Country overview: Czech Republic
- Drug use among the general population and young people
- Problem drug use
- Treatment demand
- Drug-related infectious diseases
- Drug-related deaths
- Treatment responses
- Harm reduction responses
- Drug markets and drug-law offences
- National drug laws
- National drug strategy
- Coordination mechanism in the field of drugs
- Public expenditure
- Drug-related research
|Year||EU (27 countries)||Source|
|Population||2012||10 505 445 p ||503 663 601 b p ||Eurostat|
|Population by age classes||15–24||2012||11.5 % p||11.7 % b p||Eurostat|
|25–49||37.2 % p||35.4 % b p|
|50–64||20.4 % p||19.5 % b p|
|GDP per capita in PPS (Purchasing Power Standards) 1||2011||80||100||Eurostat|
|Total expenditure on social protection (% of GDP) 2||2010||20.1 %||29.4 % p||Eurostat|
|Unemployment rate 3||2012||7.0 %||10.5 %||Eurostat|
|Unemployment rate of population aged under 25 years||2012||19.5 %||22.8 %||Eurostat|
|Prison population rate (per 100 000 of national population) 4||2011||220.9||:||Council of Europe, SPACE I-2011|
|At risk of poverty rate 5||2011||9.8 %||16.9 % e||SILC |
p Eurostat provisional value.
b Break in series.
1 Gross domestic product (GDP) is a measure of economic activity. It is defined as the value of all goods and services produced less the value of any goods or services used in their creation. The volume index of GDP per capita in Purchasing Power Standards (PPS) is expressed in relation to the European Union (EU-27) average set to equal 100. If the index of a country is higher than 100, this country's level of GDP per head is higher than the EU average and vice versa.
2 Expenditure on social protection contains: benefits, which consist of transfers, in cash or in kind to households and individuals to relieve them of the burden of a defined set of risks or needs.
3 Unemployment rates represent unemployed persons as a percentage of the labour force. Unemployed persons comprise persons aged 15 to 74 who were: (a) without work during the reference week; (b) currently available for work; (c) actively seeking work.
4 Situation of penal institutions on 1 September, 2011.
5 Share of persons aged 0+ with an equivalent disposable income below the at-risk-of-poverty threshold, which is set at 60 % of the national median equivalised disposable income (after social transfers).
In 2011 the national focal point of the Czech Republic implemented an omnibus study on the prevalence of drug use. A total of 1 028 respondents aged 15 and over were selected using a quote sampling, and 901adults aged 15–64 were included in the final sample size to calculate prevalence rates.
Cannabis continues to be the most frequently used illicit substance in the Czech Republic. Some 24.9 % of respondents indicated ever having used cannabis, while 8.9 % had used it in last 12 months and 3.1% in the last 30 days. Ecstasy was the second most frequently used drug, reported by 5.8 %, followed by amphetamine and LSD, both at 2.1 %. The highest prevalence rates were noted among respondents aged 15–24. About 22.4 % of respondents in this age group had used cannabis in the past 12 months, while 10.1 % had used it in the past 30 days. About 1.4 % of respondents indicated they had used new synthetic drugs in past, with the highest use of these substances reported by those aged 35–44. Although males reported more frequently than females ever using drugs, among those aged 15–24 the gender gap for the prevalence of cannabis use was narrower, and females reported more frequently than males ever having tried cocaine or amphetamines.
In comparison with other studies implemented since 2008, the results of this survey indicate that the level of illicit drug use among the general population in the Czech Republic is stable, with cannabis and ecstasy having the highest prevalence rates.
Results of European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs (ESPAD) surveys are available from 1995, with the most recent survey from 2011. Lifetime experience of an illicit drug other than marijuana/hashish among 15- to 16-year-olds increased from 4.3 % in 1995 to 9.0 % in 1999 and 11.2 % in 2003, and decreased to 8.0 % in 2011. In particular, marijuana (herbal cannabis) or hashish (cannabis resin) use is very prevalent among this age group. In 2011 some 42 % reported that they had tried these substances at least once. Lifetime use of inhalants was reported to be 8 %, hallucinogens (LSD) 5 % and ecstasy 3 %. A decline was noted for lifetime use of cannabis (45 % in 2007 to 42 % in 2011), amphetamines (from 5 % in 1999 to 2 % in 2011), and ecstasy (from 8 % in 2003 to 3 % in 2011). Last year prevalence of cannabis was 30 % and last month prevalence was 15 %, indicating a decline compared with 2003, when the highest rates were reported (36 % and 19 % respectively).
