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Table PDU-0. Prevalence of problem drug use at national and subnational level: bibliographic references

CountrySubnational or national referenceRef. no.Bibliographic Reference
EUNational99EMCDDA project (2003). National Prevalence Estimates of Problem Drug Use in the European Union, 1995-2000. CT.00.RTX.23, emcdda, Lisbon, coordinated by the Institut fur Therapieforschung, Munich (http://www.emcdda.eu.int/?nnodeid=1372)
BelgiumNational1Walckiers D., Sartor F., Sasse A. (2001). Country Report : Belgium. National estimates of problem drug use prevalence IPH, 2001.
BelgiumNational2Driesen G., De Maere W., Kinable H., Todts S. (1997). Risicogedrag bij injecterende druggebruikers in Vlaanderen. Rapport van het GIG-project.
BelgiumSubnational3Ledoux Y, Preumont C, Bils L. Prevalence of opiate use in the French Community of Belgium. CCAD - Brussels, September 1999.
BulgariaNational & Subnational1Annual Report of the NFP on the state of drug related problems in Bulgaria - 2005, National Focal Point, Sofia, 2005
Czech RepublicNational1Mravcík, V., Korcišová, B., Lejcková, P., Miovská, L., Škrdlantová, E., Petroš, O., Radimecký, J., Sklenár, V., Gajdošíková, H., Vopravil, J. (2004). Výrocní zpráva o stavu ve vecech drog v Ceské republice v roce 2003 [Annual Report on Drug Situation 2003 – Czech Republic]. Praha: Úrad vlády CR.
Czech RepublicNational2National Focal Point (unpublished data)
Czech RepublicNational & Subnational3Mravcík, V., Zábranský, T., Korcišová, B., Lejcková, P., Škrdlantová, E., Štastná, L., Macek, V., Petroš, O., Gajdošíková, H., Miovský, M., Kalina, K., Vopravil, J. (2003). Výrocní zpráva o stavu ve vecech v Ceské republice v r. 2002 (Annual Report on Drug Situation 2002 – Czech Republic). Praha: Úrad vlády CR. ISBN 80-86734-06-4
Czech RepublicNational4Mravcík, V., Korcišová, B., Lejcková, P., Miovská, L., Škrdlantová, E., Petroš, O., Sklenár, V. and Vopravil, J. (2005) Výrocní zpráva o stavu ve vecech drog v Ceské republice v roce 2004. [Annual Report on Drug Situation 2004 - Czech Republic].
Czech RepublicNational & Subnational5Mravcík, V., Lejcková, P., Orlíková, B., Petrošová, B., Škrdlantová E., Trojácková, A., Petroš, O., Sklenár, V., Vopravil, J. (2006). Výrocní zpráva o stavu ve vecech drog v Ceské republice v roce 2005 [Annual Report on Drug Situation 2005 - Czech Republic]. Praha: Úrad vlády CR.
DenmarkNational1Eva Hammerby, Nye Tal fra Sundhedsstyrelsen nr.16 2003
DenmarkNational2Lene Haastrup: Estimates of the number of deaths among drug users and the number of drug useres in Denmark, Nye tal fra Sundhedsstyrelsen, aargang 3, no 3, 1999
DenmarkNational3Mortality and causes of death among drug users received in Treatment in 1996 in "nye tal fra National Board of Health" 1999, number 3, year 3 pages 18
DenmarkNational4National Focal Point, (unpublished data)
DenmarkSubnational5"Hvor mange stofmisbrugere er der i København", published by Forebyggelsesudvalget vedrørende stofmisbrug og Hiv-smitte, Københavns kommune,"Stadslaegen" July 1999.
DenmarkNational6National Board of Health - the estimate will be published by the National Board of Health in the journal 'Nye Tal Fra Sundhedsstyrelsen', November 2006. (Mette Thorup Eriksen, mee@sst.dk)
GermanyNational1Kraus L, Augustin R, Frischer M, Kümmler P, Uhl A, Wiessing L. Estimating prevalence of problem drug use at national level in countries of the European Union and Norway. Addiction 2003; 98: 471-85.
