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Please note that the information on this page is based on the EMCDDA Annual report 2011: the state of the drugs problem in Europe. Most statistical data relate to the year 2009 (or the last year available).


Annual report 2011: the state of the drugs problem in Europe
New drugs and emerging trends

Published: 15 November 2011

Follow-up on other substances

There is no routine monitoring in Europe of substances that have been risk-assessed, including those subsequently controlled. The available information on such substances comes mainly from drug seizures and from reports of adverse health effects of controlled substances reported to the early-warning system. A number of Member States report that the piperazines BZP and mCPP were still available in 2009 and 2010. mCPP was often found in tablets sold as ecstasy, identified by pill-testing programmes, for example in the Netherlands. Also in 2010, Finland reported the presence of MDPV (1) in 13 post mortem toxicology samples, while the reappearance of two phenethylamines, PMA and PMMA (2), was reported by three countries. In the Netherlands, powders sold as amphetamine were found to contain up to 10 % PMA, and tablets sold as ecstasy had a high content of PMMA; in Norway, a considerable amount of PMMA was seized; and in Austria, a mixture sold as amphetamine contained 50 % PMMA. All countries reported health incidents and fatalities related to PMA and PMMA, two substances that are known to have considerable toxicity and that have been responsible for fatal overdoses in the past.


(1) 3,4-Methylenedioxypyrovalerone, a derivative of pyrovalerone, which is controlled under Schedule IV of the 1971 UN Convention.

(2) PMA (para-methoxyamphetamine) is listed in Schedule I of the 1971 UN Convention since 1986 and PMMA (para-methoxymethylamphetamine) is controlled at EU level since 2002; see EMCDDA (2003).

About the EMCDDA

The European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA) is the reference point on drugs and drug addiction information in Europe. Inaugurated in Lisbon in 1995, it is one of the EU's decentralised agencies. Read more >>

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Page last updated: Friday, 28 October 2011