This Selected issue focuses on mortality among drug users due to all causes, of which drug-induced deaths (overdoses) is only a component, albeit the one most well-documented. The publication begins with an introduction to mortality cohort studies and then reviews the findings on overall mortality rates in Europe. The available sources of data are examined to explore the main causes of deaths among drug users and the latest information on risk and protective factors. The Selected issue finishes with a discussion of the public health implications of drug-related mortality and the options available for prevention and intervention. A summary of the contents is available, as well as a technical supplement).