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Table INF-0. Bibliographic references

Part (i) References for prevalence data

CountryReference NoReference
International0no bibliographic reference is existing for this particular study
99National Focal Point, unpublished data
Belgium1aRotily M, Weilandt C, Bird SM, Käll K, van Haastrecht HJA, Iandolo E, Rousseau S. Surveillance of HIV infection and related risk behaviour in European prisons – a multicentre pilot study. Eur J Public Health. 2001 Sep;11(3):243-50.
1bWeilandt C, Rotily M. European Network on HIV/AIDS and Hepatitis Prevention in Prisons - 2nd Annual Report. Marseille/Bonn, ORS/Wiad, 1998.
2EMCDDA. The state of the drugs problem in the acceding and candidate countries to the European Union. EMCDDA 2003.
3Data provided by EuroHIV (2004).
99National Focal Point, unpublished data
1Eurotox, Brussels (unpublished data).
2Raes V., Medische registratie druggerelateerde infectieuze aandoeningen 2002 en 2003. De Sleutel, Merelbeke.
2aRaes V. De Sleutel, Dienst Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek. Jaarverslag 1999. Merelbeke, July 2000.
2bDe Sleutel. Jaarverslag 1999. Merelbeke, July 2000; Jaarverslag 2000; Jaarverslag 2001. Medische registratie, gegevensverwerking 2000; Medische registratie, gegevensverwerking 2001.
3Vandenbussche, E., (2001), Vlaamse Registratie Middelengebruik (VRM): registratiegegevens 1999, VAD, Brussel.
4Sasse A., Van Kersschaever G, Stroobant A. Le SIDA en Belgique – Situation au 31 décembre 1999. Rapport semestriel no 51.
5Driesen G, De Maere W, Kinable H, Todts S. Risicogedrag bij injecterende druggebruikers in Vlaanderen. Rapport van het GIG-project, Antwerpen, 1997
6Data from prison Lantin (French Community), 1999. Service de santé de l'Administration des établissements pénitentiaires, Brussels (unpublished data).
7Data from 1 prison in the Flemish Community. Service de santé de l'administration des établissements pénitentaires, Brussels (unpublished data).
8Matheï C. Free Clinic, Van Arteveldestraat 64, Antwerp, Belgium, Antwerp (unpublished data).
9Hariga F. Modus Vivendi / EU network for HIV and HCV prevention in prison (DGV).
10aDenis B, Hayani A, Jamoulle M et al. Toxicomanie et virus de l'hépatite C, B et HIV. Bulletin de la Société Clinique de l'Hopital Civil de Charleroi, 1993 (44) :209-213.
10bDenis B., Dedobbeleer M, Collet T et all. High prevalence of hepatitis C virus infection in Belgian intravenous drug users and potential role of the Cotton-filter in transmission. Acta Gastro-Enterologica Bélgica, Vol LXIII, April-June 2000.
12asee International 1a
12bsee International 1b
13Todts S. Risicogedrag bij injecterende druggebruikers in Vlaanderen. GiG project, VAD and Free Clinic, 1997
14Raes V. & Lombaert G., Medische registratie 1999. De Sleutel. Jaarverslag 1999. Merelbeke, July 2000, p. 85-86.; Raes V. & Lombaert G., De Sleutel. Jaarverslag 2000. Merelbeke, July 2001; Raes V., Medische registratie, gegevensverwerking 2000. Interne pub. De Sleutel, Merelbeke, 15p.; Raes V., Medische registratie, gegevensverwerking 2001. Interne publicatie. De Sleutel, Merelbeke, 5p.; Raes V., Medische registratie druggerelateerde infectieuze aandoeningen 2002 en 2003. Interne publicatie. De Sleutel, Gent, 5p.Medische registratie druggerelateerde infectieuze aandoeningen 2004. Interne publicatie. De Sleutel, Gent, 9p.
15Eurotox, Brussels, 2003-2004, unpublished data
16Medische registratie druggerelateerde infectieuze aandoeningen 2004. Interne publicatie. De Sleutel, Gent, 9p.
17Medische registratie druggerelateerde infectieuze aandoeningen 2004. Interne publicatie. De Sleutel, Gent, 9p.
18Raes V., Medische registratie druggerelateerde infectieuze aandoeningen 2002 en 2003. Interne publicatie. De Sleutel, Gent, 5p.
19Raes V., Medische registratie, gegevensverwerking 2001. Interne publicatie. De Sleutel, Merelbeke, 5p.
20Raes V., Medische registratie, gegevensverwerking 2000. Interne publicatie. De Sleutel, Merelbeke, 15p.
21Raes V. & Lombaert G., De Sleutel. Jaarverslag 2000. Merelbeke, July 2001
22Raes V. & Lombaert G., Medische registratie 1999. De Sleutel. Jaarverslag 1999. Merelbeke, July 2000, p. 85-86.
23http://www.free-clinic.be/onderzoeksrapporten/
25Flemish sub-focal point (Vereniging voor Alcohol- en andere Drugproblemen)
27Cathy Mathei (2011). Internal document. Free Clinic: Antwerp
28Medische registratie druggerelateerde infectieuze aandoeningen 2004. Interne publicatie. De Sleutel, Gent, 9p.
Bulgaria1Tomov N. National Centre for Addictions.
1aBulgarian National REITOX Focal Point (2002), Annual Report on the State of Drug Related Problems in Bulagaria – 2001, National Drug Council, National Focal Point, 123 pages, April 2002, Sofia
1bAnnual Report of the NFP on the state of drug related problems in Bulgaria - 2005, National Focal Point, Sofia, 2005
2National Centre for Addictions
3General Directorate Implementation of Punishments - Ministry of Justice
4Annual report 2007 on the state of drugs related problems in Bulgaria, National Focal Point, National Drugs Council
5Annual report on the state of drugs related problems in Bulgaria, 2008
6Annual report on the state of drugs related problems in Bulgaria, 2009
7aAnnual report on the state of drug related problems in Bulgaria, 2010
7bInformational Bulletin of National Center of Infectious and Parasitic Diseases, 2009
7cAnnual report on the state of drug related problems in Bulgaria, 2011
7dANNUAL REPORT ON THE STATE OF DRUG RELATED PROBLEMS IN BULGARIA 2012, National Focal Point on Drugs and Drug Addictions
Czech Republic1aNational Institute of Public Health, National Reference laboratory on AIDS, Prague, (unpublished data).
1bBrucková, M., Vandasová, J. and Malý, M. (2005) Výskyt a šírení HIV/AIDS v CR v roce 2004 . Zprávy centra epidemiologie a mikrobiologie rocník 14, Notes: císlo 2 - únor Jedlicka, J., Stupka, J. and Chmelová, B. (2005) Rocenka Národního programu HIV/AIDS v Ceské republice 2004-2005. Praha: Pracovište manažera Národního programu HIV/AIDS.
1cNational Institute of Public Health, National Reference laboratory on AIDS, Prague, (unpublished data).
3General Directory of Prison Service, Prague, unpublished data
4National Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (2004d) Results of the First Part of “HCV Seroprevalence Study Among Injecting Drug Users”. Notes: unpublished
5Mravcík, V., Zábranský, T., Korcišová, B., Lejcková, P., Škrdlantová, E., Štastná, L., Macek, V., Petroš, O., Gajdošíková, H., Miovský, M., Kalina, K. and Vopravil, J. (2003) Annual Report: Drug Situation – The Czech Republic 2002. Prague: Office of the Government of the Czech Republic.
7Brucková, M., Malý, M., Vandasová, J. and Rychtarík, J. (2004) Trendy výskytu a šírení HIV/AIDS v CR v roce 2003. SZÚ Praha Notes: 13, únor 2004 - c.2
8National Reference Laboratory for AIDS, Bulletin of Centre of Epidemilogy and Microbiology vol. 11 (2002) no. 1-12 (Národní refencní laborator pro AIDS, Zprávy Centra Epidemiologie a Mikrobiologie volume 11 (2002), no. 1-12)
10National Reference Laboratory for AIDS (2006): Reporting system on HIV laboratory testing in the Czech Republic
12Mravcík, V., Petrošová, B., Zábranský, T., Coufalová, M. and Rehák, V. (2009) Výsledky studie Seroprevalence VHC u injekcních uživatelu drog. Praha: Úrad vlády CR. 978-80-7440-003-02. In print
13Zábranský, T., Mravcík, V., Korcišová, B. a Rehák, V. (2006) Hepatitis C Virus Infection among Injecting Drug Users in the Czech Republic – Prevalence and Associated Factors. European Addiction Research 12, 151–160.
14National monitoring centre for drugs and drug addiction-NFP (2007). Monitoring of infectious diseases testing in low-threshold facilities in CR in 2007. Unpublished
19National monitoring centre for drugs and drug addiction-NFP (2008). Monitoring of infectious diseases testing in low-threshold facilities in CR in 2007. Unpublished
20Vandasova, J. and Maly, M. (2008 ) National Reference Laboratory for AIDS: Reporting system on HIV laboratory testing in the Czech Republic
23TDI register of the Czech republic (2009) DRIDs self-reported results of ATD clients.
