EMCDDA Home
  • EN
Search

Table EYE-11. School surveys: percentage lifetime prevalence of psychoactive substance use among students aged 15–16 years

CountryYearReferenceProject Sample all agesSample 15–16 yearsCannabisInhalants/ volatile substancesAmphetaminesEcstasyLSD and other hallucinogensCocaineHeroin
Belgium (Flemish)1998HBSC(WHO)8667:19435211
Belgium (Flemish)(19)1999(1)VAD47657:24474421
Belgium (Flemish)2000HBSC(WHO)4989:21433311
Belgium (Flemish)(19)2000(2)VAD82375:24454421
Belgium (Flemish)(19)2001-2002(3)VAD35114:32866634
Belgium (Flemish)2002HBSC(WHO)Ext6289203025334311
Belgium (Flemish)2002-2003(4)VAD157651224733332
Belgium (Flemish)2003-2004(5)VAD149846031546422
Belgium (Flemish)2004-2005(6)VAD150046725434322
Belgium (Flemish)2008(7)VAD:216821:34221
Belgium (Flemish)2008(8)VAD:218623:33:3:
Belgium (Flemish)2006HBSC(WHO)Ext10404157826334231
Belgium (Flemish)2009/10HBSC(WHO):122621::::::
Belgium (Flemish)2009/10(7)VAD6389207224:33:31
Belgium (French speaking )1997-98HBSC(WHO)12987:26555212
Belgium (French speaking )2002HBSC(WHO)Ext4323138126414621
Belgium (French speaking )2006HBSC(WHO)Ext:1375:::::::
Belgium (French speaking)2009/10HBSC(WHO):134120::::::
Belgium2003ESPAD:232032724331
Belgium(16)2007ESPAD:188924855341
Belgium (Flemish)(16)2011ESPAD:179824754341
Bulgaria1999ESPAD:539112311113
Bulgaria2003ESPAD:274021323221
Bulgaria2007ESPAD:235322366332
Bulgaria2011ESPAD:221724474342
Bulgaria2011(1):4422224421464:32
Czech Republic1995ESPAD:296222820311
Czech Republic1999ESPAD:357935754513
Czech Republic(1)2002HBSC(WHO)Ext50121660317253:1
Czech Republic2006HBSC(WHO)Ext:166525922:::
Czech Republic2009/10HBSC(WHO):152231::::::
Czech Republic2003ESPAD:319544948611
Czech Republic2007ESPAD:390145735511
Czech Republic2011ESPAD:391342823511
Denmark1995ESPAD:243917621002
Denmark1999ESPAD:179024743111
Denmark2003ESPAD:297823842121
Denmark(22)2007ESPAD:87725655132
Denmark2011ESPAD:218118421121
Denmark2002HBSC(WHO)4672138023::::::
Denmark2009/10HBSC(WHO):122615::::::
Germany(16)2003ESPAD:5110271153321
Germany(16)2007ESPAD:5011201153231
Germany(16)2011ESPAD:2796191042231
Germany(2)2002HBSC(WHO)5650174924::::::
Germany2009/10HBSC(WHO):164011::::::
Estonia1995ESPAD:31187800100
Estonia1999ESPAD:325413773221
Estonia2003ESPAD:246323875211
Estonia2007ESPAD:237226946321
Estonia2011ESPAD:2460241533221
Estonia(3)2002HBSC(WHO)3979126717::::::
Estonia2009/10HBSC(WHO):139822::::::
Ireland1995ESPAD:184937:391322
Ireland1998(1)8497:221343322
Ireland1999ESPAD:2277322235522
Ireland2003ESPAD:2407391815231
Ireland2007ESPAD:2221201534341
Ireland2011ESPAD:220718922231
Ireland2002HBSC(WHO)Short287591920::::::
Ireland2009/10HBSC(WHO):169515::::::
Greece(4)1995(1):2617264:100
Greece1998(2)8557:101442321
Greece1999ESPAD:225991412212
Greece2003ESPAD:190661502111
Greece2007ESPAD:30606932211
Greece2011ESPAD:590881422211
Greece2002HBSC(WHO)Short3807132456:2:::
Greece2009/10HBSC(WHO):16487::::::
Spain(5)(19)1996(1)PNSD19191:25344531
Spain(5)(19)1998(2)PNSD18346:28443541
Spain(5)(19)2000(3)PNSD18348:30435541
Spain(5)(19)2002(4)PNSD25770:36345461
Spain2002HBSC(WHO)5827175635::::::
Spain(19)2004(5)PNSD ::41433361
Spain(19)2006(6)PNSD::36333441
Spain(23)2007(7)PNSD::37333441
Spain(23)2008(8)PNSD:1646033232341
Spain2010(8)PNSD319671704332222331
Spain2009/10HBSC(WHO):200327::::::
France(4)1995(1)::1262:111