GermanyNational2Augustin, R. & Kraus, L. Changes in prevalence of problem opiate use in Germany between 1990 and 2000. European Addiction Research, in press
GermanyNational3Bundeskriminalamt OA 21(1996). Rauschgiftjahresbericht 1995 Bundesrepublik Deutschland.Wiesbaden: Bundeskriminalamt
GermanyNational4Bundeskriminalamt OA 21(2000). Rauschgiftjahresbericht 2000 Bundesrepublik Deutschland.Wiesbaden: Bundeskriminalamt
GermanyNational5Robert Koch Institut (Hrsg.) (2001). Aktuelle epidemiologische Daten (http://www.rki.de). Berlin: RKI.
GermanyNational6Kraus, L., Augustin, R., Simon, R. (2002). Country Report Germany. In: Simon, R., Kraus, L., Augustin, R., Wiessing, L., Hartnoll, R. . Prevalence and Pattern of Probem Drug Use. Final Report project CT.RTX.23. Lisbon: EMCDDA.
GermanyNational7Strobl, M., Pelzel, K.-H., Bader, G., Zahn, H., Lange S.N. (2001). Jahresauswertung EBIS-A 2000 - Ambulante Suchtkrankenhilfe.
GermanyNational8Tauscher, M., Simon, R., Hüllinghorst, R., Bühringer, G., Helas, I., Schmidtobreick, B. (1996).Erweiterte Jahresstatistik 1995 der ambulanten Beratungs- und Behandlungsstellen für Suchtkranke in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland (Tabellenband). Hamm: EBIS-AG bei der DHS
GermanyNational9Kraus, Augustin & Orth 2004
GermanyNational10BKA 2004
GermanyNational11Kraus et al 2004
GermanyNational12National Focal Point, (unpublished data)
GermanySubnational13Kraus, L., Beloch, E., Quammou-Engel, M. & Müller-Kalthoff, Th. (in press). Verbesserung der therapeutischen Situation für Drogenkonsumenten in Augsburg unter besonderer Berücksichtigung von Maßnahmen zur Reduzierung der Zahl der Todesfälle.(Improving Health Care Conditions of Drug Addicts in Augsburg with Special Attention to Reducing the Number of DRD.) IFT - Bericht Bd. 119: München (Improving Health Care Conditions of Drug Addicts in Augsburg with Special Attention to Reducing the Number of DRD.) IFT - Bericht Bd. 119: München.
GermanySubnational14Zenker C., Greiser E. Eprobungsvorhaben zur Pravalenzschätzung des regionalen illegalen Drogenmißbrauchs und seiner Folgen. Bremen: Bremer Institut für Präventions-forschung und Sozialmedizin (BIPS), 1998.
GermanySubnational15Kirschner W, Kunert M. Berlin: EFB, 1996.
GermanyNational16Bundeskriminalamt (BKA) (Hrsg.) (2005a). Bundeslagebild Rauschgift 2004. BKA, Wiesbaden.
GermanyNational17Strobl, M., Klapper, J., Pelzel, K.-H., Bader, Zahn, H. & Lange, N. (2005a). Suchthilfestatistik 2004 für Deutschland. Tabellenband für die ambulante Suchtkrankenhilfe;Strobl, M., Klapper, J., Pelzel, K.-H., Bader, Zahn, H. & Lange, N. (2005b). Suchthilfestatistik 2004 für Deutschland. Tabellenband für die stationäre Suchtkrankenhilfe
GermanyNational18Bundeskriminalamt (BKA) (Hrsg.) (2006). Bundeslagebild Rauschgift 2004. BKA, Wiesbaden.
EstoniaNational & Subnational1ESTIMATING INJECTION DRUG USE PREVALENCE USING STATE WIDE ADMINISTRATIVE DATA SOURCES: ESTONIA, 2004 Authors: Anneli Uusküla MD, MS, PhD 1, Kristiina Rajaleid MSc 2, Ave Talu 3, Katri Abel 3, Kristi Rüütel MD 4, Gordon Hay, BSc(Hons), PhD, MPH 5.