24Nemecek, V and Maly, M. (2009) National Institute of Public Health, National reference laboratory for HIV/AIDS: Reporting system on HIV laboratory testing in the Czech Republic
25National monitoring centre for drugs and drug addiction-NFP (2009). Monitoring of infectious diseases testing in low-threshold facilities in CR in 2008. Unpublished
26Nemecek, V and Maly, M. (2010) National Institute of Public Health, National reference laboratory for HIV/AIDS: Reporting system on HIV laboratory testing in the Czech Republic
27National monitoring centre for drugs and drug addiction-NFP (2010). Monitoring of infectious diseases testing in low-threshold facilities in CR in 2009. Unpublished
28Hygienic Station of the Capital City of Prague - Drug Epidemiology Headquarters
31Nemecek, V and Maly, M. (2011) National Institute of Public Health, National reference laboratory for HIV/AIDS: Reporting system on HIV laboratory testing in the Czech Republic
32National monitoring centre for drugs and drug addiction-NFP (2011). Monitoring of infectious diseases testing in low-threshold facilities in CR in 2009. Unpublished
33Hygienic Station of the Capital City of Prague - Drug Epidemiology Headquarters
Denmark1aP.B. Christensen, H.B. Krarup, H.G.M. Niesters, H. Norder and J. Georgsen: Prevalence and incidence of bloodborne viral infections among Danish prisoners. Eur J Epidemiol 2000; 16: 1043-1049.
1bP.B. Christensen, H.B. Krarup, H.G.M. Niesters, H. Norder O.B. Schaffalitzky de Muckadell, B. Jeune and J. Georgsen: Outbreak of Hepatitis B among Injecting Drug Users in Denmark. J Clin Virol 2001; 22: 133-141
1cP. B. Christensen, R. E. Engle, S.E.H. Jacobsen, H.B. Krarup, G. Georgsen and R.H. Purcell: High Prevalence Of Hepatitis A Antibodies among Danish Prisoners and Drug Users. J Med. Virol 2002; 66: 49 - 55
2Fuglsang T, Fouchard JR, Ege PP. Prevalence of hiv, hepatitis C and B among drug users in the city of Copenhagen. Ugeskrift for Læger 2000; 162: 3860 – 4.
3Smith E. Department of Epidemiology, Statens Serum Institut, 2002. (unpublished data).
5Susan Cowan, Department of Epidemiology, Statens Serum Institut, 2003. (unpublished data).
7Peer Brehm Christensen, Birgitte Kringsholm, Jytte Banner, Jørgen L. Thomsen, Susan Cowan, Gabriela Felicia Stein, Gitte Wulf Jürgensen, Kari Grasaasen, Jørgen Georgsen Court Pedersen: Surveillance of HIV and viral hepatitis by analysis of samples from drug related Deaths. Eur J Epidemiol 2006:21;383-387.
Germany1IFT Institut for Therapy Research. EBIS-Report National Monitoring System for outpatient advisory and treatment facilities in Germany. Reference period 1.1. - 31.12.1999 IFT: Munich, Germany, no date.
2Jugendberatung und Jugendhilfe (e.V.), Frankfurt,1998 (unpublished data).
3Simon R, (DBDD) and Welsch K. (IFT) (2002) EBIS - Report of the National Monitoring System for outpatient advisory and treatment faciltities. Sucht, Sonderhaft.
4Backmund, M., Meyer, K. & von Zielonka, M. (2001). Prävalenzdaten zu Hepatitis B und C bei Drogenabhängigen in München. Suchtmedizin, 3 (1), 21-24.
5Holbach, M., Frösner, G., Donnerbauer, E., Dittmeier, E. & Holbach, B (1998). Prävalenz von Hepatitismarkern der Typen A, B, C und assoziiertes Risikoverhalten unter Patienten nach intravenösem Drogenkonsum. Sucht, 44 (6), 390-398.
6Brack J. Hepatitis B and C in drug dependent patients: an epidemiological study. Suchttherapie Suppl. 2002; 3: S3-S10.11.
7Stark K, Herrmann U, Ehrhardt S, Bienzle U. Provision of syringes for injecting drug users in prison. Results of a three year programme in Berlin. (submitted).
8asee International 1a
8bsee International 1b
9Keppler K., Stover H. Ubertragungen von Infectionskrankheiten im Justizvolluzug – Ergebnisse einer Untersuchung und Vorstellung eines Modell projektes zur Infektions-Prophylaxe in Niedersachsen. (Transmission of infectious diseases during imprisonment – results of a study and introduction of a model project for infection prevention in Lower Saxony). Gesundheitswesen 1999.
10Stark K. Schreier E., Muller R., Wirth D., Driesel G., Bienzle U. Prevalence and determinants of anti-HCV seropositivity and of HIV genotype among intravenous drug users in Berlin. Scand J Infect Dis 1995;(4):331-337.
11Stark K., Bienzle U., Vonk R., Guggenmoos-Holzmann I. History of syringe sharing in prison and risk of hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus and human immunodeficiency virus infectious among injecting drug users in Berlin. Int J Epidemiol 1997; 26: 1359-1366
12Weber B., Rabenau H., Berger A, et al. Seroprevalence of HCV, HAV, HBV, HDV, HCMC and HIV in Hight risk groups / Frankfurt a. M., Germany. Zbl Bakt 1995; 282: 102-112.
13Trubner K, Polywka S, Puschel K, Laufs R. Hepatitis C in deceased drug addicts. Int J Legal Med. 1991;104(5):251-4.
14Neifer S, Molz B, Sucker U, Kreuzpaintner E, Weinberger K, Jilg W. [High percentage of isolated anti-HBc-positive persons among prisoners] Gesundheitswesen. 1997 Jun;59(6):409-12. German.
15Gaube J, Feucht HH, Laufs R, Polywka S, Fingscheidt E, Muller HE. [Hepatitis A, B and C as desmoteric infections] Gesundheitswesen. 1993 May;55(5):246-9. German.
16Stark K, Muller R, Bienzle U, Guggenmoos-Holzmann I. Frontloading: a risk factor for HIV and hepatitis C virus infection among injecting drug users in Berlin. AIDS. 1996 Mar;10(3):311-7.
17BKA (Federal Office of Criminology), 2000 (unpublished data)
18Heinemann A, Püschel K. Drogenkonsum und Infektionen im Strafvollzug. In: Drogen in der Metropole, Hg: Krausz, Raschke, Lambertus 1999; Freiburg.
19Heinemann, A. Entzugsbehandlung Klinikum Nord Hamburg (unpublished manuscript)
22Strobl, M., Klapper, J., Pelzel, K.-H., Bader, Zahn, H. & Lange, N. (2005a). Suchthilfestatistik 2004 für Deutschland. Tabellenband für die ambulante Suchtkrankenhilfe. www.dshs.de
23de Ridder, M., Dettmer, K., Hackenberg, B., Leicht, A. (2004). Hepatitisimpfung auf offenen Drogenszenen. Deutsches Ärzteblatt, 101, 22. Oktober 2004, A2893-A2896.
24Reimer, J., Lorenzen, J., Schäfer, I., Backmund, M., Bätz, B., Haasen, C.(2005). Virale Leberinfektionen bei intravenösen Drogengebrauchern. Suchtmed, 7, 128
25www.bka.de
26Prinzleve, M., Müller, O., Werse, B., Bernard, C. (2005). MoSyD Szenestudie. Die offene Drogenszene in Frankfurt amMain 2004. Frankfurt: Universität Frankfurt, CDR.
28Bundesministerium des Innern (Hrsg.) (2006). Polizeiliche Kriminalstatistik 2005. Berlin: Bundesministerium des Innern.
30Bundeskriminalamt (BKA) (2007a). Jahreskurzlage Rauschgift 2006. Wiesbaden: BKA. Available: http://www.bka.de. [accessed: 23.08.2007].
31Bundeskriminalamt (2008). Rauschgiftkriminalit?t. Bundeslagebild 2007 - Tabellenanhang. Wiesbaden: Bundeskriminalamt.
37Robert Koch Institute (2011): Yearbook of infectious disease epidemiology for 2010, Berlin.
38Zimmermann R: DRUCK-Studie: Drogen und chronische Infektionskrankheiten in Deutschland. Ergebnisse der Pilotierung eines Sero- und Verhaltenssurveys bei i.v. Drogengebrauchern. Epidemiologisches Bulletin Nr. 33 August 2012. online available: www.rki.de/DE/Content/Infekt/EpidBull/Archiv/2012/Ausgaben/33_12.pdf
Estonia1Kutsar K, Health Protection Inspectorate, Tallinn.
2See International 2
3Priimägi. L. & Tefanova. V., Tallo. T. (2003) "Emerging viral hepatitis B and C infections in Estonia" In.: NATO Advanced Research Workshop "Emerging Biological Threat", October 5-8, 2003, Budapest, Hungary. Abstract book, p.11-12. Oral report October 6, 2003.
4Uuskula, A., Abel, K., Rajaleid, K., Ruutel, K., Talu, A., Fischer, K., Boborova, N.: HIV and risk behaviour among injecting drug users in two cities (Tallin, Kohtla-Jarve) in Estonia. Study report. National Institute for Health Development, University of Tartu, Imperial College London, 2005. http://www.tai.ee/failid/IDU_risk_behaviour_and_HIV_prevalence_study_2005.pdf
5Vorobjov S, Uuskula A, Abel-Ollo K, Talu A, Ruutel K, Des Jarlais DC. Comparison of injecting drug users who obtain syringes from pharmacies and syringe exchange programs in Tallinn, Estonia. Harm Reduct J. 2009 Feb 20;6(1):3.
6L, Lõhmus., Abel-Ollo, K., Talu, K. HIV-nakkuse, hepatiitide ning riskikäitumise levimus süstivate narkomaanide seas Narvas, 2010. Tallinn 2011. Tervise arengu Instituut.
Ireland1Smyth, B., Keenan, E., O’Connor, JJ. (1998) Bloodborne viral infection in Irish injecting drug users. Addiction, 93 (11), 1649-56.
2Long, J., Allwright, S., Barry, J., Reaper-Reynolds, S., Thornton, L., Bradley, F., et al. (2001) Hepatitis B, hepatitis C and HIV antibodies prevalence and risk factors in entrants to Irish prisons: a national survey. British Medical Journal; 323, 1209-13.