France(6)1997(2)9919:23623:21
France1999ESPAD121132284351123121
France(1)2003ESPAD:2199381123132
France2007ESPAD:2916311244253
France2011ESPAD:2572391243342
France2002HBSC(WHO)Ext8185261430::::::
France2009/10HBSC(WHO):190627::::::
Italy1995ESPAD:155519834532
Italy1999ESPAD:410625622224
Italy(14)2000(1)21933458728513335
Italy(7)(14)2001(2)22358448527511222
Italy(8)(14)(19)2002(3)16934:19412120
Italy2003ESPAD:487127633344
Italy(14)2004(4)301721169119411222
Italy (14)2005(5)406621563317411222
Italy 2006ESPAD:1671719511332
Italy2007ESPAD:998123543453
Italy2011ESPAD:483721322332
Italy(14)2008(6)ESPAD Italy:1466717522332
Italy(1)2010(7)ESPAD Italy263651245712111221
Italy2011(8)ESPAD Italy268611298111111221
Italy2012(9)ESPAD Italy291491411513211220
Italy2002HBSC(WHO)4386122922::::::
Italy2009/10HBSC(WHO):154620::::::
Cyprus1995ESPAD:6325312222
Cyprus1999ESPAD:20952:11112
Cyprus2003ESPAD:215241802000
Cyprus2007ESPAD:634051633232
Cyprus2011ESPAD:42437843443
Cyprus(17)(19)2004(1)915:6::4:::
Latvia1995ESPAD:217951700100
Latvia1999ESPAD:228417646327
Latvia2003ESPAD10847284116733111
Latvia2007ESPAD98332275181367421
Latvia2011ESPAD:2622242344442
Latvia2002HBSC(WHO)3481111712::::::
Latvia2009/10HBSC(WHO):137525::::::
Lithuania1995ESPAD:319611600010
Lithuania1999ESPAD:5039121024114
Lithuania2003ESPAD:503613552211
Lithuania2007ESPAD:241118333221
Lithuania2011ESPAD:247620732222
Lithuania2002HBSC(WHO)Short564519058::::::
Lithuania2009/10HBSC(WHO):179221::::::
Luxembourg(9)1999(1):56237::66113
Luxembourg2002HBSC(WHO)7347:28432121
Luxembourg2005/6HBSC(WHO):150723::::::
Luxembourg2009/10HBSC(WHO):138219::::::
Hungary1995ESPAD:25714600100
Hungary1999ESPAD:642111423311
Hungary2003ESPAD:267716533211
Hungary2007ESPAD:281713845321
Hungary2011ESPAD:3063191064322
Hungary2002HBSC(WHO)4164133013::::::
Hungary2009/10HBSC(WHO):173314::::::
Malta1995ESPAD:283281712221
Malta1999ESPAD:432171612111
Malta2003ESPAD:3500101611111
Malta2007ESPAD:3668131654241
Malta2011ESPAD:3377101433241
Malta2002HBSC(WHO)19806676::::::
Netherlands1996(1)10455:31:88:41
Netherlands(10)1999(2):261528:24:31
Netherlands2002HBSC(WHO)4269127326::::::
Netherlands2003ESPAD:209528615231
Netherlands2007ESPAD:209128624331
Netherlands2011ESPAD::27714221
Netherlands2009/10HBSC(WHO):145721::::::
Netherlands2011(3):8871259226:33121
Austria(11)1994(1)2250:10::::2:
Austria2002HBSC(WHO)4472129814::::::
Austria2003ESPAD:2402211443221
Austria(24)2007ESPAD:2571171483231
Austria2009/10HBSC(WHO):182014::::::
Poland1995ESPAD:89408921211
Poland1999ESPAD::14973425
Poland2003ESPAD:596418953222
Poland2005(1)::14843221
Poland2007ESPAD:212016644222
Poland2011ESPAD:593323842332
Poland2002HBSC(WHO)Ext6383215218::::::
Poland2009/10HBSC(WHO):141019::::::
Portugal1995ESPAD:20337321000
Portugal1999ESPAD:36098332113
Portugal2003ESPAD:294615834232
Portugal2007ESPAD:314113422122
Portugal2011ESPAD:196516633332
Portugal(12)2002HBSC(WHO)294080220::::::
Portugal2009/10HBSC(WHO):155311::::::
Portugal2011(1):11964414914733342
Romania1999ESPAD:23931100018
Romania2003ESPAD:43713101010
Romania2007ESPAD:22894411120
Romania2011ESPAD:27707722221
Romania2009/10HBSC(WHO):20029::::::
Slovenia1995ESPAD:3306131201111
Slovenia1999ESPAD:3184251414212
Slovenia2003ESPAD:2785281513111
Slovenia2007ESPAD:3085221623232
Slovenia2011ESPAD:3186232022231
Slovenia2002HBSC(WHO)3956106928::::::
