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Table INF-3. Prevalence of markers for HBV infection among injecting drug users in the EU, Croatia, Turkey and Norway, 2011 or most recent year available (summary table by country)

Country or region% positive aHBc(1)% positive aHBs(1)% positive HBsAg(1)
YearNumber testedNational samplesSub-National samplesYearNumber testedNational samplesSub-National samplesYearNumber testedNational samplesSub-National samplesSetting/comments (2) (3) (4) (5)References
Belgium2011359:16,7-55,12011374:25,5 - 52.32011373:3,7 - 4,3DTC; serum22 ;25; 27 ; 28
Bulgaria::::::::20111130:4.5DTC, NSP, LTS, PRI; serum7a ; 7b ; 7c ; 7d
Czech Republic::::::::::::::
Denmark 200618637.1:200410137.0:::::ODD; post mortem blood7
Germany 2011534:16,3-33,02011534:19,3-36,62011534:0,3 -1,5LTS; dried blood spots38
Estonia201081:3.5::::::::NSP;Serum6
Ireland ::::::::::::::
Greece 2011172321,6 - 32,314.0 - 40.32011178440.7 - 54.33.4 - 60.5201121961.2 - 3.80.0 - 9.2DTC, LTS, PHL, OHC, PRI, STR, OTH; serum1 ; 2 ; 9 ; 18 ; 19 ;20
Spain::::::::::::
France ::::::::::::::
Italy*20105072033.98.5 -67.0::::::::DTC; serum; IDUnk. All markers.47 ; 48a ; 48b; 49;50
Cyprus::::::::20111510.7:DTC; serum 10 ; 11 ; 12
Latvia201181:65.4::::201181:6.2STR; serum 19
Lithuania2006526:63.92006324:54.92006668:3.3 – 8.9HTC, LTS; serum, dried blood spots5 ; 99
Luxembourg 200549318.4 - 35.9:200550254.9 - 75.3:20052553.9:DTC, NSP, LTS, STI, ANT, OHC, PRI; serum6
Hungary::::::::20118480.51.6NSP, DTC, PRI ; dried blood spots, serum 24 ;25
Malta201187:1.2::::::::DTC, HTC, PHL, STI, ANT, OHC; serum 7; 8 ; 9 ; 10
Netherlands201119:31.620108:13.02010/2011^^35:0.0 - 13DTC; serum33; 34 ; 35
Austria201150510.30,0 -33,32011159:47.82011159:5.7LTS, DTC, NSP; serum. All markers.2 ; 5 ; 12 , 13 ; 14
Poland2009184:26.3 - 56.72004382:31.5 - 34.52009186:2.5 - 3.8DTC, LTS, PRI, STR; serum6 ; 12
Portugal***201123881.5:201129573.2:2010/201112562.2 -4.3:DTC ; serum, dried blood spots29 ; 30 ; 31 ;32
Romania::::::::2009447:4.7STR; dried blood spots7
Slovenia20111498.1:::::::::DTC; serum5 ; 9 ;11
Slovakia201165:21.5::::::::DTC; serum12 ; 14 ;16
Finland ::::::::::::::
Sweden2010175:23.4::::PRI, serum 13 ;14
United Kingdom20112838:10,1 - 15,9::::::::DTC, NSP, LTS; OTH; dried blood spots,saliva2 , 3 ; 54 ; 65; 68;69;70;71;72;73
Croatia2007/0870524.07.5 - 31.42007/0870615.04.7 - 13.22010168:2.4PRI, DTC, NSP, LTS, PHL, HTC; serum1
Turkey::::2011707:7.5::::DTC; serum0
Norway2011175:33.12011160:28.82011174:1.2NSP, LTS; serum.16 ; 21 ; 23 ; 25 ; 26
 

Notes:

This summary table gives a global overview of prevalence of HBV markers in IDUs in the EU, 2010 or most recent year available. Data for more than one year are combined if they clearly improve generalisability (e.g. national data, out-of-treatment data). Prevalence in this table should not be compared with previous versions to follow changes over time, as inclusion of sources may vary according to data availability. For time trends see Tables INF-114 and INF-115 .

Sample size is mostly equal for the different HBV markers, where this is not the case the smallest sample size is shown.

(1) The figures show estimates (or range of estimates) from national and/or sub-national level samples.

(2) Saliva tests for hepatitis B antibodies underestimate prevalence. If test sensitivity is known then figures can be adjusted upwards by dividing prevalence by test sensitivity. Figures have not been adjusted.

(3) Having health problems is one selection criterion for admission to drug treatment in some countries or cities, due to long waiting lists or special programmes for infected IDUs, and this may result in upward bias of prevalence. Prevalence from treatment data should therefore be interpreted in combination with non-treatment data.

(4) § IDUnk = IDU status not known, prevalence in IDUs is likely to be underestimated.

(5) ODD = Overdose Deaths; DEM = Drug Emergencies; DTC = Drug Treatment Centres; NSP = Needle Exchanges; LTS = Low-Threshold Services; PHL = Public Health Laboratories; STI = STI Clinics; ANT = Antenatal Clinics; OHC = Other Hospital or Clinics; PRI = Prisons; ARR = Arrests; GPS = General Practitioners; HTC = HIV Testing Centres; STR = Street; OTH = Other.

^^ A study from 2010 is included too (the 2011 is from Amsterdam and the other from Rotterdam)

* Italy provided a national estimate for 2010 only, even though regional data for 2011 were provided for many regions, but not for all (i.e. Liguria and Lombardia). So regional data for 2010 and not for 2011 are presented here as well for comparability reasons.

*** In 2010, data from 2 studies (SP study in DTCs using serum as specimen and DT study in DTCs using serum and DBSs as specimen) were provided and in 2011 data only from one of those were submitted (DT study). However, the estimates from the two studies vary a lot, and so both estimates are provided here to allow for this variation

Sources:

See Tables INF-114 and INF-115 and INF-0.

For references see Table INF-0. Bibliographic References-Part A: References for prevalence data

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Page last updated: Friday, 26 April 2013