3Long J, Allwright S, Barry J, et al. Hepatitis B, hepatitis C and HIV in Irish prisoners, part II: prevalence and risk in committal prisoners 1999. Dublin: Trinity College, Department of Community Health and General Practice, 2000.
4Allwright, S., Bradley, F., Long, J., Barry, J., Thornton, L., Parry, JV. (2000) Prevalence of antibodies to hepatitis B, hepatitis C and HIV and risk factors in Irish prisoners: results of a national cross sectional survey. British Medical Journal, 321, 78-82.
5Cullen, W., Bury, G., Barry, J., O'Kelly, F. (2000) Drug users attending general practice in Eastern Regional Health Authority (ERHA) area. Irish Medical Journal, 93 (7), 214-17.
6Fitzgerald, M., Barry, J., O'Sullivan, P., Thornton, L.. (2001) Blood-borne infections in Dublin's opiate users. Irish Journal of Medical Science, 170 (1), 32-4.
7Smyth, B., Keenan, E., O'Connor, JJ. (1999) Evaluation of the impact of Dublin's expanded harm reduction programme on prevalence of hepatitis C among short-term injecting drug users. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 53, 434-5.
8Allwright S, Barry J, Bradley F, Long J, Thornton L. Hepatitis B, hepatitis C and HIV in Irish prisoners: prevalence and risk. Dublin: Trinity College, Department of Community Health and General Practice, 1999.
9Dorman, A., Keenan, E., Schutter, C., Merry, J., O'Connor, JJ. (1997) HIV risk behaviour in Irish intravenous drug users. Irish Journal of Medical Science, 166 (4), 235-8.
11Johnson, Z., O'Connor, M., Pomeroy, L., Johnson, H., Barry, J., Scully, M., Fitzpatrick, E. (1994) Prevalence of HIV and associated risk behaviour in attendees at a Dublin needle exchange. Addiction 89 (5), 603-7.
12Smyth, R., Keenan, E., Dorman, A., O'Connor, JJ. (1995) Hepatitis C infection among injecting drug users attending the National Drug Treatment Centre. Irish Journal of Medical Science, 164 (6) 267-268.
13Smyth B, O'Connor JJ, Barry J, Keenan E. Retrospective cohort study examining incidence of HIV and Hepatitis C infection among injecting drug users in Dublin. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 2003;57:310-311.
14O'Sullivan P (2004) A study of the prevalence of blood-borne viral diseases in injecting drug users receiving methadone maintenance in the National Drug Treatment Centre at Trinity Court in Dublin. Thesis submitted for the Faculty of Public Health Medicineof the Royal College of Physicians in Ireland.
Greece1Greek REITOX Focal Point (EKTEPN), University Mental Health Research Institute (UMHRI).
2Therapy Center for Dependent Individuals (KETHEA)
3Hellenic Centre for Infectious Diseases Control (HCIDC - KEEL), Ministry of Health and Welfare.
5Organisation Against Drugs (OKANA). Methadone Substitution Programme – Salonica Units
6National School of Public Health – Reference Center of AIDS, Epidemiology and Biostatistics Unit, Athens.
7Organisation Against Drugs (OKANA) Methadone Substitution Programme – Athens Units.
8Diagnostic and Reference Laboratory of STDs and AIDS - "A.Sygros" Hospital.
918 ANO” Drug and Alcohol Dependence Treatment Unit - Attica State Psychiatric Hospital
10Mr. Papadourakis - Ministry of Justice
12Malliori, M., Sypsa, V. Psichogiou, M., Touloumi, G., Skoutelis, A., Tassopoulos, N., Hatzakis, A. & Stefanis, C. A survey of Bloodborne Viruses and Associate Risk Behaviours in Greek Prisons. Addiction (1998), 93(2), 243-245.
13Anastassopoulou CG, Paraskevis D, Sypsa V, Psichogiou M, Katsoulidou A, Tassopoulos N, Skoutelis A, Malliori M, Hatzakis A. Prevalence patterns and genotypes of GB virus C/hepatitis G virus among imprisoned intravenous drug users. J Med Virol. 1998; 56: 246-52.
14Pavlitou, K., Polidorou, F., Pastore, F., Kabilaki, E., Chrisohoidou, S., Malaka, E. Prevalence of Hepatitis B and C markers in prisoners. Acta Microbiologica Hellenica 1998; 43: 271-275.
15Papatheodoridis GV, Delladetsima J, Verghisi-Nikolakaki S, Malliori M, Krystallis A, Hatzakis A, Tassopoulos NC. Clinicopathological assessment of hepatitis C virus infection in parenteral drug abusers. Am J Gastroenterol. 1995; 90: 1843-6.
16Greek National Focal Point (EKTEPN), Admissions to the Psychiatric Unit of the Koridalos Prison (Athens)
17Greek REITOX Focal Point
18Greek REITOX Focal Point (EKTEPN), University Mental Health Research Institute (UMHRI), 2010
19Greek REITOX Focal Point (EKTEPN), University Mental Health Research Institute (UMHRI), 2011
20Greek REITOX Focal Point (EKTEPN), University Mental Health Research Institute (UMHRI), 2012
Spain1Delegación del Gobierno para Plan Nacional Sobre Drogas (DGPNSD) Observatorio Español sobre Drogas (unpublished data).
2Delegación del Gobierno para Plan Nacional Sobre Drogas (DGPNSD) Observatorio Español sobre Drogas. Informe no 1. Ministerio de Justicia e Interior, Madrid, 1998
2aDelegación del Gobierno para el Plan Nacional sobre Drogas. Observatorio Español sobre Drogas. Informe 2004. Madrid: Ministerio de Sanidad y Consumo, 2005.
3Delegación del Gobierno para Plan Nacional Sobre Drogas (DGPNSD) Encuesta sobre Consumidores de Heroina en Tratamiento (ECHT). 1996 Report. DGPNSD, Madrid, 1997 (Polycopy).
4asee International 1a
4bsee International 1b
5Alfonso GR, Hurtado NI, Espacio CA, Santos RG, Tomas DS. Practicas de riesgo y seroprevalencia al VIH, VHB u VHC en los pacients Del Centro de Informacion y Prevencion del SIDA de Valencia. (Risk behaviours and seroprevalence to HIV, HBV and HCV in patients of the AIDS information and prevention center in Valencia, Spain). Gac Sanit 1999;13 (1): 16-21.
6Anon C, del Olmo JA, Llovet F et al. Virus C de la hepatitis entre la poblacion penitenciaria de Valencia. (The hepatitis C virus among the prison population of Valencia). Rev Esp Enferm Dig 1995;87 (7):505-508.
7Delgado-Iribarren A, Wilhelmi I, Padilla B. Canedo T. Gómez J. Elviro J. Infeccion por VIH y por los vírus de la hepatitis B,C y D en adictos a drogas por via parenteral. Seroprevalencia de un ano y su seguimiento. (Infection by HIV and the hepatitis B, C and D viruses in intravenous drug addicts. Seroprevalence at 1 year and its follow-up). Enferm Infecc Microbiol Clin 1993; 11 (1):8-13.
8Delgado-Iribarren A, Calvo M Perez A, Del Álamo M, Cercenado S. Intravenous drug user serologic control: what may be prevented? Enferm Infecc Microbiol Clin 2000: 18(1): 2-5.
9Pallas JR, Farinas-Alvarez C, Prieto D, Delgado-Rodriguez M. Coinfections by HIV, hepatitis B and hepatitis C in imprisoned injecting drug users. Eur J Epidemiol 1999; 15(8):699-704.
10Hernandez_Aguado I, Bolumar F et al. False-positive tests for syphilis associated with human immunodeficiency vírus and hepatitis B vírus infection among intravenous drug abusers. Valencian Study Group on HIV Epidemiology. Eur J Clin Microbial Infect Dis 1998; 17(11):784-787.
11Bolumar F, I Hernandez Aguado, L Ferrer, I Ruiz, MJ Avino and M Rebagliato. Prevalence of antibodies to hepatitis C in a population of intravenous drug users in Valencia, Spain, 1990-1992. International Journal of Epidemiology 1996, Vol 25, 204-209.
12Santana OE, Malé ML, Hernandez JF,Limiñana JMMartín AM. Prevalence of serologic markers of HBV, HDV, HCV and HIV non-injectors drug users compared to injection drug users in Gran Canária, Spain. European Journal of Epidemiology 1998; 14:555-561
13De la Fuente L. Estudio sobre el cambio de vía de administración de la heroína en tres ciudades españolas (Madrid, Barcelona y Sevilla), unpublished data.
14Alfonso R, Hurtado I, Espacio A, Santos C, Tomás S. Prácticas de riesgo y seroprevalencia al HIV, VHB e VHC en los pacientes Del Centro de Información y Prevención del SIDA de Valencia. Gaceta Sanitária 1999; 13(1):16-21.
15Jiménez X, Caraballo A, Batalla C, Comín E, Cuenca AM, Ezpeleta A, López E, Parellada N. Prevalência de la infecctió por los vírus de la hepatitis B, C e inmudeficiencia humana en usuarios de drogas. Atencíón Primaria 1999; 24:368-371
16Delgado-Iribarren A, Calvo M, Pèrez A, Del Álmo M, Cercenado S. Intravenous drug users serologic control: what may be prevented [in Spanish]. Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiologia Clínica 2000; 18(1):2-5.
17Anon. (1998) Seroprevalence of hepatitis C virus infection at the time of entry to prison in the prison population in the north-east of Spain [in Spanish]. Rev Esp Salud Publica 72: 43-51.
