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Published: 15 November 2011

Table 10: International comparison of estimates of problem opioid users and numbers of clients in opioid substitution treatment
  Problem opioid users Clients in opioid substitution treatment

(1) Since few countries report the retail price and the purity of heroin hydrochloride (‘white’), the data are not presented here. They can be consulted in Tables PPP-2 and PPP-6 in the 2011 statistical bulletin.
(2) Range of the middle half of the reported data. 

Year: 2009, except for Canada (reference year is 2003).

Arfken, C.L., Johanson, C.E., di Menza, S. and Schuster, C.R. (2010), 'Expanding treatment capacity for opioid dependence with office-based treatment with buprenorphine: National surveys of physicians', Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment 39(2), pp. 96-104.
Chalmers, J., Ritter, A., Heffernan, M. and McDonnell, G. (2009), Modelling pharmacotherapy maintenance in Australia: exploring affordability, availability, accessibility and quality using system dynamics, Australian National Council on Drugs research paper (available online).
Popova, S., Rehm, J. and Fischer, B. (2006), 'An overview of illegal opioid use and health services utilization in Canada', Public Health 120(4), pp. 320–8.
UNODC (2010), World drug report 2010, United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, Vienna.
Yin, W., Hao, Y., Sun, X., Gong, X., Li, F., Li, J., Rou, K., Sullivan, S. G., Wang, C., Cao, X., Luo, W. and Wu, Z. (2010), 'Scaling up the national methadone maintenance treatment program in China: achievements and challenges', International Journal of Epidemiology 39, Suppl 2, pp. ii29–37..

European Union and Norway 1 300 000 695 000
Australia 90 000 43 000
Canada 80 000 22 000
China 2 500 000 242 000
Russia 1 600 000 0
USA 1 200 000 660 000


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