Country overview: Germany
- Situation summary
- Drug use among the general population and young people
- High-risk drug use
- Treatment demand
- Drug-related infectious diseases
- Drug-induced deaths and mortality among drug users
- Treatment responses
- Harm reduction responses
- Drug markets and drug-law offences
- National drug laws
- National drug strategy
- Coordination mechanism in the field of drugs
- Public expenditure
- Drug-related research
|Year||Germany||EU (27 countries)||Source|
|Population||2013||80 523 746 ||505 665 739||Eurostat|
|Population by age classes||15–24||2013||10.9 %||11.5 % ||Eurostat|
|25–49||34.1 %||35.0 % |
|50–64||21.1 %||19.7 % |
|GDP per capita in PPS (Purchasing Power Standards) 1||2012||123||100||Eurostat|
|Total expenditure on social protection (% of GDP) 2||2011||29.4 % p||29.0 % p||Eurostat|
|Unemployment rate 3||2013||5.3 %||10.8 %||Eurostat|
|Unemployment rate of population aged under 25 years||2013||7.9 %||23.4 %||Eurostat|
|Prison population rate (per 100 000 of national population) 4||2012||84.6||:||Council of Europe, SPACE I-2012|
|At risk of poverty rate 5||2012||16.1 %||17.0 % e||SILC |
p Eurostat provisional value.
1 Gross domestic product (GDP) is a measure of economic activity. It is defined as the value of all goods and services produced less the value of any goods or services used in their creation. The volume index of GDP per capita in Purchasing Power Standards (PPS) is expressed in relation to the European Union (EU-27) average set to equal 100. If the index of a country is higher than 100, this country's level of GDP per head is higher than the EU average and vice versa.
2 Expenditure on social protection contains: benefits, which consist of transfers, in cash or in kind to households and individuals to relieve them of the burden of a defined set of risks or needs.
3 Unemployment rates represent unemployed persons as a percentage of the labour force. Unemployed persons comprise persons aged 15 to 74 who were: (a) without work during the reference week; (b) currently available for work; (c) actively seeking work.
4 Situation of penal institutions on 1 September, 2012.
5 Share of persons aged 0+ with an equivalent disposable income below the at-risk-of-poverty threshold, which is set at 60 % of the national median equivalised disposable income (after social transfers).
The latest representative survey, the nationwide Epidemiological Survey on Addiction (ESA), was conducted in Germany in 2012. A total of 9 084 people aged 18–64 responded to a questionnaire via mail, telephone or Internet (response rate: 53.6 %). Last year prevalence of use of any illicit substance was 4.9 % in 2012; 5.1 % in 2009; 5.0 % in 2006; 7.4 % in 2003, and last month prevalence was 2.6 % in 2012; 2.6 % in 2009; 2.5 % in 2006; 3.9 % in 2003. Cannabis remained by far the most used drug — last year prevalence was 4.5 % and last month prevalence was 2.3 %. With regard to the last year prevalence of other substances, cocaine use was reported by 0.8 %, amphetamines by 0.7 % and ecstasy by 0.4 % of respondents. About 0.6 % of all respondents indicated ever using new psychoactive substance (NPS), while last year prevalence of NPS use was 0.2 % and last month prevalence was 0.1 %. The consumption of illicit substances was higher in younger age groups. Thus 11.1 % of young adults (aged 18–34) reported cannabis use in the last 12 months, and 5.3 % in the last 30 days. However, the last year use of most substances among young adults remained at the levels of 2009 and 2006. The survey indicates a decreasing trend in the last 12 month prevalence of cannabis use among 18- to 24-year-olds, following an increase until 2003.
The latest European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs (ESPAD) study in 2011 indicated that 19 % of students aged 15–16 reported using cannabis at least once in their life (20 % in 2007; 27 % in 2003). Last year prevalence of cannabis use was 15 % and last month prevalence was 7 %. Lifetime prevalence of inhalants was reported by 10 %, amphetamines by 4 %, and hallucinogens and ecstasy by 2 %.