IrelandNational & Subnational1Kelly A, Carvalho M, Teljeur C. A 3-Source Capture Recapture Study of the Prevalence of Opiate Use in Ireland 2000-2001. Key Findings Summary Tables. Dublin: National Advisory Committee on Drugs, 2003. Report available online at www.nacd.ie
IrelandNational2National Focal Point (unpublished data)
IrelandSubnational3C. M. Comiskey, Mathematics Department, National University of Ireland, Maynooth, Co. Kildare, Ireland.
GreeceNational & Subnational1National Focal Point, 2004 (unpublished data)
GreeceNational & Subnational2National Focal Point, 2003 (unpublished data)
GreeceNational & Subnational3National Focal Point (unpublished data)
GreeceNational4National Focal Point, 2006 (unpublished data)
SpainNational & Subnational1Domingo-Salvany A, Barrio G, Royuela L. Country report: Spain
SpainNational2Ortí RM, Domingo-Salvany A, Muñoz A, Macfarlane D, Suelves JM, Antó JM. Mortality trends in a cohort of opiate addicts, Catalonia, Spain. Int J Epidemiol 1996; 25(3):545-553.
SpainNational3National Focal Point (unpublished data)
SpainSubnational4Domingo-Salvany Hartnoll R.L., Maguire, Brugal T., Albertin P., Caylá J., Casabona J., Suelves J. M. 'Analytical considerations in the use of capture-recapture to estimate prevalence: Case studies of estimating opiate use in the metropolitan area of Barcelona'. Am J Epidemiol, 1998; 148: 732-40.
SpainSubnational5Paredes D, del Llano J, del Llano J, et al. Comunidad de Madrid, Plan Regional sobre Drogas, 1994.
SpainSubnational6Moreno Iribas C, Urtiaga Dominguez M. Gaceta Sanitaria 1993; 7: 55-62.
SpainSubnational7Domingo-Salvany A, Hartnoll R, Maguire A, et al. American Journal of Epidemiology 1995; 141: 567-574.
FranceNational1Costes J.M., Country report : France in "Prevalence and patterns of problem drug use for all European Union member states, Final report", EMCDDA
FranceNational2National Focal Point (unpublished data)
FranceSubnational3Chevallier, E. (2001) Estimations locales de la prévalence de l'usage d'opiacés et cocaïne en France : une étude multicentrique à Lens, Lille, Marseille, Nice et Toulouse, OFDT, Paris.
FranceSubnational4Bello P. Y., Chené G. Methodological pilot study of local level of prevalence estimates. Lisbon: EMCDDA, December 1997.
FranceSubnational5Bello P. Y., Chéne G. In: EMCDDA/Pompidou Group Scientific Monograph 1 (in press) Lisbon, 1997.
FranceSubnational6Chevallier E. et al., Estimations locales de la prévalence de l'usage d'opiacés et cocaïne en France, OFDT report, 2001
ItalyNational1Epidemiological Section of the Italian Observatory on Drugs and Drug Addiction, 2003. (unpublished data). Injecting drug users 2002: no details available, source NFP.
ItalyNational2Relazione Annuale al Parlamento sullo Stato delle Tossicodipendenze in Italia 2003. Ministero del Lavoro e delle Politiche Sociali. Roma, 2004. Epidemiological Section of the Italian Observatory on Drugs and Drug Addiction
ItalyNational3National Focal Point (unpublished data)
ItalySubnational4Epidemiological Section of the Italian Observatory on Drugs and Drug Addiction, 2003. (unpublished data). Injecting drug users 2002: no details available, source NFP.
ItalySubnational5D'Ippoliti D. Methodoligical pilot study of local level prevalence estimates. Lisbon: EMCDDA, December 1997.
ItalySubnational6Bello PY, Chéne G. In: EMCDDA/Pompidou Group Scientific Monograph 1 (in press) Lisbon, 1997.
ItalySubnational7Perucci CA, Forastiere F, Rapiti E, et al. British Journal of Addiction 1992; 87:1637-1641.
ItalySubnational8Relazione Annuale al Parlamento sullo Stato delle Tossicodipendenze in Italia - 2001 - Ministero del Lavoro e delle Politiche Sociali - Dipartimento per le Politiche Sociali e Previdenziali. Schizzi I., Piano L., Curzio O., Del Re F., Salvadori S. e Mariani F. Regione Liguria - Osservatorio Epidemiologico Regionale Tossicodipendenze. Rapporto 2002: Andamento del fenomeno tossicodipendenze.
