Pfeiffer-Gerschel, T., Kipke, I. & Steppan, M. (2012). Deutsche Suchthilfestatistik 2011. Alle Bundesländer. Tabellenband für ambulante Beratungs- und/oder Behandlungsstellen, Fachambulanzen und Institutsambulanzen (Typ 3 und 4). Bezugsgruppe: Zugänge Beender Erstbehandelte ohne EK. IFT Institut für Therapieforschung, München.
Estonia1Estimating injection drug use prevalence using State-wide administrative data sources: Estonia, 2004.
Authors: Anneli Uusküla MD, MS, PhD 1, Kristiina Rajaleid MSc 2, Ave Talu 3, Katri Abel 3, Kristi Rüütel MD 4, Gordon Hay, BSc(Hons), PhD, MPH 5.
Ireland1Kelly A., Carvalho M., Teljeur C., A 3-Source Capture Recapture Study of the Prevalence of Opiate Use in Ireland 2000–01, Key Findings Summary Tables. Dublin: National Advisory Committee on Drugs, 2003. Report available online at www.nacd.ie
Ireland2National Focal Point (unpublished data).
Ireland3C. M. Comiskey, Mathematics Department, National University of Ireland, Maynooth, Co. Kildare, Ireland.
Ireland3Kelly A, Teljeur C, Carvalho M.(2009) A Capture-recapture study estimating the prevalence of opiate use in Ireland 2006. National Advisory Committee on Drugs, Dublin. Expected to be published by the end of 2009. Please do not use data until this date.
Ireland4Data for denominators obtained from the 2006 Census for Ireland http://beyond2020.cso.ie/Census/TableViewer/tableView.aspx Theme 1-2, persons by age, county of residence and marital status 2006.
Greece1National focal point, 2004 (unpublished data).
Greece2National focal point, 2003 (unpublished data).
Greece3National focal point (unpublished data).
Greece4National focal point, 2006 (unpublished data).
Spain1Domingo-Salvany, A., Barrio, G., Royuela, L., Country report: Spain.
Spain2Ortí, R.M., Domingo-Salvany, A., Muñoz, A., Macfarlane, D., Suelves, J.M., Antó, J.M., Mortality trends in a cohort of opiate addicts, Catalonia, Spain, Int J Epidemiol 1996; 25(3): pp. 545-553.
Spain3National Focal Point (unpublished data)
Spain4Domingo-Salvany A., Hartnoll R.L., Maguire A., Brugal T., Albertin P., Caylá J.A., Casabona J., Suelves J. M. 'Analytical considerations in the use of capture-recapture to estimate prevalence: Case studies of estimating opiate use in the metropolitan area of Barcelona'. Am J Epidemiol, 1998; 148: pp. 732-40.
Spain5Paredes, D., del Llano, J., del Llano, J., et al., Comunidad de Madrid, Plan Regional sobre Drogas, 1994.
Spain6Moreno Iribas, C., Urtiaga Dominguez, M., Gaceta Sanitaria 1993; 7: pp. 55-62.
Spain7Domingo-Salvany, A., Hartnoll, R., Maguire, A., et al., American Journal of Epidemiology 1995; 141: pp. 567-574.
France1Costes, J.M., Country report: France in ‘Prevalence and patterns of problem drug use for all European Union member states, Final report’, EMCDDA.
France2National focal point (unpublished data).
France3Chevallier, E. (2001), Estimations locales de la prévalence de l'usage d'opiacés et cocaïne en France : une étude multicentrique à Lens, Lille, Marseille, Nice et Toulouse, OFDT, Paris.
France4Bello, P. Y., Chené, G., Methodological pilot study of local level of prevalence estimates. Lisbon: EMCDDA, December 1997.
France5Bello, P. Y., Chéne, G. In: EMCDDA/Pompidou Group Scientific Monograph 1 (in press) Lisbon, 1997.
France6Chevallier, E. et al., Estimations locales de la prévalence de l'usage d'opiacés et cocaïne en France, OFDT report, 2001.
France7COSTES, J.-M., et al., eds. Problem drug use prevalence in France; 2006 estimations. 2009, OFDT. 24.(http://www.ofdt.fr/ofdtdev/live/publi/rapports/rap09/epfxjcp6.html)
France8Vaissade, L. and S. Legleye, Capture-recapture estimates of the local prevalence of problem drug use in six French cities. European Journal of Public Health, 2009. 19(1): p. 32-7
France9Cadet-Taïrou, A., et al., Quel est le nombre d'usagers d'opiacés sous BHD ? Les traitements de substitution en France : résultats récents 2004. Tendances, 2004(37): p. 1-2.