The most recent Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study among 15-year-old students, conducted in 2010, reported 31 % lifetime prevalence of cannabis. While there was a drop in lifetime prevalence rates between 2002 and 2006 (from 31 % to 25 %), an increase was observed between 2006 and 2010 (from 25 % to 31 %). Around one-fifth of the students had used cannabis in the past 12 months.
The Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports provides methodological guidance and coordinates prevention activities in the Czech Republic. The regions play an increasingly important role in these activities, and a Committee of Regional School Prevention Coordinators established by the Ministry ensures better coordination of prevention activities with the regions. A great deal of effort has been made in recent years to enhance the quality of primary prevention programmes by standardisation, certification and training, sharing experience and best practice. The Czech Republic has improved and unified the prevention funds that were dispersed over different ministries and has introduced Europe’s first accreditation system, under which funding is available only to certified programmes. A number of methodological documents setting the professional competency standards for providers of school-based primary prevention, along with their certification rules and on-site inspection guidelines, were updated in 2011. The certification of professionals is designed to improve the quality of delivery of prevention programmes, and to ensure that public funds are spent efficiently while avoiding obsolete approaches.
In 2011 the new ministerial guidelines on the prevention of risk behaviour in schools were issued. The guidelines describe the institutions and professionals involved in the system of prevention and their roles, defines the Minimum Preventive Programme, and recommends specific practices for schools and school facilities if they detect specific risk behaviour among children and young people. It addresses a broad range of social problems like truancy, bullying, racism, xenophobia, hooliganism, crime and the use of addictive substances.
The European Union Drug Abuse Prevention (EU-Dap) pilot project Unplugged, which targets 12- to 14-year-old children and their parents, was piloted in the Czech Republic between 2006–10 and its nationwide scale-up has been recommended following the results of evaluation.
Schools and non-governmental organisations (NGOs) can also receive project-based funding from subsidy proceedings at the national level. For example, in 2011 more than 100 prevention projects were supported nationwide, in addition to the programmes funded by regions.
A priority target audience for selective prevention activities is that of children and adolescents from ethnic minorities, while local projects addressing high-risk families, street children and children with attention and behavioural problems are also available.
Indicated prevention programmes are almost exclusively oriented towards working with individuals and their families.
A monitoring system gives an overview on existing prevention interventions in the country. Evaluation is mainly available in the area of universal prevention programmes.
View ‘Prevention profile’ for additional information.
The existing estimates on the number of problem drug users (1) in the Czech Republic were carried out between 1999 and 2011 using the multiplier method, based on data from low-threshold centres and outreach programmes. In 2011, the national estimate suggests that there were 40 200 problem drug users (95 % CI, 32 700–47 7000), which is higher than the estimate for 2008–10. An increase in the estimated number of methamphetamine (pervitin) users from 21 200 in 2008 to 30 900 in 2011 accounts for most of the growth. At the same time, the estimated number of opiate users has decreased when compared to 2009. The data suggests that in 2011 there were 9 300 opiate users, of which around 4 700 were heroin users and around 4 600 were Subutex® users. The number of injecting drug users (IDUs) was estimated at 38 600 in 2011 (95 % CI, 37 300–39 850) and is also increasing compared to 2007–10. Problem cocaine use remains sporadic in the Czech Republic.
Nationwide estimates of the number of problem drug users applying capture–recapture methodology are available for 2006 and 2007, while in 2011 this method was used to estimate population size of problem drug users in Prague.
Up to 2012 the EMCDDA defined problem drug use as injecting drug use (IDU) or long duration/regular drug use of opiates, cocaine and/or amphetamines. Ecstasy and cannabis were not included in this category. Details are available here.
(1) The Czech definition of ‘problem drug use’ is the use of drugs by injection and/or the regular or long-term use of opiates and methamphetamine. Problem cocaine use has not been included in estimates, due to a very low number of cocaine users in treatment or in contact with services in the Czech Republic. Ecstasy and cannabis are not included in these estimates by definition.