ItalySubnational9Relazione Annuale al Parlamento sullo Stato delle Tossicodipendenze in Italia - 2000 - Ministero del Lavoro e delle Politiche Sociali - Dipartimento per le Politiche Sociali e Previdenziali. alvadori S., Potente R., Zuccaro P. e Mariani F. Stima di Prevalenza e di Incidenza dell'Uso e Abuso di Alcol e di Sostanze Illecite nella Regione Veneto - 2000.
ItalySubnational10Relazione Annuale al Parlamento sullo Stato delle Tossicodipendenze in Italia - 2000 - Ministero del Lavoro e delle Politiche Sociali - Dipartimento per le Politiche Sociali e Previdenziali.Schizzi I., Piano L., Curzio O., Del Re F., Salvadori S. e Mariani F. Regione Liguria - Osservatorio Epidemiologico Regionale Tossicodipendenze. Rapporto 2002: Andamento del fenomeno tossicodipendenze.
ItalySubnational11Stima di Prevalenza e di Incidenza dell'Uso e Abuso di Alcol e di Sostanze Illecite nella Regione Veneto - 2003 - In press
ItalySubnational12Curzio O., Schizzi I., Salvadori S., Karakachoff M., Minichilli F., Marchini L., Salvini S., Piano L., Del Re F. e Mariani F. Regione Liguria - Osservatorio Epidemiologico Regionale Tossicodipendenze. Rapporto 2003: Andamento del fenomeno tossicodipendenze.
ItalyNational13Relazione Annuale al Parlamento sullo Stato delle Tossicodipendenze in Italia 2004 - Presidenza del Consiglio dei ministri - Dipartimento Nazionale per le Politiche Antidroga
ItalySubnational14Rapporto sul fenomeno di uso ed abuso di sostanze stupefacenti nella Regione Abruzzo - Anni 2001-2004
ItalySubnational15Andamento del fenomeno tossicodipendenze nella A.U.S.L. 6 di Palermo - Rapporto 2004
ItalySubnational16Stima di prevalenza e di incidenza dell'uso e abuso di alcol e di sostanze illecite nella Regione Veneto - Rapporto 2005
ItalySubnational17Osservatorio epidemiologico regionale tossicodipendenze - Rapporto 2005 - Andamento del fenomeno tossicodipendenze
ItalyNational18Relazione Annuale al Parlamento sullo Stato delle Tossicodipendenze in Italia 2005 - Presidenza del Consiglio dei ministri - Ministero della Solidarietà Sociale
ItalySubnational19Rapporto sul fenomeno di uso ed abuso di sostanze stupefacenti nella Regione Abruzzo - Anno 2005
CyprusNational1Stylianou S., National Focal Point, 2005 (unpublished data)
CyprusNational2National Focal Point, 2006 (unpublished report), Stylianou S., 2006 (unpublished results)
LatviaSubnational1Trapencieris M., Lace I. (2003) 'Survey of Drug Users', in 'Drug Abuse Prevalence in Latvia: Pupulation Survey Report', Riga, 105-112.
LatviaSubnational2Trapencieris, M. Estimations on problem drug use in Latvia: project report, Riga, 2004
LuxembourgNational1Origer, A. (1998). Annual report on the state of the drugs problem in the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg. RELIS 2000. Ministry of Health. AST. NFP. Luxembourg
LuxembourgNational2Origer, A. (2001). Estimation de la prévalence nationale de l'usage problématique de drogues à risque élevé et d'acquisition illicite - Etude comparative multi-méthodes 1997-2000. Séries de recherche nº2. Point focal OEDT Luxembourg - CRP-Santé. Luxembourg.