The latest Drug Affinity Study (DAS), conducted in 2011 among a sample aged 12–25, corroborated findings from other studies that cannabis is by far the most frequently used illicit substance among adolescents and young adults in Germany, and that the use of illicit drugs is more common among young males than females. The study, carried out by the Federal Centre for Health Education (Bundeszentrale für gesundheitliche Aufklärung/BZgA), also confirmed a declining trend in recent cannabis use over time among those aged 12–17, reflecting a decline found in the ESA results. The last month prevalence of cannabis use declined from 2.4 % in 2004 to 1.9 % in 2011, while last year prevalence fell from 10.1 % to 4.6 %. This tendency is not observed among those aged 18–25, although the rates of recent cannabis use remain at or below the record rates observed in 2004.
In summary, the trends observed in all recent studies might indicate a decrease in the experimental use of cannabis among younger age groups in Germany.
Federal agencies, in particular the Federal Centre for Health Education, the Länder, community administrations and the self-governmental bodies of the social insurance funds share responsibility and funds for the implementation of drug prevention activities in Germany in a multifaceted way.
The school environment still remains the most important setting for universal drug prevention, while family-oriented and community-based interventions are not as widely available. School-based prevention activities are primarily focused on three substances — alcohol, tobacco and cannabis. In addition to information provision, the school-based prevention programmes promote life skills, and encourage students to think critically about drug use and to develop their own values. Klasse2000 is a programme developed in 1991 and continues to be the most widespread health promotion programme for early school years. This programme is regularly evaluated, and a positive influence has been found on the health behaviour of children up to three years after finishing it. The programme KlasseKinderSpiel (developed in USA as the Good Behaviour Game), targeting children in primary schools and those with special needs, was initially launched in the Cologne area in 2007, and has since been extended to neighbouring areas. The programme employs behavioural change techniques in a game setting, and in several evaluation studies proved to have a long-lasting protective effect. The peer education method for addiction prevention is applied in school settings and outside school, and is usually targeted at children in the 7th grade and older. In recent years a new universal prevention programme, Prev@WORK, has been developed for young people in vocational training settings. It aims to promote responsible substance use behaviours, and has been implemented in seven Länder. Other programmes, such as ‘Unplugged’, targeting 11- to 14-year-olds in secondary schools, and REBOUND — My Decision, targeting 15- to 25-year-olds, are implemented in Germany. Family Ties is an example of an intervention that aims to increase parenting skills, while the programme Strong Parents–Strong Children supports parents in building families’ protective role and strengthening the basic life skills of children. The programme Elterntalk is available at 35 locations in Bavaria and also focuses on enhancing parenting skills. A number of universal prevention initiatives have focused on children and young people in recreational settings, for example in sports clubs (www.kinderstarkmachen.de).
Innovative projects for selective prevention are constantly being developed, such as Internet-based counselling, interventions in recreational settings, telephone counselling and projects specifically targeted at ethnic minorities, migrants, parents and high-risk families. The federal pilot programme Family Outreach Therapy for Risky Drug Using Adolescents and their Families assists the parents of drug-using children and adolescents, facilitating intra-family communication, and referring young people to services to enable early detection and intervention. Following an evaluation, it has been recommended for wider implementation. A German selective prevention project, FReD goes Net, which targets young offenders, has now been implemented in some other European Union Member States.
The need to target at-risk children and young people is largely acknowledged. Therefore, these groups are an important target group for indicated prevention programmes in Germany, especially children and adolescents with behavioural disorders and children in families affected by addiction. Trampolin is an indicated prevention strategy developed to assist children from families affected by addiction. A special programme to stop or reduce cannabis use among 14- to 25-year-olds has been running in Frankfurt since 2005, offering case management and counselling for students that use cannabis. These prevention programmes are delivered within a therapeutic or counselling context, while www.quit-the-shit.net is an evaluated online counselling programme for cannabis users.
Green List Prevention compiles a list of prevention programmes that have been evaluated and shown to have a beneficial outcome in Germany and recommends them for dissemination.
View ‘Prevention profile’ for additional information.
Up to 2012 the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA) defined problem drug use as injecting drug use (IDU) or long duration/regular use of opiates, cocaine and/or amphetamines. Ecstasy and cannabis were not included in this category. However, in 2012 a new definition of ‘high-risk drug use’ was adopted. This new definition includes ‘problem drug use’, but is broader (mainly in its inclusion of high-risk use of more substances). Details are available here.