France10Office central pour la répression du trafic illicite des stupéfiants (OCRTIS), Usage et trafic des produits stupéfiants en France en 2006. 2007, Nanterre: OCRTIS. 122.
France11Costes, J., Vaissade, L., Colasante, E. , Legleye, S., Janssen, E., Toufik, A., Cadet-Taïrou, A. 2010. Problem drug use prevalence in France. 2006 estimations. France: Observatoire Française des Drogues et des Toxicomanies.
France12National report 2009
France13National report 2012
Italy1Epidemiological Section of the Italian Observatory on Drugs and Drug Addiction, 2003. (unpublished data). Injecting drug users 2002: no details available, source NFP.
Italy2Relazione Annuale al Parlamento sullo Stato delle Tossicodipendenze in Italia 2003. Ministero del Lavoro e delle Politiche Sociali. Roma, 2004. Epidemiological Section of the Italian Observatory on Drugs and Drug Addiction.
Italy3National focal point (unpublished data).
Italy4Epidemiological Section of the Italian Observatory on Drugs and Drug Addiction, 2003. (unpublished data). Injecting drug users 2002: no details available, source NFP.
Italy5D'Ippoliti D. Methodoligical pilot study of local level prevalence estimates. Lisbon: EMCDDA, December 1997.
Italy6Bello PY, Chéne G. In: EMCDDA/Pompidou Group Scientific Monograph 1 (in press) Lisbon, 1997.
Italy7Perucci CA, Forastiere F, Rapiti E, et al. British Journal of Addiction 1992; 87: pp. 1637-1641.
Italy8Relazione Annuale al Parlamento sullo Stato delle Tossicodipendenze in Italia - 2001 - Ministero del Lavoro e delle Politiche Sociali — Dipartimento per le Politiche Sociali e Previdenziali. Schizzi I., Piano L., Curzio O., Del Re F., Salvadori S. e Mariani F. Regione Liguria - Osservatorio Epidemiologico Regionale Tossicodipendenze. Rapporto 2002: Andamento del fenomeno tossicodipendenze.
Italy9Relazione Annuale al Parlamento sullo Stato delle Tossicodipendenze in Italia — 2000 — Ministero del Lavoro e delle Politiche Sociali — Dipartimento per le Politiche Sociali e Previdenziali. alvadori S., Potente R., Zuccaro P. e Mariani F. Stima di Prevalenza e di Incidenza dell'Uso e Abuso di Alcol e di Sostanze Illecite nella Regione Veneto — 2000.
Italy10Relazione Annuale al Parlamento sullo Stato delle Tossicodipendenze in Italia - 2000 - Ministero del Lavoro e delle Politiche Sociali - Dipartimento per le Politiche Sociali e Previdenziali.Schizzi I., Piano L., Curzio O., Del Re F., Salvadori S. e Mariani F. Regione Liguria - Osservatorio Epidemiologico Regionale Tossicodipendenze. Rapporto 2002: Andamento del fenomeno tossicodipendenze.
Italy11Stima di Prevalenza e di Incidenza dell'Uso e Abuso di Alcol e di Sostanze Illecite nella Regione Veneto — 2003 — In press.
Italy12Curzio O., Schizzi I., Salvadori S., Karakachoff M., Minichilli F., Marchini L., Salvini S., Piano L., Del Re F. e Mariani F. Regione Liguria — Osservatorio Epidemiologico Regionale Tossicodipendenze. Rapporto 2003: Andamento del fenomeno tossicodipendenze.
Italy13Relazione Annuale al Parlamento sullo Stato delle Tossicodipendenze in Italia 2004 — Presidenza del Consiglio dei ministri — Dipartimento Nazionale per le Politiche Antidroga.
Italy14Rapporto sul fenomeno di uso ed abuso di sostanze stupefacenti nella Regione Abruzzo — Anni 2001–04.
Italy15Andamento del fenomeno tossicodipendenze nella A.U.S.L. 6 di Palermo — Rapporto 2004.
Italy16Stima di prevalenza e di incidenza dell'uso e abuso di alcol e di sostanze illecite nella Regione Veneto — Rapporto 2005.
Italy17Osservatorio epidemiologico regionale tossicodipendenze - Rapporto 2005 - Andamento del fenomeno tossicodipendenze.
Italy18Relazione Annuale al Parlamento sullo Stato delle Tossicodipendenze in Italia 2005 - Presidenza del Consiglio dei ministri — Ministero della Solidarietà Sociale.
Italy19Rapporto sul fenomeno di uso ed abuso di sostanze stupefacenti nella Regione Abruzzo — Anno 2005.