LuxembourgNational3National Focal Point (unpublished data)
HungarySubnational1National Focal Point, 2004 (unpublished data)
HungaryNational & Subnational2Elekes Zsuzsanna, Nyírády Adrienn: PDU estimates, National Report 2006
HungarySubnational3National Focal Point, 2006 (unpublished data)
MaltaNational1Sedqa, Caritas, Oasi Merged Treatment Data Files 2004
MaltaNational2Sedqa, caritas, OASI, Dual Diagnosis Unit and SATU Prison Inmates Programme Merged Data Files 2005
NetherlandsNational1Smit F, Toet J, van Oers H, Wiessing L. Estimating Local and National Problem Drug Use Prevalence from Demographics. Addiction Research and Theory 2003; 11: 401-413.
NetherlandsNational3Smit F, Toet J (2001) National prevalence estimates of problematic drug use in the Netherlands, 1999.
NetherlandsNational4National Focal Point (unpublished data)
NetherlandsSubnational5Haagse harddruggebruikers en het bereik van de politie en verslavingszorg. Den Haag: Onderzoekcomissie MORE, December 1997.
NetherlandsSubnational6Couman AM, Neve RJM, Van de Mheen H. Het proces van marginalisering en verharding in de drugscene van Parkstad Limburg. Rotterdam:IVO, 2000.
NetherlandsSubnational7De Graaf I, Wildschut J, Van de Mheen D. Utrechtse druggebruikers: eenjachting bestaan. Rotterdam: IVO, 2000.
NetherlandsSubnational8Bieleman, B., Biesma, S., Jetzes, M. (2003). Enschede van de straat. Aard en omvang dak- en thuislozen en zichtbare alcohol- en harddrugsverslaafden in Enschede. Groningen-Rotterdam: Intraval.
NetherlandsSubnational9Personal communication with Marcel Buster, Municipal Health Service Amsterdam (GG&GD Amsterdam).
NetherlandsSubnational10Korf DJ, Hes J, Van Aalderen H. Alkmaar: Brijder Stichting, 1991.
NetherlandsSubnational11Ten Den C, Bieleman B, de Bie E, Snippe J. Groningen: Intraval, 1995.
NetherlandsSubnational12Struben HWA, Burger I, Hendriks VM. Omvangschatting van het totaal aantal (afhankelijke) Haagse harddruggebruikers in de periode 1993-98. Den Haag: Onderzoekcommissie monitoring en registratie (MORE).
NetherlandsSubnational13Biesma, S. Snippe, J., Oldersma, F., Bieleman, B. (2003). Inventarisatie harddrugsverslaafden en dak- en thuislozen Leeuwarden, Noord en Zuidwest Friesland. Groningen-Rotterdam: Intraval.
NetherlandsSubnational14National Focal Point, 1998. (Smit F., Toet J., van der Heijden P.).
NetherlandsSubnational15Wiessing LG, Toet J, Houweling H, Koedijk PM, van den Akker R, Sprenger MJW. Prevalence and risk factors for HIV infection among drug users in Rotterdam. [In Dutch]. RIVM report nr. 213220001. Bilthoven, National Institute of Public Health and Environmental Protection (RIVM), 1995. http://www.rivm.nl/en/
NetherlandsSubnational16Van Brussel G., et al. Amsterdam: Municipal Health Services & Bureau of Social Research and Statistics, 1996.
NetherlandsSubnational17Van Brussel G., et al., Amsterdam: Municipal Health Services, 1997.
NetherlandsSubnational18Buster MCA, Van Brussel GHA, Van den Brink W. Estimating the number of opiate users in Amsterdam by Capture Recapture: The importance of case definition. Eur J Epidemiol. 2001;17(10):935-42.
NetherlandsSubnational19Burger, I., Struben, H. (2001). Haagse harddruggebruikers; Het bereik van politie en verslavingszorg in 1996-98 en veranderingen van 1993-95. Den Haag: Onderzoekcommissie monitoring en registratie (MORE).
NetherlandsSubnational20Korf DJ, Reijneveld SA, Toet J. The International Journal of the Addictions 1994; 29: 1393-1417.
NetherlandsNational21Smit, F., Van Laar, M., Wiessing, L. (2005). Estimating Problem Drug Use Prevalence at National Level: Comparison of Three Methods. Utrecht, the Netherlands: Trimbos Institute, Netherlands Institute of Mental Health and Addiction.