Data on treatment demand in the Czech Republic are available through two main sources. The Public Health Office in Prague operates the Treatment Demand Register, which provides limited information on the treatment provided by general practitioners, substitution treatment centres and in prisons; and the Institute of Health Information and Statistics collects data from inpatient and outpatient treatment facilities and also hosts the Substitution Treatment Register. The annex to the new Act on Health Services, which came into force in 2012, specifies the establishment of a National Drug Treatment Register, which will be launched for data collection in 2014.
In 2011 a total of 205 outpatient and inpatient treatment and low-threshold centres out of 273 treatment facilities contributed to the current Treatment Demand Register.
A total of 9 284 drug users entered treatment in 2011, of which 4 512 were first-time users of treatment. As in previous years, users of amphetamines (mainly methamphetamines) were the most commonly represented among all clients entering treatment at 65.2 %, and also among first-time treatment clients at 69.6 %. This was followed by opioids users, with 19.4 % of all treatment clients. For new treatment clients, the second most commonly reported substance was cannabis at 18.7 %. Injecting remains the primary mode of drug use among treatment clients, with two-thirds of all treatment clients and more than half of new treatment clients reporting that they inject their primary drug (mainly opioids or amphetamines).
In 2011 some 39 % of all clients entering treatment were under the age of 25. Among new treatment clients, 49 % were under 25. In 2011, the male to female ratio for all treatment clients was 2 to 1; or 68.6 % male and 31.4 % female. A similar distribution was found among new treatment clients. This gender distribution is consistent with the estimated gender structure of problem drug users in the Czech Republic.
The rate of infections (HIV-AIDS, hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus) among drug users has remained stable in recent years. Data are available from national registers and studies involving different drug user groups.
HIV seroprevalence rates among injecting drug users (IDUs) remained consistently below 1 % between 1996 and 2011 (0.3– 0.9 % in 2011). The number of newly diagnosed HIV cases among the general population is relatively low and has remained stable. In 2010 the number of new HIV cases reported increased to 180, while in 2011 the number fell back to levels for 2008–09. A total of 153 new HIV cases were diagnosed in 2011, nine of which were reported as related to injecting drug use.
The number of newly reported cases of acute hepatitis B virus (HBV) has declined in recent years. In 2011 almost a third of all newly reported HBV cases with a known transmission route were registered among IDUs and the proportion has remained stable over recent years.
In 2011 two-thirds of newly reported hepatitis C virus (HCV) cases with a known transmission route were registered among IDUs, a similar figure to 2010 data. The available data also indicate a significant decline in the number of new HCV cases with a known transmission route registered among IDUs between 2006 and 2011 from 711 to 506 cases respectively. The HCV prevalence in the population of IDUs has been relatively stable, and in diagnostic testing of clients in low-threshold services ranged from 16.0 % in 2006 to 22.4 % in 2009. In 2010 the rate dropped to 13.6 % among clients of low-threshold services, but in 2011 it increased again, to 18.2 %. However, it is possible that the data from diagnostic testing may underestimate the HCV infection rates among IDUs. The data from the Treatment Demand Register suggest that about one-third of IDUs in contact with treatment system are HCV positive, with some indication of a declining trend since 2005, which corroborates with data on new HCV cases. The prevalence rates of HIV, HCV and HBV in general are higher among clients of opioid substitution treatment programmes and prisoners.
An automated system for collecting drug mortality data, which covers 13 departments of forensic medicine and forensic toxicology, provides information on overdoses due to narcotic and psychotropic substances to the Czech national focal point. According to the drug-related deaths standard (deaths caused by an acute intoxication of drugs) for special registries, 28 deaths were recorded in 2011, which is the lowest number since 2005. All death cases were confirmed by toxicology. In 2011, opiates (heroin, codeine, methadone, buprenorphine and opium) alone or in combination with other psychoactive substance were detected in 6 deaths, while methamphetamine was found to be a principal drug in 16 deaths. In 2011 the number of death cases attributed to inhalant use also dramatically fell when compared to 2009–10 data (8 in 2009; 16 in 2010; 4 in 2011). Some 82.1 % of all drug-related deaths were in males.
For the Czech Republic, the EMCDDA selection D was used instead of the national definition. The national definition includes poisoning by psychoactive medicines, which accounts for the majority of cases (162 of 190 in 2011).
