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Table EYE-10. Recent school surveys (2005–12): percentage lifetime prevalence of psychoactive substance use among students aged 15–16 years old

CountryYearReferenceProjectSample sizeCannabisInhalants/volatile substancesAmphetaminesEcstasyLSD and other hallucinogensCocaineHeroin
Belgium (Flemish)2009/10(7)VAD207224:33:31
Belgium (Flemish)2009/10HBSC(WHO)122621::::::
Belgium (French speaking)2009/10HBSC(WHO)134120::::::
Belgium (Flemish)2011ESPAD179824754341
Bulgaria2011ESPAD221724474342
Bulgaria2011:224421464:32
Czech Republic2011ESPAD391342823511
Czech Republic2009/10HBSC(WHO)152231::::::
Denmark2011ESPAD218118421121
Denmark2009/10HBSC(WHO)122615::::::
Germany(2)2011ESPAD2796191042231
Germany2009/10HBSC(WHO)164011::::::
Estonia2011ESPAD2460241533221
Estonia2009/10HBSC(WHO)139822::::::
Ireland2011ESPAD220718922231
Ireland2009/10HBSC(WHO)169515::::::
Greece2011ESPAD590881422211
Greece2009/10HBSC(WHO)16487::::::
Spain(1)2010(8)PNSD1704332222331
Spain2009/10HBSC(WHO)200327::::::
France2011ESPAD2572391243342
France2009/10HBSC(WHO)190627::::::
Italy2011ESPAD483721322332
Italy2009/10HBSC(WHO)154620::::::
Italy2012(6)ESPAD Italy1411513211220
Cyprus2011ESPAD42437843443
Latvia2011ESPAD2622242344442
Latvia2009/10HBSC(WHO)137525::::::
Lithuania2011ESPAD247620732222
Lithuania2009/10HBSC(WHO)179221::::::
Luxembourg2009/10HBSC(WHO)138219::::::
Hungary2011ESPAD3063191064322
Hungary2009/10HBSC(WHO)173314::::::
Malta2011ESPAD3377101433241
Netherlands2011ESPAD:27714221
Netherlands2009/10HBSC(WHO)145721::::::
Netherlands2011:259226:33121
Austria(9)2007ESPAD2571171483231
Austria2009/10HBSC(WHO)182014::::::
Poland2011ESPAD593323842332
Poland2009/10HBSC(WHO)141019::::::
Portugal2011ESPAD196516633332
Portugal2009/10HBSC(WHO)155311::::::
Portugal2011:414914733342
Romania2011ESPAD27707722221
Romania2009/10HBSC(WHO)20029::::::
Slovenia2011ESPAD3186232022231
Slovenia2009/10HBSC(WHO)181523::::::
Slovakia2011ESPAD2009271024422
Slovakia2009/10HBSC(WHO)191417::::::
Finland2011ESPAD3744111011111
Finland2009/10HBSC(WHO)21109::::::
Sweden 2011(9)CAN46326411111
Sweden 2011ESPAD256991112111
United Kingdom(8)2011ESPAD1712251044252
United Kingdom (England)(3)(4)2011(11)NatCen/NFER1472211023131
United Kingdom (England)2009/10HBSC(WHO)111822::::::
United Kingdom (Scotland)(3)(4)2010(5)Scottish Gov.1756719334241
United Kingdom (Scotland)2009/10HBSC(WHO)256719::::::
United Kingdom (N.Ireland)(3)2010(1):124715834251
United Kingdom (Wales)2009/10HBSC(WHO)163722::::::
Croatia2011ESPAD3002182822221
Croatia2009/10HBSC(WHO)242413::::::
Turkey(2)2003ESPAD41774422222
Norway2011ESPAD29385511110
Norway2009/10HBSC(WHO)13396::::::
United States of America(6)(7)2010(1)NIDA156003312116341
 

Notes:

This table presents data on 15- to 16-year-old school students obtained from national surveys. The surveys for Belgium (Flemish ) is the Flemish region only, and the Germany and Turkish ESPAD is limited to the regions specified in the following notes. In all of the school surveys, the method for data collection was classroom-based, anonymous, self-completion questionnaires in written test conditions.

Caution is required comparing figures due to methodological limitations. For methods and definitions, see Methods and definitions: youth and the schools population.

ESPAD (European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs) is coordinated by the Swedish Council for Information on Alcohol and Other Drugs (CAN) and the Council of Europe (Pompidou Group). ESPAD prevalence figures are taken from published ESPAD reports and may differ sometimes from those reported directly by Member States. The sample sizes given refer to the number of participating 15- to 16-year-old students who filled in the questionnaire.

(1) ESPAD methods are adopted to varying degrees.

(2) ESPAD 2011 Germany figures are based in only five out of sixteen federal states (Bundesländer). ESPAD 2011 Belgium figures are based on Flanders only. ESPAD 2003 Turkey figures are based on one major city in each of six different regions (Adana, Ankara, Diyarbakir, Istanbul, Izmir and Samsun).

(3) The sample size given for these surveys is for a wider age range than 15 to 16 years.

(4) Only 15-year-old students are included in United Kingdom ONS and Scottish Executive school surveys.

(5) To be interpreted with caution as sample size is small and private and vocational schools are excluded.

(6) Inhalants are adjusted for under-reporting of butyl nitrites.

(7) Amphetamines includes only drug use not under a doctor's order.

(8) ESPAD 2007 data for the UK has limited comparability.

(9) The prevalence rate of amphetamine use in Austria has to be interpreted very cautiously because there are problems with data quality. A validation study found out, that the pupils mixed up amphetamines with energy drinks in several cases.

See also 'General notes for interpreting data' on the Explanatory notes and help page.

Sources:

See Table EYE-0 for further information on sources.

Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC), International Coordinating Centre, Child and Adolescent Health Research Unit (CAHRU) School of Medicine, University of St Andrews, Medical and Biological Sciences Building, ST ANDREWS, Fife KY16 9TF HBSC

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Page last updated: Friday, 26 April 2013