NetherlandsSubnational22Burger, I. (2004). Haagse harddruggebruikers: Aard, omvang en trends in 1999-2002. The Hague: GGD Den Haag.
NetherlandsSubnational23Biesma, S., Snippe, J., Bieleman, B. (2004). Harddrugsgebruikers geregistreerd: Aard, omvang en mobiliteit van problematische harddrugsgebruikers in Rotterdam. Groningen: INTRAVAL.
NetherlandsNational24Smit, F., Van Laar, M., Wiessing, L. (2006). Estimating problem drug use prevalence at national level: Comparison of three methods. Drugs: education, prevention and policy, 13: 109-120.
NetherlandsSubnational25Bieleman, B., Kruize, A., Ogier, C. (2005). Monitor verslaafden en daklozen Enschede 2005: Metingen 2001, 2002, 2003 en 2004. Groningen/Rotterdam: INTRAVAL.
NetherlandsSubnational26Biesma, S., Kruize, A., Naayer, H., Ogier, C., Bieleman, B. (2005). In Hengelo van de straat: Aard en omvang dak- en thuisloosheid en zichtbare alcohol- en harddrugsverslaving. Groningen/Rotterdam: INTRAVAL.
AustriaNational1National Focal Point (unpublished data)
AustriaNational & Subnational2Uhl, A.; Seidler, D. (2000): Prevalence Estimate of Problematic Opiate Consumption in Austria. LBISucht, Vienna
AustriaNational3Busch 2003 (not yet available)
AustriaNational4Uhl and Busch 2002 (not yet available)
AustriaNational5ÖBIG 2003c (not yet available)
AustriaSubnational7Vienna drug co-ordinators 1997.
AustriaNational8ÖBIG 2006 (not yet published)
PolandSubnational1 "Opinie Osob Uzaleznionych Z Malopolski Na Temat Substancji Psychoaktywnych" Report from survey prepared for Malopolskie Vojvodship Administration by BBS Obserwator. Krakow 2005.
PolandSubnational3Sierosawski J. (2004). Oszacowanie liczby narkomanow w wojewodztwie in: Raport z badan na temat laczenia roznych substancji we wzorach uzywania narkotykow w Wojewodztwie Lodzkim, Jablonski P., Institute of Psychiatry and Neurology, Warsaw
PolandSubnational5Sieroslwaski J. (2005) "Oszacowanie liczby narkomanow oraz rozmiarow problemow zwiazanych z narkotykami w Warszawie", report from analyses prepared for Warsaw City Hall, Warsaw
PolandSubnational6Seidler D., Uhl A, in: Methodological pilot study of local level prevalence estimates. Lisbon: EMCDDA, December 1997.
PolandSubnational7Moskalewicz J., Sieroslawski J., Bujalski M. [2006] "Dostepnosc programow substytucyjnych w Warszawie" report from research ordered by Warsaw City Hall, Institute of Psychiatry and Neurology, Warsaw,
PolandNational9National Focal Point (unpublished data)
PortugalNational & Subnational1Negreiros, J. (2002): Estimativa da prevalência e padrões de consumo problemático de drogas em Portugal, FPCDS/UP, Porto
PortugalNational2(Feijão and Elsa Lavado, 2001) Prevalence and Patterns of drug use in Portugal-2001. IPDT: not published.
PortugalSubnational3Freire S., Moreira M., in: Methodological pilot study of local prevalence estimates. Lisbon: EMCDDA, 1997.
PortugalSubnational4Godinho, J., Costa, H., Padre-Santo, D. (1998). Estimativa da prevalência de consumidores de heroína no Concelho de Setúbal.
SloveniaNational1National Focal Point (unpublished data)
SloveniaSubnational2Pompidou Group Project on Treatment Demand: Tracking long-term trends
SlovakiaNational & Subnational1The State of Drug Addiction and Drug Control in the Slovak Republic, 2004 Report. Unpublished data
SlovakiaNational2The State of Drug Addiction and Drug Control in the Slovak Republic, 2006 Report. Unpublished data
SlovakiaNational & Subnational3Stav drogových závislostí a kontrola drog v SR (The State of Drug Addiction and Drug Control in the Slovak Republic), 2006 National Report for REITOX, ÚV SR, Bratislava 2006, 138 p.