The proportion of high-risk opioid users who are using heroin are estimated in Germany by means of several multiplier methods using three data sources — police contacts, drug-related deaths (both estimates are based on 2012 data) and treatment (the most recent estimate is based on 2011 data). These estimates indicate an estimated range of 1.1 to 3.8 heroin users per 1 000 inhabitants aged 15–64, which corresponds to between 62 000 and 203 000 people, a slightly increasing trend from 2009. This increase is assumed to be mainly due to an increase in the number of outpatient treatment admissions. The most recent estimate of problem drug use (based on treatment data only), including heroin, cocaine and amphetamine use, is also based on treatment data for 2011. According to the data, the prevalence is estimated at between 229 000 and 272 000 (4.25 to 5.0 per 1 000 inhabitants aged 15–64).
An estimate based on a 2012 general population survey indicated that 0.6 % of 15- to 64-year-olds in Germany used cannabis daily or almost daily.
Data on people entering treatment come from several national sources integrated in the German Core Data Set on the Documentation of Addiction Treatment for providing data on the EMCDDA Treatment Demand Indicator (TDI) Protocol. However, there are still divergences between the TDI and the Core Data. The treatment demand data in Germany for 2012 were based on 977 outpatient centres, 218 inpatient centres, 65 low-threshold agencies and 30 treatment units in prison.
In 2012 a total of 76 323 treatment episodes of clients entering specialised treatment have been reported via the national treatment statistics, of which 17 265 were new clients entering treatment for the first time. Among new treatment clients, 55 % sought treatment for cannabis use, 17 % for amphetamines use, 16 % for primary opioid use and 6 % for cocaine use. Opioids as the primary substance of use was reported by 40 % of all treatment clients, followed by cannabis at 34 %, amphetamines at 13 % and cocaine at 6 %. Among all treatment clients, more than a third of opioid users reported injecting the drug, while 19 % of cocaine clients injected it. Levels of drug injection were lower among new treatment clients. Many clients reported polydrug use, where two or more substances are used in combination at the same time or consecutively.
In 2012 some 30 % of all treatment clients were under the age of 25. New treatment clients were younger, with 47 % under the age of 25. With regard to gender, the male to female ratio was 4 to 1 for both new and all clients entering drug treatment.
The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) department of the Robert Koch-Institut (RKI) collects nationwide data on infectious diseases, including HIV and hepatitis. All laboratories in Germany have been obliged since 1987 to anonymously report to the RKI any confirmed HIV antibody tests. Changes to the collection of data on new HIV cases have made the exclusion of multiple reporting more effective.
According to the Robert Koch-Institut, 4.0 % of those newly diagnosed with HIV in 2012 (2 954, but transmission route known for 77 %) were people who inject drugs (PWID) (4.0 % in 2010; 3.7 % in 2010; 3.5 % in 2009; 5.0 % in 2008; 6.3 % in 2007). In 2000 some 12.4 % of those newly diagnosed with HIV were PWID, so a clear downward trend can be observed between 2000–09 with some signs of stabilisation in recent years. The HIV incidence study that was carried out from 2008 to 2010 indicated that the proportion of recently contracted HIV infections was higher among PWID compared to other transmission groups. According to the 2013 National report, in 2012 HIV prevalence among 464 tested primary opioid clients in outpatient treatment was 3 %.
The incidence of reported cases of hepatitis B virus (HBV) in 2012 was reported at 0.8 per 100 000 inhabitants (1.0 in 2011; 0.9 in 2010; 0.9 in 2009; 1.0 in 2008). The incidence of newly diagnosed cases of hepatitis C virus (HCV) in 2012 was reported at 6.1 per 100 000 inhabitants (6.1 in 2011; 6.5 in 2010; 6.6 in 2009; 7.5 in 2008). For HCV, a downward trend in incidence is observed. It is not possible to differentiate between acute and chronic HCV infections with the current reporting system. In 2012 injecting drug use was stated as the most probable route of transmission in 17 % of cases and thus represented the third most common mode of transmission for HBV. According to the 2013 National report, in 2012 HBV and HCV prevalence among tested opioid clients in outpatient treatment was 8 % and 51 % respectively.
In Germany, drug-induced deaths are registered by two country-wide documentation systems: the Police Register of the Federal Office of Criminal Investigation (Bundeskriminalamt/BKA) and the General Mortality Register of the Federal Statistical Office (Statistisches Bundesamt). Drug-induced deaths are recorded in the BKA register by the Criminal Police Offices in the individual Länders, while the BKA is responsible for data quality management and collection. The amount of data reported for each drug-induced death varies between Länders. Data from the General Mortality Register are available as drug-induced death standards. Data extraction and reporting is in line with the EMCDDA definitions and recommendations.