The Council of the Government for Drug Policy Coordination is the main coordinating and initiating body on drug-related issues. The Secretariat of the Council organises the distribution of subsidies for the treatment of drug addiction and reintegration to service providers (mainly NGOs). The Secretariat is also responsible for the accreditation, monitoring, evaluation and coordination of drug treatments at medical and inpatient facilities at the regional/local levels.
Drug treatment, such as psychiatric clinics, specialised substance abuse facilities, detoxification units or specially allocated beds in general hospitals, is primarily delivered by public organisations, and also by NGOs. It is also delivered, to a lesser extent, by private institutions and office-based medical doctors, which provide three main treatment services: detoxification, outpatient care and institutional care. Inpatient services are divided into short-term (four to eight weeks), medium-term (three to six months) and long-term (seven or more months) services. NGOs mainly provide outpatient care and substitution treatment, and some of these programmes are accredited as healthcare facilities, although 14 NGO-based therapeutic communities also provide long-term residential care for drug addicts. Substitution maintenance treatment and outpatient and inpatient medical drug treatment are mainly financed through health insurance, whereas outpatient and inpatient psychosocial treatment is primarily funded by the public budget at national and regional/local levels. Some transformation of the addiction-related health services is in progress so that different outpatient and inpatient addiction care services will be eligible for health insurance reimbursements, and experts are continuing to work on clear definitions for addiction care interventions based on the main functions of each service.
In 2011 five substitution agents were available: methadone, three buprenorphine medications and a composite sublingual preparation that contains buprenorphine and naloxone. There were 109 registered substitution treatment facilities in 2011, of which 11 were registered in prisons. However, only 55 registered facilities reported administrating opioid substitution treatment in 2011. Furthermore, any medical doctor, regardless of his/her specialism, may initiate high-dosage buprenorphine as well as Suboxone treatment. According to newly implemented aggregated reports, 357 general practitioners and 67 outpatient psychiatric facilities provided substitution treatment for approximately 4 092 opiate addicts in 2011. Only 2 290 clients were reported in the substitution register, of which 667 were on methadone and 1 623 on buprenorphine. Since there is an overlap between the two sources it is estimated that in total 5 200 clients received opioid substitution treatment, of which about 4 200 received buprenorphine-based medication and 700 methadone.
View ‘Treatment profile’ for additional information.
The National Drug Policy Strategy for 2010–18 endorses harm reduction as one of its four pillars, and defines the following priority areas: (i) development of new interventions; (ii) increase in the uptake of testing among injecting drug users; and (iii) definition of harm reduction guidelines for nightlife settings.
The Czech network of low-threshold facilities, established since 1992, includes low-threshold centres (drop-in) and outreach programmes providing needle exchange. There were 99 needle and syringe programmes in 2012. There are also two needle vending machines operating in the Czech Republic. Programmes operate in all regions, providing a wide range of services: clean needles and syringes, condoms, voluntary counselling and testing on infectious diseases, risk-reduction information, aluminium foil for heroin smoking, gelatine capsules for per-oral use of stimulants and other services. The number of drug users in contact with these services is constantly growing, and it is estimated that in 2011 these centres had reached about 35 500 drug users, mainly those who inject drugs and use methamphetamine. The number of syringes distributed has been increasing over recent years: in 2011 nearly 5.4 million syringes were distributed through needle and syringe programmes in the Czech Republic, representing a threefold increase compared to 2003. The main sources of sterile injecting material are exchange programmes (drop-ins and outreach work) and pharmacy syringe sales. Taking into account the high proportion of pervitin users among problem drug users, 42 programmes also distribute gelatine capsules as an oral alternative to the injecting of pervitin. Around 70 000 capsules were distributed in 2011.
Cannabis continues to be the most frequently trafficked drug, and domestic production of marijuana with high tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) content has been on the increase. It is grown in artificial conditions and, with increasing frequency, on a large scale and also for export, predominantly to Germany. A record quantity of 441 kg of marijuana was seized by the Czech law enforcement agencies in 2011 (278 kg in 2010; 172 kg in 2009; 393 kg in 2008). In addition, a total of 165 cannabis cultivation sites were dismantled. The number of cannabis plants seized, following an increase between 2009 and 2010, remained fairly stable in 2011 (64 904 plants in 2010 and 62 817 plants in 2011).