18Rev Sandid Hig Publica (Madr) 1992; 66: 233-237
19Ibanez A, Gimenez-Barcons M, Tajahuerce A, Tural C, Sirera G, Clotet B, Sanchez-Tapias JM, Rodes J, Martinez MA, Saiz JC. Prevalence and genotypes of GB virus C/hepatitis G virus (GBV-C/HGV) and hepatitis C virus among patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus: evidence of GBV-C/HGV sexual transmission. J Med Virol. 1998; 55: 293-9
20Munoz-Perez MA, Rodriguez-Pichardo A, Camacho F, Colmenero MA. Hepatitis C virus infection in a cohort of 1161 HIV-infected patients. Int J STD. AIDS. 1999 Jan;10(1):69-70.
21J AIDS 2000; 23: 89-94.
22Pallas J, Farinas-Alvarez C, Prieto D, Llorca J, Delgado-Rodriguez M. Risk factors for monoinfections and coinfections with HIV, hepatitis B and hepatitis C viruses in northern Spanish prisoners. Epidemiol Infect. 1999 Aug;123(1):95-102.
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23bCEESCAT. Integrated HIV/AIDS Surveillance System of Catalonia. Generalitat de Catalunya, Barcelona 2002.
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27Infección por VIH y SIDA en España Plan Multisectorial. 2001-2005 Indicadores. Noviembre 2001.
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35Delegación del Gobierno para el Plan Nacional sobre Drogas. Observatorio Español sobre Drogas. Informe 2004. Madrid: Ministerio de Sanidad y Consumo, 2005.
36Delegación del Gobierno para el Plan Nacional sobre Drogas. Encuesta sobre Salud y Drogas en los Internados en Prisión (ESDIP). Madrid: Ministerio de Sanidad y Consumo, 2006 (Not published report).
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38Data from 2003 to 2005: Not published yet.
39Delegaciýn del Gobierno para el Plan Nacional sobre Drogas (DGPNSD). Observatorio Espaýol sobre Drogas. Informe 2007. Madrid: Ministerio de Sanidad y Consumo, 2008.
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42The State of Drugs Use in Spain, reports from 1998 to 2012. Spanish Observatory on Drugs. Government Delegation for the National Plan on Drugs. Ministry of Health, Social Services and Equality. available at: Web http://www.pnsd.msc.es/. Link: http://www.pnsd.msc.es/Categoria2/observa/oed/home.htm
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15Tellier S. La prise en charge des toxicomanes dans les structures sanitaires et sociales, novembre 1999. Paris : Direction de la Recherche, des Etudes, de l’Evaluation et des Statistiques, Ministère de l’Emploi et de la Solidarité, 2001. Document de travail No. 19.
16Emmanuelli J, Jauffret-Roustide M. . Multicentric and multisites study on the frequencies and the determinants of the VIH and VHC transmission risk behaviors among drug users (Study red poppy). Faisability stage. January 2001-september 2002 [Etude multicentrique multisites sur les fréquences et les déterminants des pratiques à risque de transmission des VIH et VHC chez les usagers de drogues (étude Coquelicot): phase de faisabilité, janvier 2001-septembre 2002] [in French]. Final report Saint-Maurice : Institut de Veille Sanitaire, 2003.
17Guichard A, Lert F, Calderon C, et al. Illicit drug use and injection practices among drug users on methadone and buprenorphine maintenance treatment in France. Addiction 2003, 98:1585-1597.
18La prise en charge des consommateurs de drogues illicites ayant recours au système sanitaire et social, Direction de la Recherche, des Etudes, de l'Evaluation et des Statistiques (DREES), November 2003
19Jauffret-Roustide M, Le Strat Y,Couturier E, Thierry D, Rondy M, Quaglia M, Razafandratsima N, Emmanuelli J, Guibert G, Barin F, Desenclos JC. A national cross-sectional study among drug-users in France: epidemiology of HCV and highlight on practical and statistical aspects of the design. BMC Infectious Diseases 2009; 9: 113-124
20Bruandet A, Lucidarme D, Decoster A, Ilef D, Harbonnier J, Jacob C, Delamare C, Cyran C, Van Hoenacker AF, Frémaux D, Josse P, Emmanuelli J, Le Strat Y, Filoche B, Desenclos JC. Incidence and risk factors of HCV infection in a cohort of intravenous drug users in the North and East of France. Rev Epidemiol Sante Publique. 2006 Jul;54 Spec No 1:1S15-1S22. French. Erratum in: Rev Epidemiol Sante Publique. 2006 Sep;54(4):384.
21Cadet-Tairou and al, (2008) Emerging phenomena linked to the use of drugs in France in 2006. Eighth national report of the TREND system [Phénomènes émergents liés aux drogues en 2006, Huitième edition du rapport national du dispositif TREND] [in French], OFDT, Saint Denis, 2008, 189 p
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1bMinistero del Lavoro e delle Politiche Sociali, Dipartimento per le Politiche Sociali e Prevedenziali. Relazione Annuale al Parlamento sullo Stato delle Tossicodipendenze in Italia 2002.
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25Clin Terapeutica 1994; 145: 41-48.
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6Cyprus NFP (2008): unpublished results
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8Cyprus NFP (2009): unpublished results
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13Infectology Center of Latvia (2009), unpublished data.
99The State Addiction Agency (2004), unpublished data.
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8Data unpublished
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1cOriger A. (in press), Rapport national sur l'état de la situation du phénomène de la drogue - RELIS 2002, PFN, Centre de Recherche Public - Santé, Luxembourg.
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4Schlink J., Etude épidémiologique des infections HIV et à l'hépatite virale C dans les prisons luxembourgeoises, CPL, Luxembourg, 2000.
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7Origer, A. (2008). National report on the state of the drugs problem - RELIS 2007, NFP-CES/CRP-sante, Luxembourg
8Origer, A. (2009). National report on the state of the drugs problem - RELIS 2008, NFP-CES/CRP-sante, Luxembourg
11Origer, A. (2011). Rapport National sur l'état du phénomène de la Drogue au Grand-Duché de Luxembourg, RELIS 2010, NFP-CRP-santé, Luxembourg
12Origer, A. (2012). Rapport National sur l'état du phénomène de la Drogue au Grand-Duché de Luxembourg, RELIS 2011, NFP-CRP-santé, Luxembourg
Hungary1Csohán Á. National Center for Epidemiology, Department for Epidemiology, Budapest. (personal comm.)
2Ujhelyi E, et al. Sentinel surveillance of infectious diseases among IDUs in Hungary 1997-2003 (unpublished data)
3See International 3
4Gyarmathy VA, Neaigus A, Feher B, et al. HIV prevalence and syringe sharing among young drug injectors in Budapest, Hungary. 14th International Conference on AIDS. Barcelona, July 2002 [Abstract MoPeC3407].
5Annual report on activity of county centres of NPHMOS 2005, National Public Health and Medical Officer Service Budapest 2006, Unpublished data
7Annual report on activity, 2006 Baranya, Bács-Kiskun, Békés, Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén, Csongrád, Hajdú-Bihar, Heves, Veszprém Institutes of National Public Health Medical Office Service
8Csohán Ágnes, Dudás Mária, Győri Zoltán, Minárovits János, Rusvai Erzsébet: Prevalence data on communicable diseases related to IV drug usage (HIV, HBV, HCV) in Hungary, in 2006-2007 (Annual report on activity in 2006)
9Judd A., Parry J., Hickman M., Mc Donald T., Jordan L., Lewis K., Contreras M., Dusheiko G., Foster G., Gill N., Kemp K., Main J., Murray-Lyon I., and Nelson M. Evaluation of a modified commercial assay in detecting antibody to hepatitis C virus in oral fluids and dried blot spots. Journal of Medical Virology 71: 49-55 (2003)
12Csohan, A., Dudas, M., Gyori, Z., Minarovits, J., Rusvai, E. (2008): Official report of the examination on prevalence regarding infections related to IV drug use in 2006-2007. unpublished report.
15National Centre fo Epidemiology: Dudas, M., Rusvai, E., Gyori, Z., Csohan, A., Minarovits, J. (2009). " Official report on prevalence of infections related to injecting drug use in 2008". unpublished report.
16Nyír o Gyula Hospital Specialised Outpatient Treatment Centre. Budapest. 2008. (unpublished results)
17Gyarmathy, V.A., Neaigus A., Mitchell M. M., Ujhelyi E. (2008). "The association of syringe type and syringe cleaning with HCV infection among IDUs in Budapest, Hungary. ", Drug Alcohol Dependence. doi:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2008.10.014
18National Center for Epidemiology. Budapest. 2009. unpublished results.
19National Centre for Epidemiology: Dudás M., Rusvai E., Győri Z., Minárovits J., Takács M., Csohán Á. " Official report on prevalence of infections related to injecting drug use in 2009". unpublished report.
20aNational Center for Epidemiology. Budapest. 2010. unpublished results.
20bReitox National Focal Point. Budapest. 2010. unpublished results.
21National Centre fo Epidemiology: Dudás M., Rusvai E., Győri Z., Minárovits J., Takács M., Csohán Á. " Official report on prevalence of infections related to injecting drug use among clients of the Blue Point Foundation in 2008-2009". unpublished report.
23National Centre fo Epidemiology: Dudás M., Rusvai E., Győri Z., Minárovits J., Takács M., Csohán Á. " Official report on prevalence of infections related to injecting drug use in 6 counties in 2010". unpublished report.
24National Centre for Epidemiology: Dudás, M., Rusvai, E., Győri, Z., Tarján, A., Minárovits, J., Takács, M., Csohán, Á. (2012):" Official report on prevalence of infections related to injecting drug use in 2011". unpublished report.
