This report provides an overview of what is known about how cocaine is produced and trafficked into the European Union. It aims to provide a better understanding of the actors involved, the routes taken, and the scale of the problem in Europe. It also reviews some of the supply reduction responses already developed at European level. Its findings are based on the latest data and analysis available from specialised European and international organisations, NGOs and scholars. This publication is structured in a way that provides a condensed review of key issues relevant to understanding how cocaine reaches European markets. Background information on the chemistry and legal status of cocaine and crack cocaine, as well as key European figures, are also provided.