SlovakiaNational & Subnational4Mravcík V., Kiššová L., Prevalencný odhad problémových užívatelov drog na Slovensku (Estimated prevalence of problem drug users in Slovakia), Alkoholizums a drogové závislosti, 41-2006, 5, p. 259-272
FinlandNational & Subnational1Partanen P., Hakkarainen P., Holmström P., Kinnunen A., Lammi R., Leinikki P., Partanen A., Seppälä T., Välkki J., Virtanen A: Amfetamiinien ja opiaattien ongelmakäytön yleisyys Suomessa 2002. Yhteiskuntapolitiikka 3/2004.
FinlandNational2National Focal Point (unpublished data)
FinlandNational & Subnational3Partanen P., Hakkarainen P., Holmström P., Kinnunen A., Lammi R., Leinikki P., Partanen A., Seppälä T., Simpura J., Virtanen A. Amfetamiinien ja opiaattien käytön yleisyys Suomessa 1999. Suom. Lääkärilehti 44/2001. (to be published)
FinlandSubnational4Partanen Päivi, Kinnunen Aarne, Leinikki Pauli, Nylander Olli, Seppälä Timo, Simpura Jussi, Virtanen Ari & Välkki Jouni: Selvitys amfetamiinin ja opiaattiene käyttäjien määrästä pääkaupunkiseudulla ja koko maassa vuonna 1997. STAKES, Aiheita 19/1999
FinlandSubnational5Partanen P., Hakkarainen P., Holmström P., Kinnunen A., Lammi R., Leinikki P., Partanen A., Seppälä T., Simpura J. & Virtanen A. (2000): Amfetamiinien ja opiaattien käytön yleisyys Suomessa 1998. Yhteiskuntapolitiikka 65 (2000):6
FinlandSubnational6Partanen P. Report on the number of amphetamine and opiates users in the Greater Helsinki area in 1995. Helsinki: Stakes, Aiheita 40/1994.
SwedenNational1B. Olsson, C.A. Wahren, S. Byqvist, Det tunga narkotikamissbrukets, omfattning i Sverige 1998, CAN, Stockholm 2001.
SwedenNational2Granath, S., Svensson, D., Lindström, P. (2003). Polisens insatser mot narkotikabrottsligheten : omfattning, karaktär och effekter, Brottsförebyggande rådet (BR�) : Fritze distributör, Stockholm.
SwedenSubnational3Social Services Research and Development Stockholm City, R & D Report 1996/12. Stockholm, 1996.
SwedenSubnational4Finne, E. Statistik över missbrukare, hemlösa och psykiskt störda i Stockholm år 2001. FoU-rapport. Socialtjänstförvaltningen, Forsknings- och utvecklingsenheten, Stockholm 2002.
SwedenSubnational5Finne, E. Statistik över missbrukare, hemlösa och psykiskst störda i stockholm ar 1999. FoU -rapport.
SwedenSubnational6Finne, E. (1997) Socialtjänstens kontakter med missbrukare, psykiskst störda och hemlösa 1996. FoU-rapport 1997:15. Stockholm.
SwedenSubnational7Swedish Council for Information on Alcohol and other Drugs (CAN), UNO-92 (report 34), Stockholm, 1993./ Department of Social Welfare and Public Health, City Office, Malmö.
SwedenSubnational8'Finne, E. Statistik över missbrukare, hemlösa och psykiskst störda i stockholm ar 2000. FoU -rapport.