Slovenia2009/10HBSC(WHO):181523::::::
Slovakia1995ESPAD:23769610111
Slovakia1999ESPAD:244219712302
Slovakia2003ESPAD:227627923210
Slovakia2007ESPAD:2468321326431
Slovakia2011ESPAD:2009271024422
Slovakia2006National survey 3831174525633211
Slovakia(1)2009(2)National survey 101032315412110
Slovakia(1)2009(3)National survey 97437431421110
Slovakia2009/10HBSC(WHO):191417::::::
Finland1995ESPAD:23005400100
Finland1999ESPAD:328610511111
Finland2003ESPAD:354311811101
Finland2007ESPAD:498881012111
Finland2011ESPAD:3744111011111
Finland2002HBSC(WHO)5388174510::::::
Finland2009/10HBSC(WHO):21109::::::
Sweden1995ESPAD:347261211100
Sweden1999ESPAD:34458811111
Sweden2003ESPAD:32327812111
Sweden2007ESPAD:31797922221
Sweden2011ESPAD:259691112111
Sweden1998(1)CAN:54557811111
Sweden2000(2)CAN:60008921111
Sweden2001(3)CAN:55007811111
Sweden2002(4)CAN:approx50007811111
Sweden2002HBSC(WHO)392612267::::::
Sweden2003(5)CAN:approx50006711001
Sweden2004(6)CAN:1200006711111
Sweden2005(7)CAN13000055146811000
Sweden 2008(8)CAN:48845511111
Sweden(1)2009(9)CAN:51927611111
Sweden 2010(10)CAN:48297511111
Sweden 2011(11)CAN:46326411111
United Kingdom1995ESPAD:772241201381432
United Kingdom1997(1)28756:38473321
United Kingdom1999ESPAD:2641351583533
United Kingdom2003ESPAD:2068381235241
United Kingdom2007ESPAD:217929924351
United Kingdom2011ESPAD:1712251044252
UK (England)(13)(15)(19)1998(1)NatCen/NFER4752:30683331
UK (England)(15)(19)2000(2)NatCen/NFER7061:31644522
UK (England)(15)(19)2001(3)NatCen/NFER9400:361945732
UK (England)(15)(19)2002(4)NatCen/NFER9859:361645642
UK (England)2002HBSC(WHO)6081177340::::::
UK (England)(15)(18)2003(5)NatCen/NFER::371845752
UK (England)(15)(18)2004(6)NatCen/NFER96662112331544662
UK (England)(15)2005(7)NatCen/NFER85481907341735661
UK (England)(15)2006(8)NatCen/NFER76131841291434651
UK (England)(3)(4)2007(9)NatCen/NFER1829:271734561
UK (England)(15)2008(10)NatCen/NFER:182727:34661
UK (England)(15)(1)2009(11)NatCen/NFER:1787271835252
UK (England)2010(12)NatCen/NFER:161324923131
UK (England)(15)2011(13)NatCen/NFER60561472211023131
UK (England)2009/10HBSC(WHO):111822::::::
UK (Scotland)(15)(19)1998(1)Scottish Gov3538:389124710
UK (Scotland)(15)(19)2000(2)Scottish Gov4700:28524221
UK (Scotland)(15)(19)2002(3)Scottish Gov23000::::::::
UK (Scotland)2002HBSC(WHO)4404114937::::::
UK (Scotland)(15)(19)2004(4)Scottish Gov::35645432
UK (Scotland)(15)(19)2006(5)Scottish Gov230171198025535452
UK (Scotland)(15)(19)2008(6)Scottish Gov:465822:36351
UK (Scotland)(15)(19)2010(7)Scottish Gov.365781756719334241
UK (Scotland)2009/10HBSC(WHO):256719::::::
UK (N.Ireland)(3)(4)2007(1)National Agency::171135451
UK (N.Ireland)2010(2):3523124715834251
UK (Wales)1998HBSC(WHO)1238:3615145721
UK (Wales)2002HBSC(WHO)3887116434::::::
UK (Wales)2009/10HBSC(WHO):163722::::::
Croatia1995ESPAD:281591312111
Croatia1999ESPAD:3602161323214
Croatia2003ESPAD:2884221425111
Croatia2007ESPAD:3008181122221
Croatia2011ESPAD:3002182822221
Croatia2009/10HBSC(WHO):242413::::::
Turkey(16)2003ESPAD:41774522222
Norway1995ESPAD:39106712111
Norway1999ESPAD:391812633212
Norway2003ESPAD:38339522111
Norway2007ESPAD:34826711111
Norway2011ESPAD:29385511110
Norway2009/10HBSC(WHO):13396::::::
United States of America(20)(21)2005(1)NIDA:162003413114652
United States of America2010(2)NIDA46500156003312116341
 

