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Table HSR-6. Hepatitis responses in the EU, Croatia, Turkey and Norway

Part (i) Hepatitis B immunization

CountryUniversal hepatitis B immunization programme: availabilityUniversal hepatitis B immunization programme: starting yearNational coverage rates HepB3 (2011) as reported to WHO - UNICEFHepatitis B vaccination programme specific for high risk groups : availabilityHepatitis B vaccination programme in prison: availabilityHepatitis B immunization programme in prison: starting year
Belgium (Flemish community)Yes199997NoYes2000
Belgium (French community)Yes199997No(1)No(13)
BulgariaYes199396NoNo
Czech RepublicYes200099NoNo
DenmarkNoYesNo
GermanyYes199593No informationNo information
EstoniaYes200394NoYes2005
IrelandYes200895Yes(2)YesBetween 1996 - 1998
GreeceYes199895YesYes:
SpainYes199697YesYes1990s
FranceYes200965Yes(3)No
ItalyYes199196NoNo information
CyprusYes199396NoNo
LatviaYes199791NoNo(17)
LithuaniaYes199895NoYes2004
LuxembourgYes199795NoNo
HungaryYes1999:NoNo
MaltaYes199782Yes(4)Yes1997
NetherlandsYes2011:Yes(5)Yes2004
AustriaYes199883Yes(6)Yes1990s(14)
PolandYes199198NoYes1995(15)
PortugalYes200097Yes(7)Yes:
RomaniaYes199696Yes(8)No
SloveniaYes1998:YesYes:
SlovakiaYes199999No(9)No information
FinlandNoYes(10)Yes2004
SwedenNoYes(11)Yes1990s
United KingdomNoYesYes2011(16)
CroatiaYes199997Yes(12)No
TurkeyYes199396No informationNo information
NorwayNoYesYes1980s
 

Notes:

Where data are not available for a country, the table entry is left empty.

Vaccination coverage is intended as 'Immunization coverage with 3rd dose of HepB vaccines in infants'.

(1) The NGO Modus Vivendi led a movement claiming free access to the Hep B vaccination programme for injecting drug users, but without success.

(2) High risk groups include injecting drug users, prisoners and health care workers.

(3) It is mandatory only in some specific health occupations where employees deal with blood samples. The circular dated February 2008 creating the CSAPA (treatment centre dedicated to the care of drug and alcohol addictions) recommends free vaccination to any drug-users attending a centre.

(4) The Substance Misuse Out Patient Unit (the national service responsible for substitution treatment) provides vaccination for hepatitis B to all patients using the service. Particular attention is given to injecting drug users.

(5) The Hepatitis B vaccination campaign targeting high risk groups started in 2002 and it includes hard drug users, men who have sex with men and sex workers. However, for drug users the campaign will stop on the 1-1-2012, for MSM and prostitutes the campaign will continue.

(6) There is no nation-wide programme but in some provinces (e.g. Vorarlberg) and in some regions HBV vaccination is provided by low-threshold as well as treatment settings.

(7) High risk groups include drug users.

(8) Implemented by ARAS NGO (Romanian Association against AIDS), only in Bucharest. Coverage is rated as limited (around 100 persons/year).

(9) It is not an integrated vaccination programme, however vaccination is recommended to risk groups of drug users.

(10) High risk groups, which include injecting drug users, their sex partners and people living in the same household, are offered free HBV vaccination. Other such groups are sex workers, people living in the same household as a carrier and his/her partners, health care workers if necessary. Hepatitis A vaccination is part of the programme for IDUs.

(11) High risk groups include injecting drug users (since 2005).

(12) Hepatitis B vaccination programme is voluntary and free of charge for IDUs since 1989.

(13) A ministerial draft circular (nr 1785, July 18th 2006) stated that: 'The medical services (of prisons) will ensure that the detainees presenting an at risk profile are actively encouraged to let themselves screened and vaccinated for Hep A & B'. Nonetheless, no systematic policy is implemented to lead the detainees to talk about their consumptions and risky behaviours, and no systematic policy of vaccination is applied.

(14) No national strategy exists and the Hep B vaccination programme can't be described as systematic, but since the 1990s in some prisons Hep B vaccination is offered to drug users.

(15) Inmates are vaccinated only in 2 cases: 1) before a surgery, 2) as a continuation of vaccination undertaken before imprisonment. ..

(16) In Scotland, HBV vaccination in prison is available since 1999.

(17) HepB vaccine available in Latvia since 1993 in the framework of humanitarian aid projects and included in immunization schedule in 1997.

See also 'General notes for interpreting data' on the Explanatory notes and help page.

Sources:

Structured Questionnaire on 'prevention and reduction of health-related harm associated with drug use' (SQ23/29), submitted by NFPs in 2011.

Reitox National Reports, 2011.

Data on 3rd dose of Hepatitis B vaccination extracted from WHO/UNICEF database of estimates of immunization coverage. See full dataset on the WHO-UNICEF site.

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