25National Centre fo Epidemiology: Dudás, M., Rusvai, E., Győri, Z., Tarján, A., Minárovits, J., Takács, M., Csohán, Á. (2012): " Official report on prevalence of infections related to injecting drug use in 5 counties in 2011". unpublished report.
26Tarján, A., Horváth, G. Cs. (2012): Prevalence of Hepatitis C and related risk behaviors among inmates in Hungary, in 2010. Unpublished thesis.
27BVOP (Büntetés-végrehajtás Országos Parancsnoksága - Prison Service Headquarters) (2011). Annual Report.
Malta1SEDQA, Bimonthly Reports, 2003
2SEDQA, substance misuse outpatients unit 2004 data file
3Sedqa Substance Misuse Outpatient Unit (SMOPU) database 2005
5SUBSTANCE MISUSE OUTPATIENTS (SMOPU) 2006 DATA FILE; SEDQA NATIONAL AGENCY AGAINST DRUG AND ALCOHOL ABUSE.
7Data reported by SMOPU on persons attending the services in 2009.
8Data from Substance Misuse Out Patient Unit
9Substance Misuse Out Patient Unit, Guardamangia, 2012 (unpublished results)
10Health Promotion and Disease Prevention Directorate, Msida 2012 (unpublished results)
Netherlands1Beuker RJ, Berns MPH, Rozendaal CM van, Snijders BM, Ameijden EJC van, Houweling H and Laar MJW van de. Surveillance of HIV-infection among injecting drug users in The Netherlands: results Amsterdam 1998. [in Dutch] Report 441100011. Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu (RIVM), Bilthoven, 2000.
2Berns MPH, Snijders BM, Rozendaal CM van, Schat Y, Houweling H and Laar MJW van de. HIV-surveillance among injecting drug users in Arnhem 1997. [in Dutch] Report 441100008. Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu (RIVM), Bilthoven, 1999.
3Berns MPH, Snijders BM, Rozendaal CM van, Hoek AFM van, Laar MJW van de. Surveillance of HIV-infection among injecting drug users in The Netherlands: Eindhoven/Helmond/’s-Hertogenbosch 1999 [in Dutch]. RIVM Report no. 441100.012. Bilthoven, Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu, May 2000.
4Berns MPH, Snijders B.M., Rozendaal C.M. van, Have J. van der, Houweling H., Laar M.J.W. van de. Surveillance of HIV-infection among injecting drug users in the Netherlands: Groningen 1997/1998 [in Dutch]. RIVM Report no. 441100.009. Bilthoven, Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu, September 1999.
5Berns MPH, Rozendaal CM van, Toet J, Snijders BM and Houweling H. HIV-surveillance among injecting drug users in the Netherlands: survey Rotterdam 1997 [in Dutch] Report 441100007, Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu (RIVM), Bilthoven, 1998
6Beuker RJ, Berns MPH, Rozendaal CM van, Snijders BM, Jansen M, Hoebe CJPA, Laar MJW van de. Surveillance of HIV infection among injecting drug users in the Netherlands: Heerlen/Maastricht 1998/1999 (in Dutch). RIVM Report no. 441100 014. Bilthoven, Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu, 2001.
7Wiessing LG, Scheepens JMFA, van Rozendaal CM, Diepersloot FB, Dorigo-Zetsma JW, Sprenger MJW, Houweling H. Surveillance of HIV-infection among intravenous drug users in the Netherlands: Utrecht 1996 (in Dutch). RIVM Report no. 441100.004. Bilthoven, Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu, November 1996.
8Haks K, Berns MPH, Snijders BM, Watzeels JCM, Regteren AJ van, Laar MJW van de. Surveillance of HIV infection among injecting drug users in the Netherlands: results Almelo/Enschede/-Hengelo 2000. RIVM Report 441100 016. Bilthoven: National Institute of Public Health and the Environment, 2001.
9Beuker RJ, Berns MPH, Watzeels JCM, Hendriks VM, Coster EJM de, Tonino-van der Marel E, Laar MJW van de. Surveillance of HIV infection among injecting drug users in the Netherlands: results The Hague 2000. RIVM Report 441100 015. Bilthoven: National Institute of Public Health and the Environment, 2001.
10Wiessing LG, Toet J, Houweling H, Koedijk PM, Akker R van den and Sprenger MJW. Prevalence and risk factors of HIV infection among drug users in Rotterdam. Report 213220001. Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu (RIVM), Bilthoven, 1995.
11Carsauw, HHC, Rozendaal CM van, Scheepens JMFA, Hoebe CJPA, Meulders WAJ, Jansen M, Dorigo-Zetsma JW and Houweling H. Infections with HIV, HBV and HCV among injecting drug users in Heerlen/Maastricht (in the Netherlands). [in Dutch] Report 441100006. Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu (RIVM), Bilthoven, 1997.
12Wiessing LG, Houweling H, van de Akker R, Katchaki JN, Servaas JHJ, van Rossum JMA. HIV infection and risk behaviour among drug users in Arnhem. [in Dutch] RIVM report nr. 528910003. Bilthoven, The Netherlands: National Institute of Public Health and Environmental Protection (RIVM), 1993.
13Wiessing LG, van Rozendaal CM, Scheepens JMFA, Schat Y, Dorigo-Zetsma JW, Sprenger MJW, Houweling H. Surveillance of HIV-infection among intravenous drug users in the Netherlands; results Arnhem 1995 [in Dutch] RIVM report nr. 441100002 Bilthoven, National Institute of Public Health and Environmental Protection (RIVM), 1996.
14aWiessing LG, Houweling H, Meulders WAJ, Cerdá E, Jansen M, van Loon AM, Sprenger MJW. Prevalence of HIV infections among drug users in Southern Netherlands. [In Dutch]. RIVM report nr. 214230001. Bilthoven, The Netherlands: National Institute of Public Health and Environmental Protection (RIVM), 1995.
14bWiessing LG, Houweling H, Meulders WAJ, Cerdá E, Jansen M, van Loon AM, Sprenger MJW. Prevalence of HIV infections among drug users in Southern Netherlands. [Prevalence of HIV infections among drug users in South Limburg] Ned. Tijdschr. Geneeskd 1995;139,1936-40.
15Wiessing LG, van Rozendaal CM, Scheepens JMFA, Fennema JSA, Dorigo-Zetsma JW, Houweling H. HIV-surveillance among intravenous drug users and hard-drug users of Surinamese/Antillian origin in Amsterdam 1996 [in Dutch] RIVM report nr. 441100005. Bilthoven, National Institute of Public Health and Environmental Protection (RIVM), 1997
16Wiessing LG, Vondewinkel B, Houweling H, Spruit IP, van de Goor LAM. Surveillance of HIV infections among drug users: a pilot study in Deventer. [in Dutch] RIVM report nr. 441002001. Bilthoven, The Netherlands: National Institute of Public Health and Environmental Protection (RIVM), 1992
17National Institute of Public Health and the Environment (RIVM). (unpublished data from study ref. 10)
18National Institute of Public Health and the Environment (RIVM). (unpublished data from study ref. 12)
21National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Bilthoven. (unpublished data).
22van den Hoek JA, van Haastrecht HJ, Goudsmit J, de Wolf F, Coutinho RA. Prevalence, incidence, and risk factors of hepatitis C virus infection among drug users in Amsterdam. J Infect Dis 1990;162:823-6.
27Van Santen, G. and De Wit, M. (2004). Serologie screening: drugsverslaafden in methadonbehandeling: Lues, Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C, HIV: ervaringen in polikliniek Zuidoost. Amsterdam: GG&GD Amsterdam
33Breemer JN, de Jong WM, Krummacher N, Wolter R. Pilotproject Actief Testen in de GGZ en maatschappelijke opvang 2007-2008, evaluatierapport. Rotterdam: GGD Rotterdam-Rijnmond 2009
34Wit, M de. Municipal Health Service Amsterdam. 2010. Unpublished results
35Van Santen, G. and De Wit, M. (2004). Serologie screening: drugsverslaafden in methadonbehandeling: Lues, Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C, HIV: ervaringen in polikliniek Zuidoost. Amsterdam: GG&GD Amsterdam
36Breemer JN, de Jong WM, Krummacher N, Wolter R. Pilotproject Actief Testen in de GGZ en maatschappelijke opvang 2007-2008, evaluatierapport. Rotterdam: GGD Rotterdam-Rijnmond 2009
Austria1Federal Ministry for Health, Special Register for Drug related Deaths (unpublished data).
2Inpatient Treatment Center Lukasfeld, Vorarlberg (unpublished data).
3Verein Wiener Sozialprojekte, low threshold facility Ganslwirt, Vienna (unpublished data).
4Inpatient Treatment Center Anton Proksch Institut Mödling, Vienna (unpublished data).
5Low threshold facility Marienambulanz, Graz (unpublished data)
6Österreichisches Bundesinstitut für Gesundheitswesen (2006): Statistik der suchtgiftbezogenen Todesfälle 2005. Österreichisches Bundesinstitut für Gesundheitswesen. Wien
9Addiction Clinic - Medical University Vienna/ General Hospital Vienna (unpublished data)
12Gesundheit Österreich GmbH/ Österreichisches Bundesinstitut für Gesundheitswesen - GÖG/ÖBIG (unpublished data)
13Marienambulanz Caritas/ Streetwork (unpublished data)
14Lowthreshold service Ganslwirt (unpublished data)
Poland1Szata, W. (2003) [AIDS i zakazenia HIV w roku 2001] [HIV and AIDS in Poland in 2001]. Przeglad Epidemiologiczny, No. 1-2/2003.