Italy20Annual Report to Parliament on drugs and drug addiction (2006 data), Ministry of Social Solidarity.
Italy21Prevalence and incidence estimates. Use and abuse of alcohol and illicit drugs, Veneto Region 2006.
Italy22Report from the Veneto Region 2006.
Italy23Report from the Veneto Region 2005.
Italy24Report from the Regional Epidemiological Monitoring Centre On Drugs, 2006.
Italy25Relazione Annuale al Parlamento sullo Stato delle Tossicodipendenze in Italia 2007 - Presidenza del Consiglio dei Ministri, Dipartimento per le Politiche Antidroga
Italy26National report to the parliament, 2009
Italy27National Focal Point (Unpublished Data)
Italy28Report to Parliament on the state of drug addiction in Italy- 2012 on 2011 data, http://www.politicheantidroga.it/progetti-e-ricerca/relazioni-al-parlamento/relazione-annuale-2012
Cyprus1Stylianou, S., national focal point, 2005 (unpublished data).
Cyprus2National focal point, 2006 (unpublished report), Stylianou S., 2006 (unpublished results).
Cyprus3Stylianou, S. (2007): unpublished results.
Cyprus4Cyprus NFP (2007): 2007 Annual report of EKTEPN.
Cyprus5National focal point, 2008 (unpublished report).
Cyprus6Hay G., 2008: unpublished results.
Cyprus7National Focal Point, 2009 (unpublished data).
Cyprus8National Focal Point (unpublished data).
Latvia1Trapencieris, M., Lace, I. (2003) 'Survey of drug users', in 'Drug abuse prevalence in Latvia: Pupulation Survey Report', Riga, pp. 105-112.
Latvia2Trapencieris, M. Estimations on problem drug use in Latvia: project report, Riga, 2004.
Latvia3National focal point (unpublished data).
Latvia4Trapencieris, M. et al. (2007). Narkotiku lietosanas tendences un paradumi Latvija: kohortas petijuma otro posmu rezultatu analize.[Patterns and trends of drug use in Latvia: results from the second wave of the Drug Users Cohort Study]. Riga: NGO DIA+LOGS
Lithuania1"Estimation of the Prevalence of Problem Drug Use in Lithuania", Executive Report for UNODC Project HIV/AIDS prevention and care among injecting drug users and in prison settings in Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania, Dr. Gordon Hay.
Lithuania2"Harmful opiate use", Egle Pinceviciute, Vilnius Centre for Addiction Disorders.
Lithuania3National Focal Point (Unpublished Data).
Luxembourg1Origer, A. (1998), Annual report on the state of the drugs problem in the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg. RELIS 2000. Ministry of Health. AST. NFP. Luxembourg
Luxembourg2Origer, A. (2001), Estimation de la prévalence nationale de l'usage problématique de drogues à risque élevé et d'acquisition illicite — Etude comparative multi-méthodes 1997-2000. Séries de recherche nº2. Point focal OEDT Luxembourg — CRP-Santé. Luxembourg.
Luxembourg3National focal point (unpublished data).
Luxembourg4Origer, A. (2009), Estimation de la prévalence nationale de l'usage problématique de drogues à risque élevé et d'acquisition illicite - Etude sérielle multi-méthodes 1997 – 2000 – 2003 – 2007, CRP-Santé, Luxembourg.
Luxembourg5Origer A. Prevalence of Problem Drug Use and Injecting Drug Use in Luxembourg: A Longitudinal and Methodological Perspective. Eur Addict Res. 2012;18:288-296.
Hungary1National focal point, 2004 (unpublished data).
Hungary2Elekes Zsuzsanna, Nyírády Adrienn: PDU estimates, National Report 2006.
Hungary3National Focal Point, 2006 (unpublished data).
Hungary4National Focal Point (unpublished data).
Malta1Sedqa, Caritas, Oasi Merged Treatment Data Files 2004.
Malta2Sedqa, caritas, OASI, Dual Diagnosis Unit and SATU Prison Inmates Programme Merged Data Files 2005.
Malta3National focal point (unpublished data).
Netherlands1Smit, F., Toet, J., van Oers, H., Wiessing, L., Estimating local and national problem drug use prevalence from demographics. Addiction Research and Theory 2003; 11: pp. 401-413.
Netherlands3Smit, F., Toet, J. (2001) National prevalence estimates of problematic drug use in the Netherlands, 1999.
Netherlands4National focal point (unpublished data).
Netherlands5Haagse harddruggebruikers en het bereik van de politie en verslavingszorg. Den Haag: Onderzoekcomissie MORE, December 1997.
