This Selected issue gives a broad overview on the extent of, and available responses to, the problems of pregnant drug users and families that are affected by drug use. In the first part of the report, a description of the available data on the extent of drug use during pregnancy and associated risks is followed by a review of responses to drug use among pregnant women across Europe. The second part of the publication focuses on children living in the care of drug users. Here, a review of the risks related to drug use in the family sets the scene for European overviews of responses targeting drug-using parents and responses aimed at the children of drug users. The policy and legal frameworks concerning the two situations are described, both for pregnant drug users and drug-using parents and their children.