The most recent data according to the national definition (BKA) show that in 2012 a total of 944 people died because of the use of illicit drugs, which indicates a reduction in comparison with previous years, and is the lowest number of drug-induced deaths recorded since 1988. The mean age of the deceased was 37 years, and the majority of victims were male. Opioids alone or in combination with other substances were involved in 616 drug-induced death cases. Of these cases, heroin alone was linked to 177 cases, while in 250 drug-induced deaths heroin in combination with other substances was been reported. According to the General Mortality Register, there were 1 076 drug-induced deaths in 2011 and this source also confirms the declining trend in drug-induced deaths.
The drug-induced mortality rate among adults (aged 15–64) was 16.8 deaths per million in Germany in 2012, similar to the European average of 17.1 deaths per million.
In Germany, responsibility for the implementation of drug treatment falls to the federal Länder and municipalities. Available treatment ranges from low-threshold contacts and counselling services to intensive treatment and therapy in specialised inpatient facilities, with a large offer of opioid substitution treatment (OST) and the availability of long-term rehabilitative treatment and social reintegration options. Special guidelines are available for the treatment of opioid addiction and psychological and behavioural problems related to the use of cannabis, cocaine, amphetamines, ecstasy and hallucinogens. Funding for treatment is provided by many actors: the Länder, pension and health insurance bodies, municipalities, communities, charities, private institutions and companies.
There are approximately 1 300 outpatient psycho-social counselling centres, 300 psychiatric clinics, 320 psychiatric outpatient institutes, 800 facilities for integrated support, 500 all-day outpatient and 320 inpatient therapy facilities. In 2012 a total of 2 731 licensed doctors reported provision of OST.
Most drug treatment takes place in centres and institutions that deal with addiction in general, although there are also treatment units for illicit drug users only. Treatment is offered by the primary healthcare system, mainly in the field of OST, and drug dependence problems are treated by outpatient counselling centres, which provide psychosocial care and psychotherapy. While these centres traditionally provide psychosocial treatment, all forms of treatment are now offered through the centres themselves or in collaboration with general practitioners specifically qualified in addiction medicine. Psychiatric facilities for addiction represent the second major pillar of drug addiction treatment in Germany. A wide range of services are provided in inpatient, outpatient and day-care facilities, including low-threshold, qualified detoxification treatment, crisis interventions, a complex treatment of comorbidity and planning of reintegration. Detoxification can also be administrated in therapeutic communities. In the integration and after-care phase, a varied range of services relating to employment, housing and reintegration into society are provided
Methadone was introduced as a substitute in 1992, and the majority of clients in maintenance treatment are on methadone. Buprenorphine, which was introduced in 2000, is also used in substitution treatment in Germany. A model project on heroin-assisted treatment started in 2003 and was evaluated in 2006. In 2009 and 2010 legal provisions were passed to make the treatment a part of routine practice.
Since 2002 information on substitution treatment has been recorded by the substitution register, to avoid double prescriptions of substitution drugs and to monitor the implementation of specific quality standards in therapy. As of 1 July 2012 there were 75 400 clients in substitution treatment, of whom 59 264 were on methadone (or levomethadone) and 15 080 on buprenorphine. Codeine, dihydrocodeine and diamorphine are also occasionally used in substitution treatment (0.1 %, 0.2 % and 0.7 % of all clients in substitution treatment, respectively). Access to OST differs between Länder, with the eastern Länder contributing 3 % of the total number clients and 5 % of the total number of registered physicians providing OST. Offers of OST outside larger cities are considered insufficient by experts and by people eligible for the treatment.
View ‘Treatment profile’ for additional information.
Harm reduction is one of the four pillars of the German national drug strategy. The major aim of harm reduction is to reduce mortality and morbidity. During the last few decades, a system of low-threshold measures has been constructed that has an important function, in particular, in the drug scenes of cities.
Needle and syringe exchange programmes have existed nationwide since 1984, and according to a recent survey Germany has the highest number of needle and syringe vending machines in the world — around 167 vending machines are installed in 10 of its 16 Länder. One needle and syringe programme is available in prison. However, data on the number syringes distributed are not available for the country as a whole. There are also drug help centres, which serve as a contact point for drug users and give support in emergency cases by offering psychosocial and medical help; many also offer outreach services. The latest reviews of safer-use initiatives across the country found that more than a quarter of rural and urban districts have at least one syringe distribution offer (a vending machine or other facility). Drug consumption rooms can be opened if the government of the Länder passes a special regulation on the basis of a national law. This was done by six of 16 Länder, and currently there are 23 stationary drug consumption rooms in Germany and a drug consumption vehicle operates in Berlin.