In 2011, methamphetamine (pervitin) was involved in 304 seizures. It is primarily produced for the domestic market, but police data indicate that small amounts are also exported. The quantity of pervitin seized increased from around 4 kg in 2008–09 to a record amount of 21 kg in 2010, with 20 kg seized in 2011. Restrictions in the sale of pseudoephedrine-containing medication were introduced in 2009, which was followed by a significant rise in the illegal import of such medication from neighbouring countries. In 2011 most illegally imported medicines came from Poland, Germany and Slovakia. Production of pervitin predominantly takes place in home-based laboratories, which allows them to be easily relocation to avoid detection. In 2011 the number of pervitin laboratories detected increased to 388 after a small decline to 307 in 2010 (342 in 2009; 434 in 2008).
Heroin reaches the Czech Republic mainly through the Balkan route. In 2011 the number of heroin seizures halved in comparison with 2010 (34 in 2011; 61 in 2010), and was the lowest number since 2002. The drop in heroin seizures was accompanied by a sharp decline in the quantity of heroin seized, which was down to 5 kg in 2011, while for the period 2006–10 the quantity of heroin seized ranged between 20–50 kg per year. In 2011, for the first time in 20 years, the police detected three laboratories used to produce a homemade opiate called ‘braun’.
There was an increase in cocaine seizures compared with the previous year — in 2011 there were 44 seizures totalling 16 kg. Cocaine mostly entered the Czech Republic through Italy, Romania, Spain and Austria, by couriers or in postal consignments. Ecstasy is not produced domestically, and is mainly imported from the Netherlands, Poland and Slovakia. Although the number of ecstasy seizures was the same as in previous years, in 2011 the number of ecstasy tablets seized increased to 13 000, from 865 tablets reported seized in 2010.
In 2011, a total of 5 003 drug-law offences were reported, including criminal offences and misdemeanours. Around 54.5 % of criminal offence reports were related to methamphetamine, followed by 38.7 % for cannabis and 2.2 % for heroin. Supply-related offences exceeded those related to use. Data from 2004–11 show that the proportion of use-related offences (both criminal offences and misdemeanours) is increasing, from 30 % in 2004 to 34 % in 2011.
The Criminal Code and the Criminal Procedure Code are the major acts concerning drug-related offences. These acts regulate several aspects of drug-related offences, such as drug trafficking, unauthorised possession of drugs, conditions of prosecution, diversion of prosecution, types of penalties, etc. Licit handling of narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances and precursors is subject to regulation according to the Addictive Substances Act (Act No 167/1998).
Drug use is not regarded as a criminal offence in the Czech Republic. A new criminal code has been effective since 2010 (Act No 40/2009), although it did not change the legal definitions of drug offences and possession of drugs or psychotropic substances in anything more than small quantities, unauthorised production, handling, cultivation and manufacturing of drugs and psychotropic substances, and the promotion of drug use, all of which are considered drug-law offences in the Czech Republic. The new criminal code set out a distinction between cannabis and other drugs for personal possession offences, whereby a cannabis offence would attract a sentence of up to one year, but for other substances sentence of up to two years’ imprisonment were possible (or one to five years in cases with aggravating circumstances). The new code also provided for two governmental regulations fixing threshold quantities with which to determine whether an offence was administrative or criminal — these had previously been set in non-binding prosecutor and police directives. In 2011 the two regulations were updated, specifying the thresholds for substances for which these limits were not previously determined.
Penalties for drug trafficking between 10–18 years of imprisonment, depending on aggravating circumstances. In the case of addicts committing a drug-related crime, a range of alternatives to imprisonment is available to the court (e.g. suspended sentences, community service and probation with treatment). Security detention with compulsory treatment is a possible response to addicts who are deemed to be socially dangerous, and is also an option for juvenile delinquents.
In 2009 a new category of medicines was created to restrict sales of non-prescription medicines, such as those containing pseudoephedrine (a precursor for producing methamphetamine).
Thirty-three new psychoactive substances or pharmacological agents were put under control in 2011 when the Act on Addictive Substances was amended.
View ‘Legal profile’ for additional information.