SwedenSubnational9National Focal Point (unpublished data)
SwedenNational10SOU: 2005:82. Personer med tungt missbruk - stimulans till bättre vård och behandling. Betänkande av Utrednigen om en vårdöverenskommelse om missbrukarvården Stockholm 2005
SwedenSubnational12Stafström M, Norén A. Skåne-UNO 2004 – En kartläggning av narkotikamissbrukets omfattning Länsstyrelsens i Skåne län och Skånesamverkan mot droger. Rapportserien Skåne i utveckling: Rapport 2005:6
SwedenSubnational13Narkotikamissbruket i Östergötland 2004, Länsstyrelsen Östergötland. Rapport 2005:14
SwedenSubnational14Narkotikamissbruket i Östergötland 2005, Länsstyrelsen Östergötland. Rapport 2006:27
SwedenSubnational15"Narkotikasituationen i Örebro kommun och Örebro län 2006" http://www.orebroll.se/upload/Psykhab/PFC/Dokument/Mementum/Mementum_37originawebbl.pdf
United KingdomNational1Frischer M, Hickman M, Kraus L, Mariani M, Wiessing L. A comparison of different methods for estimating the prevalence of problematic drug misuse in Great Britain. Addiction 2001; 96: 1465-1476
United KingdomNational2CDMR (University of Glasgow) & SCIEH ' Estimating the National and Local Prevalence of Problem Drug Misuse in Scotland'.
United KingdomNational3McElrath, K. (2002) Prevalence of Problem Drug Use in Northern Ireland. Belfast, Department of Health, Social Services and Public Safety.
United KingdomNational4M Frischer, H Heatlie and M Hickman. Estimating the prevalence of problem and injecting drug use for drug action team areas in England: A feasibility study using the multiple indicator method. London: Home Office Drug and Alcohol Research Unit.
United KingdomNational5National Focal Point (unpublished data)
United KingdomSubnational6Frischer M. British Journal of Addiction 1992; 87: 235-243.
United KingdomSubnational7Hay G, McKeganey N. Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health 1996; 50: 469-472.
United KingdomSubnational8G Hay, N McKeganey, S Hutchinson (November 2001) Estimating the National and Local Prevalence of Problem Drug Misuse in Scotland.
United KingdomSubnational9Hickman, M, Higgins, V, Hope, V, Bellis, M. (2004). Estimating prevalence of problem drug use: multiple methods in Brighton, Liverpool and London. Home Office Online Report 36/04
United KingdomSubnational11Bloor M, Wood F, Palmer S. Cardiff: University of Wales, 1997.
United KingdomSubnational12Brugha, R.F., Swan, A V., Hayhurst, G.K., Fallon, M.P. (1998) 'A drug misuser prevalence study in a rural English district'. European Journal of Public Health, 8: 1101-1262.
United KingdomSubnational13Hickman et al. Problem drug use prevalence in Inner London.
United KingdomSubnational14Squires NF, Beeching NJ, Schlecht BJM, et al. Journal of Public Health Medicine 1995; 17: 103-109.
United KingdomSubnational15Frischer M, Leyland A, Cormack R, et al. American Journal of Epidemiology 1993; 138: 170-181.
United KingdomSubnational16Millar, T., Gemmell, I., Hay, G. and Donmall, M. (2004). The dynamics of drug misuse: Assessing Changes in Prevalence. Home Office online report 35/04. Home Office, London
United KingdomNational17Hay, G, Higgins, K, Gannon, M and Carroll, C (2006) Estimating the prevalence of problem opiate and problem cocaine use in Northern Ireland. Belfast, Department of Health, Social Services and Public Safety
United KingdomSubnational18Hay, G, Gannon, M, MacDougall, J, Millar, T, Eastwood, C and McKeganey, N (2006) Local and national estimates of the prevalence of opiate use and/or crack cocaine use (2004/05) in Singleton, N, Murray, R and Tinsley, L eds. Measuring different aspects of problem drug use: methodological developments. Home Office Online Report OLR 16/06. London: Home Office
NorwayNational1Bretteville-Jensen, A.L., personal communication, 2002.
NorwayNational2National Focal Point (unpublished data)
NorwayNational3Based on material in Report 2/2005 from SIRUS: The Drug Situation in the Municipalities
NorwayNational4Bretteville-Jensen, A.L. and Amundsen E.J. Prevalence of Injecting drug use in Norway. (In Norwegian:Omfang av sprøytemisbruk i Norge). Report 5/2006 SIRUS Oslo

Notes:

 n.a. = data not available     

 See also 'General notes for interpreting data' on the Explanatory notes and help page

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The European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA) is the reference point on drugs and drug addiction information in Europe. Inaugurated in Lisbon in 1995, it is one of the EU's decentralised agencies. Read more >>

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Page last updated: Tuesday, 20 November 2007