There are about 300 low-threshold services and counselling facilities, which are, for the most part, funded by public funds.
In terms of drug trafficking, south-west Asia, mainly Afghanistan, remains the most important source of heroin traficked to Germany. Cocaine seized in Germany in 2012 mainly originated in South America and entered Germany via airmail or air couriers, or directly by sea. The Netherlands and, to a much smaller extent, the Czech Republic (especially for methamphetamine) are the main countries of origin for synthetic drugs such as amphetamine and its derivatives. Cannabis is extensively cultivated in Germany, and 809 cannabis plantations were seized in 2012. Morocco remains an important country of origin of other for cannabis products seized in Germany.
Cannabis remains the most frequently seized substance in Germany, while number of seizures and quantities seized experience large annual variations. In 2012 the quantity of seized cannabis resin and herb increased when compared with 2011, while the number of cannabis plants seized was the lowest since 2006 (97 829 plants in 2012). The quantity of heroin seized continued to decline in 2012 (242 kg seized in 2012; 498 kg in 2011; 474 kg in 2010; 758 kg in 2009). In 2012 some reduction in the stimulants market was noted when compared to the previous year, apart from methamphetamine. A total of 1 258 kg of cocaine were seized, which was the lowest amount since 2009. The quantity seized for ecstasy and amphetamine also decreased in 2012, when compared to 2011 (for ecstasy: 484 992 in 2011 to 313 179 tablets in 2012; and for amphetamines: 1 368 kg in 2011 to 1 121 kg in 2012). However, the total amount of methamphetamine seized tripled in comparison to 2010 (26.8 kg in 2010; 40 kg in 2011; 75 kg in 2012).
In 2012 some 24 illegal laboratories producing amphetamine and methamphetamine, MDMA and GHB were uncovered. However, all except one site were fairly small and were intended to meet their operator’s personal demand.
In 2012 a total of 237 150 drug-law offences were reported, which is a slight increase on 2010–11. Almost two-thirds of the offences were related to cannabis, followed by amphetamine. Around 73 % of all drug-law offences were use-related offences committed against the Narcotic Act (unauthorised possession, purchase and distribution of narcotic substances).
The German Federal Narcotics Act defines schedules of narcotic substances, the framework and procedure for legal turnover and prescription of narcotics, criminal and administrative liability; and alternative measures for drug-addicted offenders. Unauthorised possession of drugs is a criminal offence, but there are various possibilities within the law to refrain from prosecution if only small quantities of narcotic drugs for personal use are involved. Important criteria for such a decision are the amount and type of drugs, involvement of others, personal history and public interest in prosecution. Most of the Länder have defined values for ‘small amounts’ of cannabis, and a few have established such values for heroin, cocaine, amphetamine and ecstasy; for methamphetamine a federal ruling limits the ‘non-small’ amount to 5 g of the active substance. When a sentence is given, the principle of ‘treatment instead of punishment’ still — under certain circumstances — allows a postponement or remission of the punishment if the offender undergoes treatment instead.
The illicit supply, cultivation and manufacture of narcotic drugs carry penalties of up to five years’ imprisonment. This rises to 15 years under aggravating circumstances, which include: ‘not insignificant’ quantities of narcotic drugs; an adult supplying narcotics to a person under the age of 18; a person trafficking narcotics ‘professionally’ or as a member of a gang; or carrying a weapon when committing a serious drug-related offence.
Notable changes since 1981 include the legal bases for ‘therapy instead of punishment’ (1981), opioid substitution treatment and distribution of sterile disposable syringes (1992), the prerequisites for the establishment of drug injecting rooms at the discretion of the Länder (2000) and diamorphine-assisted substitution treatment (2009). The Act on diamorphine-assisted substitution therapy entered into force on 21 June 2009, and stipulates that diamorphine (pharmaceutically produced heroin) is eligible for prescription — on very narrow criteria — as a narcotic drug for heavily dependent opioid addicts. In 2010 additional legal provisions were passed to regulate the availability of the therapy through statutory health insurance and to promote appropriate training among medical professionals.