Netherlands6Couman A.M., Neve R.J.M., Van de Mheen H. Het proces van marginalisering en verharding in de drugscene van Parkstad Limburg. Rotterdam:IVO, 2000.
Netherlands7De Graaf, I., Wildschut, J., Van de Mheen, D., Utrechtse druggebruikers: eenjachting bestaan. Rotterdam: IVO, 2000.
Netherlands8Bieleman, B., Biesma, S., Jetzes, M. (2003), Enschede van de straat. Aard en omvang dak- en thuislozen en zichtbare alcohol- en harddrugsverslaafden in Enschede. Groningen-Rotterdam: Intraval.
Netherlands9Personal communication with Marcel Buster, Municipal Health Service Amsterdam (GG & GD Amsterdam).
Netherlands10Korf, D.J., Hes, J., Van Aalderen, H., Alkmaar: Brijder Stichting, 1991.
Netherlands11Ten Den, C., Bieleman, B., de Bie, E., Snippe, J., Groningen: Intraval, 1995.
Netherlands12Struben, H.W.A., Burger, I., Hendriks, V.M., Omvangschatting van het totaal aantal (afhankelijke) Haagse harddruggebruikers in de periode 1993-98, Den Haag: Onderzoekcommissie monitoring en registratie (MORE).
Netherlands13Biesma, S. Snippe, J., Oldersma, F., Bieleman, B. (2003). Inventarisatie harddrugsverslaafden en dak- en thuislozen Leeuwarden, Noord en Zuidwest Friesland. Groningen-Rotterdam: Intraval.
Netherlands14National Focal Point, 1998. (Smit, F., Toet, J., van der Heijden, P.).
Netherlands15Wiessing, L.G., Toet, J., Houweling, H., Koedijk, P.M., van den Akker, R., Sprenger, M.J.W., Prevalence and risk factors for HIV infection among drug users in Rotterdam. (In Dutch). RIVM report nr. 213220001. Bilthoven, National Institute of Public Health and Environmental Protection (RIVM), 1995. http://www.rivm.nl/en/
Netherlands16Van Brussel, G., et al., Amsterdam: Municipal Health Services & Bureau of Social Research and Statistics, 1996.
Netherlands17Van Brussel G., et al., Amsterdam: Municipal Health Services, 1997.
Netherlands18Buster M.C.A., Van Brussel G.H.A., Van den Brink, W., Estimating the number of opiate users in Amsterdam by Capture Recapture: The importance of case definition. Eur J Epidemiol. 2001;17(10): pp. 935-42.
Netherlands19Burger, I., Struben, H. (2001). Haagse harddruggebruikers; Het bereik van politie en verslavingszorg in 1996-98 en veranderingen van 1993-95. Den Haag: Onderzoekcommissie monitoring en registratie (MORE).
Netherlands20Korf, D.J,, Reijneveld, S.A., Toet, J. The International Journal of the Addictions 1994; 29: pp. 1393-1417.
Netherlands21Smit, F., Van Laar, M., Wiessing, L. (2005), Estimating Problem Drug Use Prevalence at National Level: Comparison of Three Methods. Utrecht, the Netherlands: Trimbos Institute, Netherlands Institute of Mental Health and Addiction.
Netherlands22Burger, I. (2004). Haagse harddruggebruikers: Aard, omvang en trends in 1999–2002. The Hague: GGD Den Haag.
Netherlands23Biesma, S., Snippe, J., Bieleman, B. (2004), Harddrugsgebruikers geregistreerd: Aard, omvang en mobiliteit van problematische harddrugsgebruikers in Rotterdam. Groningen: INTRAVAL.
Netherlands24Smit, F., Van Laar, M., Wiessing, L. (2006), Estimating problem drug use prevalence at national level: Comparison of three methods. Drugs: education, prevention and policy, 13: pp. 109-120.
Netherlands25Bieleman, B., Kruize, A., Ogier, C. (2005), Monitor verslaafden en daklozen Enschede 2005: Metingen 2001, 2002, 2003 en 2004. Groningen/Rotterdam: INTRAVAL.
Netherlands26Biesma, S., Kruize, A., Naayer, H., Ogier, C., Bieleman, B. (2005). In Hengelo van de straat: Aard en omvang dak- en thuisloosheid en zichtbare alcohol- en harddrugsverslaving. Groningen/Rotterdam: INTRAVAL.
Netherlands27Municipal Health Service Amsterdam (unpublished data).
Netherlands28Bieleman, B., Boendermaker, M., Kruize, A., Van Zwieten, M. (2007). Monitor verslaafden en daklozen Enschede 2007; Metingen 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005 en 2006. Groningen/Rotterdam: Intraval.
