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Table INF-1. Prevalence of HIV infection among injecting drug users in the EU countries, Croatia, Turkey and Norway, 2009 or most recent year available — Summary table by country

Country or region% Infected (1)
YearNumber testedNational samplesSub-national samplesStudy design (2) Setting/comments (3, 4, 5) References
Belgium2009499:0,0-5,1DT ; SRLTS, DTC; serum22 ; 25 ; 99
Bulgaria2009960:2.7DTDTC, NSP, LTS, HTC; serum7a ; 7b
Czech Republic200938620.1-0.5:DT ; SRSTI, OHC, HTC, DTC, LTS, NSP, GPS; PHL; serum, saliva, capillary blood26 ; 27 ; 28
Denmark 20061882.1:SP (UAT)ODD, 5 sites; IDUnk7
Germany 200713943.4:DTODD; autopsy rates 62%; Drug related deaths throught accident, long term effects, suicide. IDUnk30 ; 31
Estonia2005449:54.3 - 89.9DTLTS; dried blood spots4
Ireland n.a.n.a.n.a.n.a.n.a.n.a.n.a.
Greece 200919420.4-0.50.0-1.5DT;SPDTC, LTS, PHL, OHC, PRI, OTH; serum1 ; 2 ; 9 ; 18
Spain2008812632.5:DTDTC, PRI,535 sites; serum. Ever injectors.39 ; 40
France 2006698:5.1-8.0SP (UAT) ; SRNSP, LTS, STR; saliva19 ; 21
Italy 20096005711.50.9-26.4DTDTC, 533 sites; serum IDUnk47 ; 48a ; 48b
Cyprus20093490.0-1.3:DT ; SRDTC,PRI; serum10
Latvia200912388.8:DTNSP,18 sites; rapid HIV tests (capillary blood from finger)13
Lithuania20061853:0.6–9.7DT ; SPHTC, NSP, LTS, 22 sites; serum, dried blood spots; IDUnk §1 ; 6 ; 8 ; 11 ; 12 ; 99
Luxembourg20081711.8:SRDTC, Register of specialized drugs, 9 sites.8
Hungary20099110.00.0SPDTC, NSP, PRI, 23 sites ; serum, dried blood spots19 ; 20a ; 20b ; 21
Malta20091250.0:DTDTC,STI;HTC 2 site; serum2 ; 3 ; 5 ; 7
Netherlands200946:0.0SPDTC,LTS, 4 sites; serum34
Austria20098441.9-11.80.0-3.3DTNSP, LTS, ODD, DTC, 46 sites; serum2 ; 3 ; 4 ; 5 ; 12
Poland200913615.58.9-26.4DT;SPPHL, HTC,OTH,LTS; serum10 ; 11 ; 12
Portugal200971816.7-17.2:DTDTC, Outpatient units, Therapeutic communities, Public detoxification units; dried blood spots; IDUnk §30
Romania20097783.31.1SR;SP(UAT)DTC, NSP, LTS,STR 70 sites; serum, dried blood spots, urine2 ; 4 ; 5 ; 6 ; 7
Slovenia20095601.20.0SP (UAT) ; DTNSP, DTC, LTS, 21 sites ; saliva, serum3 ; 4 ; 5 ; 6
Slovakia20092490.71.0DT;SPDTC,PHL,ANT,HTC,NSP; serum10 ; 12 ; 13
Finland 20096790.7SP (UAT)NSP, 9 sites; saliva; current IDUs8
Sweden2009250:2.0DTPRI; serum13
United Kingdom20093289:0.9-4.1SP (UAT)DTC, NSP, LTS, primary care, 60 sites; saliva, dried blood spots50 ; 51 ; 53 ; 54
Croatia2007-087780.00.0SPDTC, NSP, LTS, PHL, HTC, PRI; serum1
Turkey2008168:0.0DTserum2
Norway200945592.41.1SPNSP, DTC, LTS, 24 sites; serum12; 16 ; 18 ; 19 ; 20 ; 21

Notes:

 This summary table gives a global overview of HIV prevalence in IDUs in the EU, 2009 or most recent year available. Data for more than one year are combined if they clearly improve generalisability (e.g. national data, out-of-treatment data). Prevalence in this table should not be compared with previous versions to follow changes over time, as inclusion of sources may vary according to data availability. For time trends see Tables:INF-108, INF-109, and INF-110   

 n.a. = not available   

 (1) The figures show estimates (or range of estimates) from National and/or Sub-National level samples.   

 (2) Self-reported test results are less reliable than biological test results.   

 DT: Diagnostic testing; SP: Seroprevalence study; SP-UAT: Seroprevalence study with unlinked anonymous testing; RDS: Respondent-driven sampling; SR: Data (partly) based on self reported test results.   

 (3) Having health problems is one selection criterion for admission to drug treatment in some countries or cities (Greece, Portugal, Rome), due to long waiting lists or special programmes for infected IDUs, and this may result in upward bias of prevalence. Prevalence from treatment data should therefore be interpreted in combination with non-treatment data. On the other hand, data from Italy and Portugal include non-IDUs and may thus underestimate prevalence in IDUs.    

 (4) § IDUnk = IDU status not known, prevalence in IDUs is likely to be underestimated.   

 (5) ODD = Overdose Deaths; DEM = Drug Emergencies; DTC = Drug Treatment Centres; NSP = Needle Exchanges; LTS = Low-Threshold Services; PHL = Public Health Laboratories; STI = STI Clinics; ANT = Antenatal Clinics; OHC = Other Hospital or Clinics; PRI = Prisons; ARR = Arrests; GPS = General Practitioners; HTC = HIV Testing Centres; STR = Street; OTH = Other.   

 Lithuania: One of the six studies available is IDUnk (Sub-National: N=799; 1.9% infected).   

 Portugal: Two of three studies are IDUnk (All National: N=3778; 11.9% infected and N=2512; 6.7% infected)   

Sources:

 See Table INF-108 .   

 For references see Table INF-0. Bibliographic References-Part A: References for prevalence data     

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Page last updated: Monday, 04 July 2011