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Treatment demand indicator (TDI)

An overview of the data

  • Tables TDI-1, Table TDI-2 and Table TDI-7 present information on the number of people entering treatment for drug use, the number of treatment units covered in the country and the number of existing units. Treatment demand data come from each country with varying degrees of national coverage, principally from outpatient and inpatient treatment records. Data also provide insight into general trends in drug use and also offer a perspective on the organization and uptake of treatment. The same data are presented for all clients entering treatment and for those, among them, who entered treatment for the first time in their life.
  • Tables TDI-1 to TDI-8 are based on data from all types of treatment centres concerning new clients and all clients entering treatment; they present the current situation for 2009 data or most recent year available and the trend for the last 11 years (1999 to 2009) where data are available.
  • Tables TDI-9 to TDI-24 report data on clients’ characteristics and patterns of drug use from outpatient and inpatient treatment centres. In particular, they report data on age and gender, primary drug for entering treatment, primary drug by type of treatment centre, age of clients at treatment entry by primary drug, age at first use of primary drug, source of referral to treatment, route of administration of primary drug, frequency of use of primary drug, secondary drug, educational level, labour and living conditions. Some tables only refer to outpatient treatment clients, since low figures data were available for other types of treatment centres and in an unbalanced way according to country (Tables TDI-9 on age and gender distribution, TDI-17 on route of administration).
  • Tables TDI-25 to TDI-33 describe the age distribution, mean age and the age at first use and time lag between first drug use and first treatment entry for the primary drug among male and female clients.
  • Tables TDI-36 to TDI-37 describes drug clients entering treatment for primary use of amphetamines or ecstasy.
  • Tables TDI-38 refer to the total number of clients in treatment during the year 2007 (or most recent year available) and include those who entered treatment for the first time in their life, those who have entered treatment for the first time during the year and those who are in treatment since at least more than one year (continuous treatments).
  • Tables TDI-102 to TDI-115 are tables reporting detailed data by country and by primary drug. In particular:
  • Tables TDI-102 to TDI-109 and Tables TDI-111, TDI-112 present a breakdown by country of the summary Tables TDI-10, TDI-11, TDI-18 on age distribution, age at first use and frequency of use by the primary drug of clients entering treatment;
  • Tables TDI-113 to TDI-115 focus on drug sub-type for opioids (heroin, methadone, other opiates) and cocaine (cocaine HCl and crack).
  • Figures TDI-1 to TDI-7 are graphics on trends and characteristics of drug treatment clients in Europe.

Summary points

  • Around 460 000 people have been recorded as entering drug treatment centres in Europe in 2008 in 29 countries; data mainly cover outpatient and inpatient treatment centers
  • Most clients enter treatment on their own initiative or under the pressure of family and friends (44 %); 28 % go to drug treatment through health or social services, including other drug treatment centres; around 20 % are referred to treatment by the criminal justice system, and the remaining through other referral sources
  • The most frequent reason for entering treatment in 2009 (or most recent year available), is the use of opioids (51 % of all drug users -around 216 000 people-), followed by cannabis (23 % -around 98 000 people-) and cocaine use, (17 % and around 72 000 people), use of stimulants other than cocaine (5 % -around 21 000 people-) and other drugs use, which include hypnotics and sedatives, hallucinogens, volatile and other substances
  • Among those who have entered treatment for the first time in their life the proportion of opioid users is lower , whilst the proportions of cocaine, cannabis users and clients consuming stimulants other than cocaine (mainly amphetamine and methamphetamine) is higher
  • Differences between countries are relevant with 17 countries reporting 50 % or more of primary opioid users among drug clients, 11 countries with 20 % or more of primary cannabis clients and 3 countries 20 % or more of cocaine clients.
  • Stimulants other than cocaine are concentrated in some countries, namely the Scandinavian countries (amphetamine) where Sweden has the highest proportion (30%) followed by Finland (17%). In Czech Republic and Slovakia methamphetamine users entering treatment represents 61% and 31%, respectively, of all drug users entering treatment.
  • Clients are mainly males (4 males for every female), with a mean age 32 years (those who have entered treatment for the first time are on average 2 years younger)
  • Around 57% of the clients entering treatment start their drug use before the age of 20 and around 23% inject their primary drug. The frequency of use varies by the main drug (the highest proportion of daily users are found among opioid clients and the lowest among users of stimulants other than cocaine)
  • Social conditions of drug users entering treatment are generally poorer than in the general population (education, living and labour conditions)
  • Differences are reported by primary drug and by country regarding gender, age distribution and patterns of drug use

About the EMCDDA

The European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA) is the reference point on drugs and drug addiction information in Europe. Inaugurated in Lisbon in 1995, it is one of the EU's decentralised agencies. Read more >>

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Page last updated: Thursday, 01 September 2011