1aRosinska, M. (2004) [AIDS i zakazenia HIV w roku 2002] [HIV and AIDS in Poland in 2002]. Przeglad Epidemiologiczny, No. 1-2/2004
1bSzata, W. (2003) [AIDS i zakazenia HIV w roku 2001] [HIV and AIDS in Poland in 2001]. Przeglad Epidemiologiczny, No. 1-2/2003
1cSzata, W. (2002) [AIDS i zakazenia HIV w roku 2000] [HIV and AIDS in Poland in 2002]. Przeglad Epidemiologiczny, No. 1-2/2002
2Bielak, A. , Zielinski, A. (2002) [Wystepowanie chorób zakaznych (wzw typu B i C, HIV) wsród narkomanów przyjmujacych dozylne srodki odurzajace] [Infectious diseases (HBV, HCV and HIV) among injecting drug users] National Institute of Hygiene. Warsaw, Poland (unpublished data).
4Rosinska, M. (2005) [AIDS i zakazenia HIV w roku 2003] [HIV and AIDS in Poland in 2003] Przeglad Epidemiologiczny, No. 1-2/2005
4bSzata, W. (2003) [AIDS i zakazenia HIV w roku 2001] [HIV and AIDS in Poland in 2001] Przeglad Epidemiologiczny, No. 1/2003.
5Rosinska, M. (2004) Report “The incidence estimation of infectious diseases (HBV, HCV, HIV) among IDUs in the cities with diffrent range of harm reduction programmes” National Institute of Hygiene, Warsaw, Poland.
6Rosinska, M. (2005) Report “The incidence estimation of infectious diseases (HBV, HCV, HIV) among IDUs”, National Institute of Hygiene, Warsaw, Poland.
7National Focal Point (unpublished data)
9National Institute of Public Health - National Institute of Hygiene - Department of Epidemiology, Chief Sanitary Inspectorate - Department of Communicable Diseases Control. (2008) Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2007. Warsaw. Available: http://www.pzh.gov.pl/oldpage/epimeld/2007/Ch_2007.pdf [accessed 21.11.2008]
10National Institute of Hygiene http://www.pzh.gov.pl/page/
11Werbinska-Sienkiewicz, B., Staszewska, E., Rosinska, M. [Zakazenia HIV i zachorowania na AIDS w Polsce w 2008 roku] [HIV and AIDS in Poland in 2008]. Przeglad Epidemiologiczny 2010; vol. 64(2): p.265-71.
12Rosinska, M. (2009) [Oszacowanie wystepowania chorób zakaznych (wirusowe zapalenie watroby typu C i B, HIV) wsród osób przyjmujacych srodki odurzajace we wstrzyknieciach w Gdansku i w Krakowie] [Estimation of the prevalence of infectious diseases (HIV, HCV and HBV) among injecting drug users in Gdansk and Krakow], Final study report, not published.
20NIZP-PZH (2011). Unpublished data.
Portugal1Centros de Atendimento a Toxicodependentes (CAT), Serviço de Prevenção e Tratamento da Toxicodependência (SPTT), Xabregas Lisbon, (unpublished data).
2Monteiro Carvalho C. - Centros de Atendimento a Toxicodependentes (CAT), Serviço de Prevenção e Tratamento da Toxicodependência (SPTT), DR Centro Coimbra (unpublished data).
3Centros de Atendimento a Toxicodependentes (CAT), Serviço de Prevenção e Tratamento da Toxicodependência (SPTT), DRN Norte Porto, (unpublished data).
4Valle, H, Rodrigues L, Coutinho R, Leitao E and Paixao MT. HIV, HCV and HBV infection in a group of drug addicts from Lisbon. Seventh European Conference on Clinical Aspects and Treatment of HIV-Infection. Lisbon, 1999. [abstract 866].
5Felix da Costa N, Correia J and Felix da Costa N, Correia J and Freire S. Tratamento da Toxicodependencia; estudo sagital de 1995. Toxicodependencia 1997; 3: 65-78.
6Direcção Regional do Alentejo (unpublished data).
7Direcção Regional de Lisboa e Vale do Tejo (CAT de Sintra) (unpublished data).
8Viegas E. - Drug treatment Centre CAT Boavista– SPTT, Porto (unpublished data).
9Marinho RT, Moura MC, Giria JA, Ferrinho P. Epidemiological aspects of hepatitis C in Portugal. J Gastroenterology and Hepatology 2001; 16: 1076-9.
10Maia A. – SPTT . Lisboa. (unpublished data).
10aIDT (2004). A Situação do País em Matéria de Droga e de Toxicodependência. Relatório Anual - 2003 (Vol. I). Lisboa: IDT.E2
11Direcção Regional do Algarve do SPTT. Pina, António P.B. - Toxicodependentes em tratamento no Algarve - Revista Toxicodependências, Edição SPTT, Vol. 6, N° 1, Ano 2000, pp.37-48.
12Pina, António P.B. - Toxicodependentes em tratamento no Algarve - Revista Toxicodependências, Edição SPTT, Vol. 6, N° 1, Ano 2000, pp.37-48. Direcção Regional do Algarve do SPTT
13Viana L. - DRNorte – SPTT. (unpublished data).
14Santos Silva - DRNorte – SPTT. (unpublished data).
15aSee International 1a
15bSee International 1b
16aFélix da Costa N, Viana L, Correia J, “Dois Dias de Consultas de Toxicodependências em Portugal – resultados de 1994, Toxicodependências, 1, 3 - 20, 1996.
16bFélix da Costa N, Correia J, Ferraz de Oliveira, F, “Tratamento da Toxicodependência – Estudo Sagital de 1995”, Toxicodependências, 3, 39 – 53, 1996.
16cFélix da Costa N, Correia J, Freire S, “Tratamento da Toxicodependência – Estudo Sagital de 1996”, Toxicodependências, 3, 39 – 53, 1997.
16dFélix da Costa N, “Toxicodependentes em Tratamento – Estudo Sagital de 1997”, 1, 35 – 48, 1999.
17aGodinho J, Costa H, Padre-Santo D, Rato C, “Infecção pelo HIV, Hepatite C e Hepatite B. Dados Epidemiológicos, Características Sócio-Demográficas e Factores de Risco”, Toxicodependências, 3, 55 – 60, 1999. and Godinho J, 1999, op. cit.; CAT Coimbra, 2000, op. cit.; CAT Xabregas, 2000, op. cit.; CAT Taipas, 2000, op. cit.; CAT Cedofeita, 2000, op. cit.
17cGodinho J, Costa H, Costa C, “Comportamentos de Risco de Doenças Infecciosas”, Toxicodependências, 3, 55 – 60, 1996.
18Portuguese National Report to EMCDDA, IPDT 2000.
19Padre-Santo D, Banza R, Silva A, Costa H, Godinho J, “Estudo Evolutivo do Programa de Substituição Opiácea no CAT de Setúbal”, Toxicodependências, 3, 61 – 68, 1999.
20Silva E, “Experiência de Apoios a Toxicodependentes de Rua”, “Colectânea de textos das Taipas”, Vol XII, 90 – 97, 2000.
21Viegas E, Viana L, “Estudo dos Doentes em Tratamento com Metadona no CAT da Boavista; Análise da Regularidade na Frequência à Consulta e Resultados dos Metabolitos Urinários”, Toxicodependências, 1, 49 – 60,
22ODT/IDT (unpublished data).
23IDT (2005). A situação do País em Matéria de Droga e de Toxicodependência. Relatório Anual - 2004
24IDT/ODT/NE - Relatório Interno - Unidades de Desabituação Públicas dados de 2004 e 2005, IDT 2005.
25Negreiros J. Drug related risk behaviors in IDU's and plans for IDU prevalence estimation in Portugal. Presentation at EMCDDA expert meeting on drug related infectious diseases, 20 October 2005, Lisbon, EMCDDA.
26Fernandes SB, Martins HC, Trigo H, Leitao E, Coutinho R, Paixao MT. [Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1 seroincidence estimate among a group of drug users: a new approach] Acta Med Port. 2005 Jan-Feb;18(1):37-44. Epub 2005 Mar 11. Portuguese.
27IDT (2007). A Situação do País em Matéria de Droga e de Toxicodependência Relatório Anual -2006
28IDT (2008). A Situação do País em Matéria de Droga e de Toxicodependência Relatório Anual - 2007
29IDT (2009). A Situacao do Pais em Materia de Droga e de Toxicodependencia Relatorio Anual - 2008
30IDT (2010). A Situacao do Pais em Materia de Droga e de Toxicodependencia Relatorio Anual - 2009
31SIM - Multidisciplinary Information System
32IDT (2012). A Situacao do Pais em Materia de Droga e de Toxicodependencia Relatorio Anual - 2011
Romania1see International 2
2Drug related infectious disease indicator
3Romanian Monitoring Centers for Drugs and Drug Addiction data - published in the National Report 2008
4Centre for Medical Statistics from the Ministry of Health, Romania 2009
5National Focal Point
6Centre for Medical Statistics from Ministry of Health
7Behavioural Surveillance Survey among IDU in Bucharest area, UNODC, NAA/RMCDDA 2009
Slovenia1Institute of Public Health of the Republic of Slovenia, Ljubljana.
2Klavs I, Poljak M. Unlinked anonymous monitoring of human immunodeficiency virus prevalence in high- and low-risk groups in Slovenia, 1993-2002. Croat Med J 2003, 44:545-549.
3Lovrecic, M., editor (2008). Report on the Drug Situation 2008 of the Republic of Slovenia, pp 68-69. Institute of Public Health of the Republic of Slovenia, Ljubljana.
4Klavs, I., Bergant, N., Kustec, T., Kastelic, Z. (2008). Oku‘ba z HIV v Sloveniji. Letno porocilo 2007 [online]. Institute of Public Health of Republic of Slovenia. Available: http://www.ivz.si/javne_datoteke/datoteke/640-HIV_Leto_2007.pdf [accessed 20.2.2009]. Page 12.