Netherlands29MCA Buster, GHA van Brussel, W van den Brink. Prevalence of problematic opiate use in Amsterdam, the importance of case definition. European Journal of Epidemiology. 2001;17:935-42
Netherlands30Van Zwieten, M., Biesma, S., Bieleman, B. (2008). Monitor daklozen en harddrugsverslaafden Apeldoorn 2008: metingen 2004 - 2007. Groningen-Rotterdam: Intraval.
Netherlands31Kruize, A., Hofman, M., Bieleman, B. (2008). Monitor verslaafden en daklozen Enschede 2008: metingen 2001 tot en met 2007. Groningen-Rotterdam: Intraval.
Netherlands32Cruts, A.A.N., Van Laar, M.W. (2010). Aantal problematische harddrugsgebruikers in Nederland [Number of Problem Harddrug Users in the Netherlands]. Utrecht, the Netherlands: Trimbos Institute, Netherlands Institute of Mental Health and Addiction.
Netherlands33National Focal Point (Unpublished Data)
Netherlands34Kruize, A., Biesma S, Bieleman, B. (2011). Monitor dakloosheid en chronische verslavingsproblematiek Enschede 2011: metingen 2004 tot en met 2010. Groningen-Rotterdam: Intraval.
Austria1National focal point (unpublished data).
Austria2Uhl, A.; Seidler, D. (2000): Prevalence Estimate of Problematic Opiate Consumption in Austria. LBISucht, Vienna.
Austria3ÖBIG (2003) Weiterentwicklung des Monitoringsystems im Drogenbereich.
Austria7Vienna drug co-ordinators 1997.
Austria12GÖG/ÖBIG (2010) Drogen-Monitoring Auswertungsergebnisse 2004-2009
Austria13GÖG/ÖBIG (under preparation). Epidemiologiebericht-Drogen 2012.Gesundheit Österreich GmbH / Geschäftsbereich ÖBIG. Im Auftrag des Bundesministeriums für Gesundheit. Vienna
Poland1 ‘Opinie Osob Uzaleznionych Z Malopolski Na Temat Substancji Psychoaktywnych’, Report from survey prepared for Malopolskie Vojvodship Administration by BBS Obserwator, Krakow 2005.
Poland3Sierosawski J. (2004), Oszacowanie liczby narkomanow w wojewodztwie in: Raport z badan na temat laczenia roznych substancji we wzorach uzywania narkotykow w Wojewodztwie Lodzkim, Jablonski P., Institute of Psychiatry and Neurology, Warsaw.
Poland5Sieroslwaski J. (2005) ‘Oszacowanie liczby narkomanow oraz rozmiarow problemow zwiazanych z narkotykami w Warszawie’, report from analyses prepared for Warsaw City Hall, Warsaw.
Poland6M. Rosinska, Report “The incidence estimation of infectious disease (HBV, HCV, HIV) among IDU’s, 2005. National Institute of Hygiene.
Poland7Moskalewicz J., Sieroslawski J., Bujalski M. (2006), ‘Dostepnosc programow substytucyjnych w Warszawie’, report from research ordered by Warsaw City Hall, Institute of Psychiatry and Neurology, Warsaw.
Poland9National focal point (unpublished data).
Portugal1Negreiros, J. (2002): Estimativa da prevalência e padrões de consumo problemático de drogas em Portugal, FPCDS/UP, Porto.
Portugal2(Feijão and Elsa Lavado, 2001) Prevalence and Patterns of drug use in Portugal-2001. IPDT: not published.
Portugal3Freire S., Moreira M., in: Methodological pilot study of local prevalence estimates. Lisbon: EMCDDA, 1997.
Portugal4Godinho, J., Costa, H., Padre-Santo, D. (1998). Estimativa da prevalência de consumidores de heroína no Concelho de Setúbal.
Portugal5Negreiros, J & Magalhães (2008). Estimativa de Prevalência de consumidores problemáticos de drogas em Portugal. Porto: FPCE-UP.
Romania1National Focal Point (unpublished data).
Slovenia1National focal point (unpublished data).
Slovenia2Pompidou Group Project on Treatment Demand: Tracking long-term trends.
Slovakia1The State of Drug Addiction and Drug Control in the Slovak Republic, 2004 Report. Unpublished data.
Slovakia2The State of Drug Addiction and Drug Control in the Slovak Republic, 2006 Report. Unpublished data.
Slovakia3Stav drogových závislostí a kontrola drog v SR (The State of Drug Addiction and Drug Control in the Slovak Republic), 2006 National Report for Reitox, ÚV SR, Bratislava 2006, 138 pp.
