Opioid trafficking routes from Asia to Europe (Perspectives on drugs)


Imported heroin has historically been available in Europe in two forms, the most common being brown heroin (its chemical base form), originating mainly in Afghanistan and other countries in south-west Asia. Less common is white heroin (a salt form), which historically came from south-east Asia but is now also produced in Afghanistan and probably in neighbouring Iran and Pakistan. This region, sometimes referred to as the Golden Crescent, dominates production for the European market.

Part of the Perspectives on Drugs (PODs) series, launched as part of the European Drug Report package, these designed-for-the-web interactive analyses provide deeper insights into a selection of important issues.

Note that the online version contains additional interactive or audiovisual material not available in the PDF version.

Table of contents

  • Analysis: opioid trafficking routes from Asia to Europe
  • Interactive: main trafficking routes into Europe
  • Facts and figures — heroin in Europe at a glance
  • The development of morphine production in the Golden Crescent

Main subject:

drug markets

Trafficking routes POD's cover