5National Institute of Public Health (2010). Report on the Drug Situation 2010 of the Republic of Slovenia (2009 data). IVZ, Ljubljana. Available: http://www.ivz.si/?ni=168&pi=5&_5_Filename=2644.pdf&_5_MediaId=2644&_5_AutoResize=false&pl=168-5.3.
6Klavs I, Bergant N, Kastelic Z, Kustec T. HIV infection in Slovenia: annual report 2009. (In Slovene) Ljubljana: Institute of Public Health of the Republic of Slovenia, 2009.
8Klavs I, Poljak M. Unlinked anonymous monitoring of human immunodeficiency virus prevalence in high- and low-risk groups in Slovenia, 1993-2002. Croat Med J. 2003;44(5):545-9.
9National Institute of Public Health (2010). Report on the Drug Situation 2010 of the Republic of Slovenia (2009 data). IVZ, Ljubljana. Available: http://www.ivz.si/?ni=168&pi=5&_5_Filename=2644.pdf&_5_MediaId=2644&_5_AutoResize=false&pl=168-5.3.
10Klavs I, Kustec T, Kastelic Z. HIV infection in Slovenia: annual report 2011. (In Slovene) Ljubljana: National Institute of Public Health, Slovenia, 2012.
11National Institute of Public Health (2011). Report on the Drug Situation 2011 of the Republic of Slovenia (2010 data). IVZ, Ljubljana. Available: http://www.ivz.si/Mp.aspx?ni=168&pi=5&_5_id=1854&_5_PageIndex=0&_5_groupId=301&_5_newsCategory=&_5_action=ShowNewsFull&pl=168-5.0.
Slovakia2Okruhlica, L. Surveillance of Drug Related Infectious Diseases in IDUs Utilizing Drug Treatment. EMCDDA EU expert meeting on drug related infectious diseases, Lisbon 20-21 October 2003. Meeting Report. EMCDDA 2004.
3Data provided by EuroHIV, 2004: [Office of Public Health of Slovak Republic, Bratislava]
4Okruhlica, L., Centre for Treatment of Drug Dependencies. Bratislava.
6Okruhlica, L., Klempova, D.: Incidence of HCV among the IDUs at the Centre for Treatment of Drug Dependencies in Bratislava in the period: 1997-2000. (unpublished data)
10Internal study of Institute for Drug Dependencies which is the organisational part of Treatment Centre (Centre for Treatment of Drug Dependencies) in Bratislava.
12Centre of Treatment of Drug Dependencies Bratislava: Sentinel monitoring study on infectious diseases among i.v. drug users, unpublished, 2010.
13Reports of the Regional Institutes of Public Health
14Centre for Treatment of Drug Dependencies: Results from a sentinel study on infectious diseases in injecting drug users, 2010
15Stanekova, D. Data to the National Report, 2010, NRCP HIV/AIDS
16CTDD (2012): Standard Table ST9P2;data provided to the 2012 national report on drug situation, Bratislava
17http://www.uvzsr.sk/docs/info/epida/Sprava_o_plneni_NPP_HIV_AIDS_2011.pdf
18Odborné usmernenie na zabezpecenie prevencie infekcie sposobene virusom imunitnej nedostatocnosti cloveka v Slovenskej republike, Vesnik MZSR, c. 6-9, 2000.
19Výskyt prípadov HIV/AIDS v SR k 31.12.2010. Správa Regionálnoho úradu verejného zdravotníctva , Bratislava, hl. mesto.
20Výskyt prípadov HIV/AIDS v SR k 31.12.2011. Správa Regionálnoho úradu verejného zdravotníctva , Bratislava, hl. mesto.
21http://www.uvzsr.sk/docs/info/epida/Sprava_o_plneni_NPP_HIV_AIDS_2011.pdf
Finland1aHolmström P. National Public Health Institute (KTL) Department of Infectious Diseases Epidemiology (unpublished data).
1bLiitsola. K., Ristola. M., Holmström. O., Salminen. M. O., Brummer-Korvenkontio. H., Simola, S., Suni, J. & Leinikki, P. 2000. An outbreak of the circulating recombinant form AECM240 HIV-1 in the Finnish IDU population. Aids. (Letter) 14:2613-2629.
2Needle exchange data, National Research and Development Centre for Welfare and Health (STAKES), Helsinki (unpublished data).
3Ovaska A, Holopainen A and Annala T. Final Report on the activities in the health information service experiment on 4 April – 31 December 1997. Helsinki, Terveysneuvontapiste Vinkki, Helsinki, 1998.
4National Research and Development Centre for Welfare and Health (STAKES). Private practioner and heroin addicts: A case study on the impact of medical outpatient care on criminal activities. STAKES. Helsinki, 1998
6Brummer Korvenkontio H. National Public Health Institute (KTL) Department of Infectious Diseases Epidemiology (unpublished data).
7National Focal Point, unpublished data
8Brummer Korvenkontio H. National Institute for Health and Welfare (unpublished data).
Sweden1Kall, K., Thorstensson, R., Low HIV seroprevalence in spite of high-risk behaviour in nine Swedish prisons. 12th World AIDS Conference, Geneva, 1998. [abstract 23552].
2Krook, A, Albert J, Andersson S, Biberfeld G, Blomberg J, Eklund I, Engstrom A, Julander I, Kall K, Martin C, Stendahl P, Struve J and Sonnerborg A. Prevalence and risk factors for HTLV-II infection in 913 injecting drug users in Stockholm, 1994. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes & Human Retrovirology 1997; 15: 381-386
5aSee International 1a
5bSee International 1b
6Mansson AS, Moestrup T, Nordenfelt E, Widdel A. Continued transmission of hepatitis B and C viruses, but no intravenous drug users participating in a syringe/needle exchange program. Scand J Infect Dis 2000;32 (3): 253-258.
7See International 3
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9Risk factors for Hepatitis C; sharing injection eguipment, the first year of injection and being a woman. Manuscript, Nordén Lillebil, Lidman Christer.
10Professor Sven Britton, MedS, Karolinska University Hospital, 171 76 Stockholm, Sweden.
12Niklas Karlsson The National Board of Health and Welfare - Yearly program update 2008 The Swedish Prison Program (SHP)
13National Focal Point
14Smittskyddsinstitutet (Swedish Institute for Communicable Disease Control)
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6Scottish Centre for Infection and Environmental Health (SCIEH), Glasgow (unpublished data).
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9Scottish Centre for Infection and Environmental Health, 2002. (unpublished data).
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21Data from 1999 community-wide survey unpublished
29http://www.show.scot.nhs.uk/scieh/
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31Health Protection Agency, SCIEH, National Public Health Service for Wales, Department of Health, Social Services and Public Safety. Imperial College London. Shooting Up. Infections among injecting drug users in the United Kingdom 2003. London: Health Protection Agency: October 2004. http://www.hpa.org.uk/infections/topics_az/injectingdrugusers/menu.htm
32A Taylor, D Goldberg, S Hutchinson et al. Prevalence of hepatitis C virus infection among injecting drug users in Glasgow 1990-1996: are current harm reduction strategies working? Journal of Infection 2000; 40: 176-183. A Judd, S Hutchinson, S Wadd et al. Prevalence of, and risk factors for, hepatitis C infection among recent initiates to injecting in London and Glasgow: Cross sectional analysis. J Viral Hep (in press) Data from 1999 and 2004 studies unpublished.
33Hutchinson SJ, et al. Prevalence of hepatitis C among injectors in Scotland 1989-2000: declining trends among young injectors halt in the late 1990s. Epidemiology and Infection 2002; 128: 473-477. Data from 2002/03 unpublished.
35HPA, HPS, National Public Health Service for Wales, CDSC Northern Ireland, & CRDHB. Shooting Up: Infections among injecting drug users in the United Kingdom 2004. London: Health Protection Agency, October 2005. ISBN 0 901144 76 2 http://www.hpa.org.uk/infections/topics_az/injectingdrugusers/menu.htm
36HPA & HPS. Supplementary data tables of the Unlinked Anonymous Prevalence Monitoring Programme: data to the end of 2004. Surveillance Update: 2005. London: Health Protection Agency, November 2005. www.hpa.org.uk/infections/topics_az/hiv_and_sti/hiv/epidemiology/ua.htm
37HIV prevalence among non-IDU heterosexuals, IDUs, and Men who have Sex with Men who undergo named HIV testing in Scotland: 2004 Update; HPS Weekly Report, 2 August 2005; Vol 39 No. 2005/30: pg 169-170
38Goldberg DJ, Emslie JA, Smyth W, Reid D: A system for surveillance of voluntary HIV testing: results of the first 2 years, 1989-1990; AIDS, 1992 May:6(5):495-500
39HPA, HPS, National Public Health Service for Wales, CDSC Northern Ireland, & CRDHB. Shooting Up: Infections among injecting drug users in the United Kingdom 2005. London: Health Protection Agency, October 2006. ISBN 0 901144 86 X www.hpa.org.uk/infections/topics_az/injectingdrugusers/shooting_up.htm
40HPA & HPS. Supplementary data tables of the Unlinked Anonymous Prevalence Monitoring Programme: data to the end of 2005. Surveillance Update: 2006. London: Health Protection Agency, November 2006. www.hpa.org.uk/infections/topics_az/hiv_and_sti/hiv/epidemiology/ua.htm#supplement
43HPA, HPS, National Public Health Service for Wales, CDSC Northern Ireland, & CRDHB. Shooting Up: Infections among injecting drug users in the United Kingdom 2006. London: Health Protection Agency, October 2007. ISBN 978 0 901144 95 9
44HPA & HPS. Supplementary data tables of the Unlinked Anonymous Prevalence Monitoring Programme: data to the end of 2006. Surveillance Update: 2007. London: Health Protection Agency, November 2007. www.hpa.org.uk/infections/topics_az/hiv_and_sti/hiv/epidemiology/ua.htm#supplement
45HPA, HPS, National Public Health Service for Wales, CDSC Northern Ireland, & CRDHB. Shooting Up: Infections among injecting drug users in the United Kingdom 2007. London: Health Protection Agency, October 2008. ISBN 978-0-901144-69-0
46HPA & HPS. Supplementary data tables of the Unlinked Anonymous Prevalence Monitoring Programme: data to the end of 2007. Surveillance Update: 2008. London: Health Protection Agency, November 2008. www.hpa.org.uk/web/HPAwebFile/HPAweb_C/1229070420947
48HPA, HPS, National Public Health Service for Wales, CDSC Northern Ireland, & CRDHB. Shooting Up: Infections among injecting drug users in the United Kingdom 2008. London: Health Protection Agency, October 2009. ISBN to be allocated
49Hutchinson SJ, McIntyre PG, Molyneaux P, Cameron S, Burns S, Taylor A, Goldberg DJ. Prevalence of hepatitis C among injectors in Scotland 1989-2000: declining trends among young injectors halt in the late 1990s. Epidemiology and Infection 2002; 128: 473-477.