Slovakia4Mravcík V., Kiššová L., Prevalencný odhad problémových užívatelov drog na Slovensku (Estimated prevalence of problem drug users in Slovakia), Alkoholizums a drogové závislosti, 41-2006, 5, pp. 259-272.
Slovakia5Vyrocna sprava o stave drogovej problematiky na Slovensku za rok 2006 (Anual Report on the state of drug issues in Slovakia in year 2006), 2007 National Report fo Reitox, UV SR, Bratislava 2007, in print.
Slovakia6Vyrocna sprava o stave drogovej problematiky na Slovensku za rok 2007 (Anual Report on the state of drug issues in Slovakia in year 2007), 2008 National Report for REITOX, IV SR, Bratislava 2008, in print.
Slovakia7National Focal Point (unpublished data)
Finland1Partanen P., Hakkarainen P., Holmström P., Kinnunen A., Lammi R., Leinikki P., Partanen A., Seppälä T., Välkki J., Virtanen A: Amfetamiinien ja opiaattien ongelmakäytön yleisyys Suomessa 2002. Yhteiskuntapolitiikka 3/2004.
Finland2National Focal Point (unpublished data)
Finland3Partanen P., Hakkarainen P., Holmström P., Kinnunen A., Lammi R., Leinikki P., Partanen A., Seppälä T., Simpura J., Virtanen A. Amfetamiinien ja opiaattien käytön yleisyys Suomessa 1999. Suom. Lääkärilehti 44/2001.
Finland4Partanen Päivi, Kinnunen Aarne, Leinikki Pauli, Nylander Olli, Seppälä Timo, Simpura Jussi, Virtanen Ari & Välkki Jouni: Selvitys amfetamiinin ja opiaattiene käyttäjien määrästä pääkaupunkiseudulla ja koko maassa vuonna 1997. STAKES, Aiheita 19/1999
Finland5Partanen P., Hakkarainen P., Holmström P., Kinnunen A., Lammi R., Leinikki P., Partanen A., Seppälä T., Simpura J. & Virtanen A. (2000): Amfetamiinien ja opiaattien käytön yleisyys Suomessa 1998. Yhteiskuntapolitiikka 65 (2000):p. 6.
Finland6Partanen P. Report on the number of amphetamine and opiates users in the Greater Helsinki area in 1995. Helsinki: Stakes, Aiheita 40/1994.
Finland7Partanen P., Hakkarainen P., Hankilanoja A., Kuussaari K., Ronka S., Salminen M., Seppala T. & Virtanen A (2007): Amfetamiinien ja opiaattien ongelmakayton yleisyys Suomessa 2005. Yhteiskuntapolitiikka 72 (5), pp. 553-561.
Sweden1B. Olsson, C.A.. Wahren, S. Byqvist, Det tunga narkotikamissbrukets, omfattning i Sverige 1998, CAN, Stockholm 2001.
Sweden2Granath, S., Svensson, D., Lindström, P. (2003). Polisens insatser mot narkotikabrottsligheten : omfattning, karaktär och effekter, Brottsförebyggande rådet (BRÅ) : Fritze distributör, Stockholm.
Sweden3Social Services Research and Development Stockholm City, R & D Report 1996/12. Stockholm, 1996.
Sweden4Finne, E. Statistik över missbrukare, hemlösa och psykiskt störda i Stockholm år 2001. FoU-rapport. Socialtjänstförvaltningen, Forsknings- och utvecklingsenheten, Stockholm 2002.
Sweden5Finne, E. Statistik över missbrukare, hemlösa och psykiskst störda i stockholm ar 1999. FoU -rapport.
Sweden6Finne, E. (1997) Socialtjänstens kontakter med missbrukare, psykiskst störda och hemlösa 1996. FoU-rapport 1997:15. Stockholm.
Sweden7Swedish Council for Information on Alcohol and other Drugs (CAN), UNO-92 (report 34), Stockholm, 1993./ Department of Social Welfare and Public Health, City Office, Malmö.
Sweden8'Finne, E. Statistik över missbrukare, hemlösa och psykiskst störda i stockholm ar 2000. FoU -rapport.
Sweden9National Focal Point (unpublished data)
Sweden10SOU: 2005:82. Personer med tungt missbruk - stimulans till bättre vård och behandling. Betänkande av Utrednigen om en vårdöverenskommelse om missbrukarvården Stockholm 2005
Sweden12Stafström M, Norén A. Skåne-UNO 2004 – En kartläggning av narkotikamissbrukets omfattning
Länsstyrelsens i Skåne län och Skånesamverkan mot droger.