In 2011 cannabis was transferred from Schedule I to Schedule III of the Narcotic Act, which for the first time enabled cannabis-containing proprietary medicinal products to be manufactured and prescribed, after clinical testing and licensing by the Federal Institute for Drugs and Medical Devices (BfArM). In 2012 further regulations to amend Schedules I to III of the Narcotic Act were passed by the Bundesrat in order to include some new psychoactive substances. The maximum amounts of narcotic substances that can be prescribed were altered (e.g. methylphenidate) or stipulated for the first time (e.g. cannabis extract, dexamphetamine and flunitrazepam).
The German Federal Narcotics Act is also applied to control new psychoactive substances.
View the European Legal Database on Drugs for additional information.
In March 2010 the Drug Commissioner of the Federal Government called for the development of a new federal drug strategy. As a result, the National Strategy on Drug and Addiction Policy was adopted on 15 February 2012 by the Federal Cabinet. The Strategy’s primary aim is to help individuals to avoid and reduce their consumption of licit (alcohol, tobacco and psychotropic pharmaceuticals) and illicit addictive substances and related addictive behaviours (such as pathological gambling). The overall goals of the strategy are reflected in its four levels: (i) prevention; (ii) counselling and treatment, help in overcoming addiction; (iii) harm reduction measures; and (iv) repression.
The comprehensive scope of the strategy, which focuses on addictive substances and behaviours, can be seen in its six areas of focus: (i) alcohol; (ii) tobacco; (iii) prescription drug addiction and prescription drug abuse; (iv) pathological gambling; (v) online/media addiction; and (vi) illegal drugs. Each of the six areas contains a set of goals and measures to deliver the strategy.
View ‘National drug strategies’ for additional information.
The Federal Drug Commissioner is responsible for coordinating the drug and addiction policy of the whole federal government and is located within the Federal Ministry for Health (BMG).
The Drugs and Addiction Council is an advisory body that accompanies the federal actions and partly evaluates them. It is composed of representatives of the respective government and Länder departments as well as funding organs, associations, research and self-help organisations.
The Länder and the local authorities are to a large extent responsible for the implementation of the national policy on drugs, and some Länder may have a different list of priorities concerning some elements of the plan.
Coordination between the federal government and the Länder takes place in the conferences of government departments and their working groups.
In Germany the federal drug action plan — addressing both licit and illicit substances as well as other topics such as pathological gambling — does not have an associated budget, and even action plans at the level of the federal states are not always explicitly linked to budget lines. There is no systematic review of executed expenditure; nevertheless, various expenditures can be identified via public documents such as ministerial budgets or routine monitoring of the Federal Statistical Agency. In 2010, however, a study estimated the total drug-related public expenditure (1,2) for the year 2006.
In 2006 total drug-related expenditures ranged between 0.23 % and 0.26 % of gross domestic product (GDP). Expenditure on public order and safety represented more than 60 %, health and social protection less than 35 % and general coordination activities less than 1 % of the total.
The available information does not allow trends in drug-related public expenditure in Germany to be reported.
(1) Some of the funds allocated by governments for expenditure on tasks related to drugs are identified as such in the budget (‘labelled’). Often, however, the bulk of drug-related expenditure is not identified (‘unlabelled’) and must be estimated by modelling approaches. The total budget is the sum of labelled and unlabelled drug-related expenditures.
(2) S. Mostardt, S. Floeter, A. Neumann, J. Wasem and T. Pfeiffer-Gerschel (2010), ‘Schätzung der Ausgaben der öffentlichen Hand durch den Konsum illegaler Drogen in Deutschland’, Das Gesundheitswesen 73, pp. 886–894.
View ‘Public expenditure profile’ for additional information.
Research on drugs in Germany covers the entire range of basic and applied research. There are also several academic research centres that apply for funding in tendered projects or receive basic funding. The exchange of information in the research community is to a large extent organised by researchers themselves, networks and professional companies, and takes place primarily through research conferences and scientific journals addressing the drugs field, but clinical guidelines and transfer processes through which initiatives with a positive evaluation are implemented more widely are also used. Recent drug-related studies mentioned in the 2013 German National report mainly focused on aspects related to responses to the drug situation, prevalence incidence and patterns of drug use and consequences of drug use, but also covered the mechanisms of drug use and its effects, methodology issues and supply and markets.
View ‘Drug-related research’ for additional information.