50HIV prevalence among non-IDU heterosexuals, IDUs, and Men who have Sex with Men who undergo named HIV testing in Scotland: 2004 Update; HPS Weekly Report, 2 August 2005; Vol 39 No. 2005/30: pg 169-170
51HPA, HPS, National Public Health Service for Wales, CDSC Northern Ireland, & CRDHB. Shooting Up: Infections among injecting drug users in the United Kingdom 2008. London: Health Protection Agency, October 2010. ISBN to be allocated
52Hepatitis B vaccine uptake among injecting drug users in England 1998 to 2004: is the prison vaccination programme driving recent improvements? Hope, V.D.; Ncube, F.; Hickman, M.; Judd, A.; Parry, J.V. J Viral Hepat, 2007; 14(9):653-60
53Health Protection Agency Centre for Infections. Unlinked Anonymous Monitoring Survey of Injecting Drug Users in contact with specialist services: data tables. July 2010. www.hpa.org.uk/web/HPAweb&HPAwebStandard/HPAweb_C/1202115519183
54HIV prevalence among Injecting Drug Users in England & Wales 1990 to 2003: Evidence for increased transmission in recent years. VD Hope, A Judd, M Hickman, A Sutton, GV Stimson, JV Parry & ON Gill. AIDS 2005; 19: 1207-1214.
55Impact of twenty years of selective hepatitis B vaccination: is hepatitis B declining among injecting drug users in England and Wales? A Judd, M Hickman, V Hope, AJ Sutton, GV Stimson, ON Gill, JV Parry. Journal of Viral Hepatitis, 2007;14:584-91
56Hepatitis C infection among injecting drug users in England and Wales (1992-2006): There and back again? Sweeting RJ, Hope VD, Hickman M, Parry JV, Ncube F, Ramsay ME, De Angelis D. Am J Epidemiol, 2009; 170(3):352-60
57Hepatitis C in the UK 2009. London: Health Protection Agency Centre for Infections, December 2009.
58Hutchinson SJ, McIntyre PG, Molyneaux P, Cameron S, Burns S, Taylor A, Goldberg DJ. Prevalence of hepatitis C among injectors in Scotland 1989-2000: declining trends among young injectors halt in the late 1990s. Epidemiology and Infection 2002; 128: 473-477.
59Health Protection Agency, Health Protection Scotland, National Public Health Service for Wales, CDSC Northern Ireland, CRDHB. Shooting Up: Infections among injecting drug users in the United Kingdom 2008. London: Health Protection Agency, October 2009.
65HPA, HPS, National Public Health Service for Wales, CDSC Northern Ireland, & CRDHB. Shooting Up: Infections among injecting drug users in the United Kingdom 2008. London: Health Protection Agency, October 2011.
66HIV prevalence among non-IDU heterosexuals, IDUs, and Men who have Sex with Men who undergo named HIV testing in Scotland: 2004 Update; HPS Weekly Report, 2 August 2005; Vol 39 No. 2005/30: pg 169-170
68HPA, HPS, Public Health Wales, Public Health Agency Northern Ireland. Shooting Up: Infections among injecting drug users in the United Kingdom 2011. London: Health Protection Agency, November 2012.
69Health Protection Agency. Unlinked Anonymous Monitoring Survey of people who inject drugs in contact with specialist services: data tables. July 2012. www.hpa.org.uk/web/HPAweb&HPAwebStandard/HPAweb_C/1202115519183
70HIV prevalence among Injecting Drug Users in England & Wales 1990 to 2003: Evidence for increased transmission in recent years. VD Hope, A Judd, M Hickman, A Sutton, GV Stimson, JV Parry & ON Gill. AIDS 2005; 19: 1207-1214.
71Impact of twenty years of selective hepatitis B vaccination: is hepatitis B declining among injecting drug users in England and Wales? A Judd, M Hickman, V Hope, AJ Sutton, GV Stimson, ON Gill, JV Parry. Journal of Viral Hepatitis, 2007;14:584-91
72Hepatitis C infection among injecting drug users in England and Wales (1992-2006): There and back again? Sweeting RJ, Hope VD, Hickman M, Parry JV, Ncube F, Ramsay ME, De Angelis D. Am J Epidemiol, 2009; 170(3):352-60
73Hepatitis B vaccine uptake among injecting drug users in England 1998 to 2004: is the prison vaccination programme driving recent improvements? Hope, V.D.; Ncube, F.; Hickman, M.; Judd, A.; Parry, J.V. J Viral Hepat, 2007; 14(9):653-60
74University of the West of Scotland, Health Protection Scotland and West of Scotland Specialist Virology Centre. The Needle Exchange Surveillance Initiative (NESI): Prevalence of HCV and injecting risk behaviours among injecting drug users attending needle exchanges in Scotland, 2008/2009. Available at http://www.hepcscotland.co.uk
75Aspinall, E., Hutchinson, S.J., Taylor, A., Palmateer, N., Hellard, M., Allen, E., Goldberg, D. (2012) Uptake of paraphernalia from injecting equipment provisin services and its association with sharing of paraphernalia among injecting drug users in Scotland. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2012.05.041
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Turkey1AMATEM Standart Data Collection System - Ministry of Helath - Annual Report
2EMCDDA DRID Protocol 2006
3Derya COSAR, MoH, unpublished
Norway1Konør H, MARIO – Methadone assisted rehabilitation in Oslo, unpublished data.
2MSIS-rapport 2004; 32:51 . Norwegian Institute of Public Health 2004. (in Norwegian only)
2aNational Institute of Public Health (2001) Reference: Table 7.7 in Alcohol and Drugs in Norway, unpublished data.
2bSteen T., Oslo Municipality, Oslo, unpublished data.
6Melberg HO, Lauritzen G, Ravndal E. Hvilken nytte, for hvem og til hvilken kostnad? Oslo: Norwegian Institute for Alcohol and Drug Research (SIRUS), 2003. Report no. 4/2003.
8Skaug K, Samdal IS et al. Bloodborne infections among drug users in Norway. MSIS-rapport; 33: 50 (in norwgian only)
9Report: SKR rapport 1/2006 .LAR i Norge. Statusrapport 2006 (in Norwegain only)
10Report: SKR rapport 1/2007 .LAR i Norge. Statusrapport 2007 (in Norwegain only)
11Skaug K, Nilsen O, Holberg Petersen M, Nilsen FL. HIV infection among intravenous drug users. MSIS-rapport; 36: 6 (in norwgian only)
12Report: SERAF rapport 1/2008 .LAR i Norge. Statusrapport 2007 (in Norwegain only). University of Oslo 2008
15Surveillance system for Communicable Diseases (MSIS(online). Norwegian Institute of Public Health Available: http://www.msis.no/ (accessed 24.09.2009)
16Skaug K, Nilsen O, Holberg Petersen M, Nilsen FL. HIV infection among intravenous drug users. MSIS-rapport; 36: 6 (in norwgian only)
18Report: SKR rapport 1/2007 .LAR i Norge. Statusrapport 2006 (in Norwegain only) .University of Oslo 2007
19Report: SERAFrapport 1/2010. LAR i Norge. Statusrapport 2009 (in Norwegian only) University of Oslo 2010
20Report: SKR rapport 2/2009 .LAR i Norge 10 år. Statusrapport 2008 (in Norwegain only). University of Oslo 2009
21Report: SKR rapport 1/2006 .LAR i Norge. Statusrapport 2005 (in Norwegain only). University of Oslo 2006
23Report: SERAF rapport 4/2011. LAR i Norge. Statusrapport 2010 (in Norwegian only). University of Oslo 2011 http://www.med.uio.no/klinmed/forskning/sentre/seraf/publikasjoner/rapporter/2011/nedlastinger/SERAF-rapport-nr-4-2011-Statusrapport-2010.pdf
25Skaug K, Nilsen O, Holberg Petersen M, Nilsen FL. HIV infection among intravenous drug users. MSIS-rapport; 36: 6 (in Norwegian only)
26Report: SERAF rapport 1/2012. LAR i helseforetakene. Statusrapport 2011 (in Norwegian only). University of Oslo 2012 http://www.med.uio.no/klinmed/forskning/sentre/seraf/publikasjoner/rapporter/2012/nedlastinger/SERAF-rapport-nr-1-2012-Statusrapport-2011.pdf
 

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The European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA) is the reference point on drugs and drug addiction information in Europe. Inaugurated in Lisbon in 1995, it is one of the EU's decentralised agencies. Read more >>

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