In May 2010 the National Drug Policy Strategy for 2010–18 was approved. The strategy is comprehensive and is based on four pillars: prevention; treatment and re-socialisation; risk reduction; and supply reduction. It is complemented by three supporting domains: coordination and funding; monitoring, research and evaluation; and international cooperation. Focusing mainly on illegal drugs, but with some scope to address other drugs (alcohol, prescription drug misuse), the strategy defines four key objectives: (i) to reduce the level of experimental and occasional drug use, particularly among young people; (ii) to reduce the level of problem and intensive drug use; (iii) to reduce potential drug-related risks to individuals and society; and (iv) to reduce drug availability, particularly to young people. The implementation of the strategy is supported by a series of consecutive three-year action plans, the first of which covered the period 2010–12.
View ‘National drug strategies’ for additional information.
The Government Council for Drug Policy Coordination is responsible at the political level for the overall implementation of the national drug strategy. It is the main initiating, counselling and coordinating body of the government for drug issues. Presided over by the Prime Minister, the Council includes all ministries involved in the delivery of the national drug policy and three representatives of civil society and respective regions (the Association for Addictive Diseases of the Czech Medical Association; an association of NGOs dealing with drug prevention and treatment; and the Association of the Regions). In addition, its Secretariat ensures the day-to-day implementation of the strategy and the coordination of the respective ministries’ activities. The Secretariat is part of the Office of the Government of the Czech Republic and also includes the Czech National Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (Czech national focal point), which is responsible for the collection, analysis and distribution of drug-related data.
A network of 14 regional coordinators manages drug-related activities (including the implementation of the national drug policy) at the regional and local levels. However, their competencies vary from region to region. Each region also draws up and implements their own strategies and plans on drug-related measures, and the extent of such plans and strategies also varies between regions. At the local level, drug coordinators have been installed in 205 municipalities (so-called ‘municipalities with extended competency’).
Since 2002 the government has presented annual drug-related budgets, announcing planned labelled expenditures. (1) (2) It also provides an estimate of the money that has been spent. Estimates are based on a well-defined methodology, but data completeness has changed over time. Between 2007 and 2010, unlabelled expenditures were also estimated, applying a comparable methodology. (3)
In 2010, the total public expenditures represented 0.06 % of GDP. About 72.0 % of these were unlabelled expenditures, of which about 71.6 % were for supply reduction activities and the remaining for demand reduction (inpatient healthcare and medication received the largest shares). Labelled expenditures, which represented about 28.0 % of total expenditure, were distributed differently: 76.2 % went to demand reduction and 23.8 % to supply reduction activities.
Trend analyses based on labelled expenditures over the 2005–11 period show that these expenditures have remained stable in terms of the percentage of GDP (ranging between 0.015 % and 0.017 % of GDP), but grew in nominal values. In 2009 and 2011 expenditure declined, probably due to the public austerity measures associated with the 2008 economic recession.
(1) This budget is not directly linked to national policy documents.
(2) Some of the funds allocated by governments for expenditure on tasks related to drugs are identified as such in the budget (‘labelled’). Often, however, the bulk of drug-related expenditure is not identified (‘unlabelled’) and must be estimated by modelling approaches. The total budget is the sum of labelled and unlabelled drug-related expenditures.
(3) J. Vopravil and C. Rossi (2013) ‘Illicit drug market and its economic impact’, Universitalia, Universitá di Roma, Roma, February 2013.
View ‘Public expenditure profile’ for additional information.
The current national drug strategy emphasises the role of research, evidence and evaluation of the measures taken in the drug policy field in the Czech Republic. The support of research in the field of drugs is mentioned explicitly as one of the tasks of the 2013–15 action plan. The evidence-based approach is currently applied in the certification process of addiction services and in the provision and development of services. Several public administration bodies and grant agencies fund research in the field of drugs, which is mainly conducted by academic centres. The National Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction coordinates the collaboration and exchange of information between research institutions, service providers and public administration bodies. It publishes an Annual report on the state of the drugs problem in the Czech Republic, which summarises available data about drug use and its consequences. National scientific journals are also an important dissemination channel for drug-related research findings. Recent drug-related studies mentioned in the 2012 Czech National report focused mainly on aspects related to the evaluation of interventions, prevalence and incidence of drug use; and the consequences of drug use and prevalence and incidence of drug use.
View ‘Drug-related research’ for additional information.