Cannabis is produced and consumed in virtually all countries of the world. Because illicit cannabis cultivation is so widespread and carried out both indoors and outdoors, it is very difficult, if not impossible, to estimate how much cannabis is produced worldwide annually.
Europe continues to be one of the world’s largest consumer markets for cannabis resin (hashish), the majority of which is sourced from Morocco. The Middle East, North Africa and South-West Asia also have large consumer markets for resin, and significant production occurs in these regions (UNODC, 2015a). The world’s two largest producer and exporter countries of cannabis resin appear to be Afghanistan and Morocco, although resin is also produced in and exported from, but probably to a lesser extent, India, Lebanon, Nepal and Pakistan. Afghanistan is becoming more important in global resin production, with the UNODC suggesting that it has overtaken Morocco in terms of quantities of resin produced. Despite this, Afghan resin does not currently seem to be widely available in most of Europe (Chouvy, 2016).
In 2013, some 1 416 tonnes of cannabis resin was seized worldwide, confirming an increasing trend since 2011. After peaking at 7 060 tonnes in 2010, worldwide herbal cannabis seizures declined to reach 5 764 tonnes in 2013 (UNODC, 2015a).
Note: The estimates for seizures presented are for 2013; more recent EU figures are available but have not been used for the purposes of comparability. For the most up-to-date European data, please refer to Table 3.1.
Source: UNODC, World Drug Reports. EMCDDA, 2015a.