Notes:

This table presents data on 15- to 16-year-old school students obtained from national surveys. Exceptionally, some relevant regional surveys are presented. In all of the school surveys the method for data collection was classroom-based, anonymous, self-completion questionnaires in written test conditions.

Figures from surveys with small sample sizes should be interpreted with caution.

Previously published figures may have been revised and therefore are not necessarily comparable with those in previous EMCDDA publications.

Caution is required comparing figures due to methodological limitations. For methods and definitions see Methods and definitions: youth and the schools population.

ESPAD

ESPAD (European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other drugs) is coordinated by the Swedish Council for Information on Alcohol and Other drugs (CAN). ESPAD prevalence figures are taken from published ESPAD reports and may differ sometimes from those reported directly by Member States. The sample sizes given refer to the number of participating 15- to 16-year-old students who filled in the questionnaire.

HBSC (WHO)

HBSC (Health behaviour in school-aged children) introduced mandatory cannabis questions for the first time in 2001/02. Two optional extended questionnaires (Ext and Short) include other drugs. These questions are based on the ESPAD questionnaire.

(1) LSD and other hallucinogens: includes LSD only.

(2) HBSC German figures are based on regional samples only (Berlin, Hessen, North Rhine-Westphalia and Saxony).

(3) Heroin: excludes heroin smoking.

(4) Data included in 1995 ESPAD report but not strictly comparable (based on an earlier survey).

(5) Ecstasy: includes other synthetic drugs. LSD and other hallucinogens: includes poppers/amyl nitrate.

(6) Ecstasy: includes LSD.

(7) Cocaine: includes cocaine powder only. Heroin: includes only by smoking heroin.

(8) LSD and other hallucinogens: includes LSD only. Cocaine: includes cocaine powder only. Heroin: includes only by smoking heroin.

(9) Interpret with caution as sample size is small.

(10) Figures included in 1999 ESPAD report but not strictly comparable, as the sample was not drawn according to ESPAD guidelines.

(11) Cocaine: includes 'hard' drugs.

(12) Caution is required comparing figures from Portugal as the mean age of the sample is higher than in any other EU Member State.

(13) Cocaine: includes cocaine powder only.

(14) ESPAD methods are adopted to varying degrees.

(15) Only 15 year-old students are included in UK ONS and Scottish Executive school surveys.

(16) ESPAD 2003 Germany figures are based on six regions only (Bavaria, Brandenburg, Berlin, Hesse, Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania and Thuringia). ESPAD 2007 Germany figures are based on these plus Saarland. ESPAD 2011 Germany figures are based in only five out of sixteen federal states (Bundesländer). ESPAD 2003 Turkey figures are based on one major city in each of six different regions (Adana, Ankara, Diyarbakir, Istanbul, Izmir and Samsun). ESPAD 2007 and 2011 Belgium figures are based on Flanders only.

(17) Interpret with caution as sample size is small and private and vocational schools are excluded.

(18) Inhalants excludes poppers/amyl nitrate which are included in 'other' drugs.

(19) The sample size given for these surveys is for a wider age range than 15 to 16 years.

(20) Inhalants are adjusted for under-reporting of butyl nitrites.

(21) Amphetamines includes only drug use not under a doctor's order.

(22) ESPAD 2007 data for Denmark has limited comparability.

(23) Spain did not participate in the ESPAD survey. The data included here is based on a Spanish survey conducted in 2006/2007. Drug prevalence questions may be considered comparable to the ESPAD questions but other aspects of the method mean that the Spanish data is not strictly comparable.

(24) The prevalence rate of amphetamine use in Austria has to be interpreted very cautiously because there are problems with data quality. A validation study found out, that the pupils mixed up amphetamines with energy drinks in several cases.

Sources:

See Table EYE-0 for further information on sources. School surveys: sources.

Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC), International Coordinating Centre, Child and Adolescent Health Research Unit (CAHRU) School of Medicine, University of St Andrews, Medical and Biological Sciences Building, ST ANDREWS, Fife KY16 9TF HBSC

About the EMCDDA

The European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA) is the reference point on drugs and drug addiction information in Europe. Inaugurated in Lisbon in 1995, it is one of the EU's decentralised agencies. Read more >>

Contact us

EMCDDA
Praça Europa 1, Cais do Sodré
1249-289 Lisbon
Portugal
Tel. (351) 211 21 02 00
Fax (351) 218 13 17 11

More contact options >>

Page last updated: Friday, 26 April 2013