Rapportserien Skåne i utveckling: Rapport 2005:6
Sweden13Narkotikamissbruket i Östergötland 2004, Länsstyrelsen Östergötland. Rapport 2005:14
Sweden14Narkotikamissbruket i Östergötland 2005, Länsstyrelsen Östergötland. Rapport 2006:27
Sweden15”Narkotikasituationen i Örebro kommun och Örebro län 2006”
Sweden16Narkotikabruket i Sverige. National Institute of Public Health (2010).
Sweden17UNGASS, Country Progress Report 2010, Government Offices of Sweden Report (2010). http://www.socialstyrelsen.se/folkhalsa/hivaids/Documents/UNGASS_original_100329.pdf
United Kingdom1Frischer M, Hickman M, Kraus L, Mariani M, Wiessing L. A comparison of different methods for estimating the prevalence of problematic drug misuse in Great Britain. Addiction 2001; 96: pp. 1465-1476.
United Kingdom2CDMR (University of Glasgow) & SCIEH ' Estimating the National and Local Prevalence of Problem Drug Misuse in Scotland'.
United Kingdom3McElrath, K. (2002) Prevalence of Problem Drug Use in Northern Ireland. Belfast, Department of Health, Social Services and Public Safety.
United Kingdom4Frischer, M., Heatlie, H. and Hickman, M. (2004). Estimating the prevalence of problematic and injecting drug use for Drug Action Team areas in England: a feasibility study using the Multiple Indicator Method. Home Office online report 34/04. Home Office, London. http://www.homeoffice.gov.uk/rds/pdfs04/rdsolr3404 (pdf)
United Kingdom5National Focal Point (unpublished data)
United Kingdom6Frischer M. British Journal of Addiction 1992; 87: pp. 235-243.
United Kingdom7Hay G, McKeganey N. Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health 1996; 50: pp. 469-472.
United Kingdom8G Hay, N McKeganey, S Hutchinson (November 2001) Estimating the National and Local Prevalence of Problem Drug Misuse in Scotland.
United Kingdom9Hickman, M, Higgins, V, Hope, V, Bellis, M. (2004). Estimating prevalence of problem drug use: multiple methods in Brighton, Liverpool and London. Home Office Online Report 36/04.
United Kingdom11Bloor M, Wood F, Palmer S. Cardiff: University of Wales, 1997.
United Kingdom12Brugha, R.F., Swan, A V., Hayhurst, G.K., Fallon, M.P. (1998) 'A drug misuser prevalence study in a rural English district'. European Journal of Public Health, 8: pp. 1101-1262.
United Kingdom13Hickman et al. Problem drug use prevalence in Inner London.
United Kingdom14Squires N.F., Beeching N.J., Schlecht B.J.M., et al., Journal of Public Health Medicine 1995; 17: pp. 103-109.
United Kingdom15Frischer, M., Leyland, A., Cormack, R., et al., American Journal of Epidemiology 1993; 138: pp. 170-181.
United Kingdom16Millar, T., Gemmell, I., Hay, G. and Donmall, M. (2004), The dynamics of drug misuse: Assessing Changes in Prevalence. Home Office online report 35/04. Home Office, London.
United Kingdom17The Centre for Drug Misuse Research (2006). Estimating the Prevalence of Problem Opiate and Problem Cocaine Use in Northern Ireland. Drug and Alcohol Information and Research Unit, Department of Health, Social Services and Public Safety Northern Ireland, Belfast. http://www.dhsspsni.gov.uk/opiate_cocaine.pdf
United Kingdom18Hay, G., Gannon, M., MacDougall, J., Millar, T., Eastwood, C. and McKeganey, N. (2006) Local and national estimates of the prevalence of opiate use and/or crack cocaine use (2004/05) in Singleton, N., Murray, R. and Tinsley, L. eds. Measuring different aspects of problem drug use: methodological developments. Home Office Online Report OLR 16/06. London: Home Office. http://www.homeoffice.gov.uk/rds/pdfs06/rdsolr1606.pdf
United Kingdom19Hay, G., Gannon, M., MacDougall, J., Millar, T., Williams, K., Eastwood, C. and McKeganey, N. (2008). National and regional estimates of the prevalence of opiate use and/or crack cocaine use 2006/07: a summary of key findings. Home Office Research Report 9. Home Office, London. http://rds.homeoffice.gov.uk/rds/pdfs08/horr09.pdf
United Kingdom20Hay. G., Gannon, M., MacDougall, J., Millar, T., Eastwood, C. and McKeganey, N. (2007). National and regional estimates of the prevalence of opiate use and/or crack cocaine use 2005/06: a summary of key findings . Home Office Online Report 21/07. Home Office. London ("http://uk.sitestat.com/homeoffice/homeoffice/s?rds.rdsolr2107pdf&ns_type=pdf&ns_url=%5Bhtt p://www.homeoffice.gov.uk/rds/pdfs07/rdsolr2107.pdf%5D")
United Kingdom21Hay, G., Gannon, M. Casey, J., McKeganey, N. (2009).Estimating the National and Local Prevalence of Problem Drug Misuse in Scotland, Executive Report University of Glasgow, Glasgow. Available:http://www.drugmisuse.isdscotland.org/publications/local/Prevalence_2009.pdf
United Kingdom22Hay, G., Gannon, M., McKeganey, N., Hutchinson, S. and Goldberg, D. (2004). Estimating the national and local prevalence of problem drug misuse in Scotland. Centre for Drug Misuse Research, University of Glasgow and Scottish Centre for Infection and Environmental Health, Glasgow. Available: http://www.drugmisuse.isdscotland.org/publications/abstracts/prevalence3.htm [accessed 18.09.09]
United Kingdom23WAG (Welsh Assembly Government) (2009a).Substance misuse in Wales 2008/09. http://wales.gov.uk/docs//dsjlg/publications/commsafety/09100 6submisuse0809en.pdf
United Kingdom24The Centre for Drug Misuse Research (2006). Estimating the Prevalence of Problem Opiate and Problem Cocaine Use in Northern Ireland. Drug and Alcohol Information and Research Unit, Department of Health, Social Services and Public Safety Northern Ireland, Belfast. Available: http://www.dhsspsni.gov.uk/opiate_cocaine.pdf
United Kingdom25Hay, G., Gannon, M., MacDougall, J., Millar, T., Williams, K., Eastwood, C. and McKeganey, N. (2008). National and regional estimates of the prevalence of opiate use and/or crack cocaine use 2006/07: a summary of key findings. Home Office Research Report 9. Home Office, London. Available: http://rds.homeoffice.gov.uk/rds/pdfs08/horr09.pdf
United Kingdom26Hay, G., Gannon, M. Casey, J., McKeganey, N. (2009).Estimating the National and Local Prevalence of Problem Drug Misuse in Scotland, Executive Report. University of Glasgow, Glasgow. Available: http://www.drugmisuse.isdscotland.org/publications/local/Prevalence_2009.pdf
United Kingdom27WAG (Welsh Assembly Government) (2009).Substance misuse in Wales 2008/09. Available: http://wales.gov.uk/docs//dsjlg/publications/commsafety/091006submisuse0809en.pdf
United Kingdom28Welsh Government (2011). Substance misuse in Wales 2010/11. Welsh Government, Cardiff. Available: http://wales.gov.uk/topics/housingandcommunity/safety/substancemisuse/stats/?lang=en
United Kingdom29Hay, G., Gannon, M.,Casey, J. and Millar, T. (2011). Estimates of the prevalence of opiate and/or crack cocaine use 2009-10: Sweep 6 report. National Treatment Agency for Substance Misuse, London. Available: http://www.nta.nhs.uk/uploads/prevalencestats2009-10fullreport.pdf
United Kingdom30ISD (Information Services Division) Scotland (2011). Estimating the National and Local Prevalence of Problem Drug Use in Scotland 2009/10. Information Services Division, National Health Service Scotland, Edinburgh. Available:http://www.drugmisuse.isdscotland.org/publications/local/prevalence2009_10.pdf
Croatia1Croatian Institute of Public Health: Dr Marina Kuzman, Mrs Martina Pejak- not published.
Croatia2National Focal Point (unpublished data)
Turkey1National Focal Point (unpublished data)
Turkey2Barbagli et al. (2005) "Drug-related mortality and its impact on adult mortality in eight European countries," European Journal of Public Health Vol.16, No 2 198-202
Norway1Bretteville-Jensen, A.L., personal communication, 2002.
Norway2National focal point (unpublished data).
Norway3Based on material in Report 2/2005 from SIRUS: The Drug Situation in the Municipalities.
Norway4Bretteville-Jensen, A.L.. and Amundsen E.J., Prevalence of Injecting drug use in Norway. (In Norwegian:Omfang av sprøytemisbruk i Norge). Report 5/2006 SIRUS Oslo.
Norway5Anne Line Bretteville-Jensen & Ellen J. Amundsen: Heroinforbruk og heroin beslag i Norge [In English: Heroin use and heroin seizures in Norway) SIRUS report 8/2009, Oslo
 

Notes:

See also PDU Key Indicator

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The European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA) is the reference point on drugs and drug addiction information in Europe. Inaugurated in Lisbon in 1995, it is one of the EU's decentralised agencies. Read more >>

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