Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory — ZTPI
|Author/Developer / Address:|
|Publication dates:||Original version by Zimbardo, P.G. & Boyd, J.N. (1999). Putting time in perspective: A valid, reliable individual differences metric. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 77, 1271-1288.|
|Description / Type of assessment:||Self-reported test made up of 56 items in the form of statements. For each question, the respondent has to answer choosing the most appropriate of the five available options for level of agreement.|
|Primary use / Purpose:||The test can be individually or collectively administrated, so it can be considered as a screening instrument as well as diagnostic. It investigates how people project themselves in the time, according to their orientation (to past, present and future) and attitudes (positive, negative, fatalistic or hedonistic).|
|Domains measured / Life Areas / Problems Assessed:||The test investigates orientation towards past-negative, past-positive, present-fatalistic, present-hedonistic and future time perspectives independently. It has been used in various field of research and applications, such as academic achievement, risk-taking, drug use, subjective well-being, quality of life, illness, social relations, burnout, health preventive behaviors, post traumatic stress disorders (PTSD), clinical settings, health communications.|
|Population:||Elders, adults, young adults, adolescents.|
|Administration / Completion time:||About 20 minutes|
|Scoring time:||5 minutes|
|Credentials/Training:||As a self-reported questionnaire it is not necessary a special training for administration.|
|Languages:||English, French, Italian, German, Swedish, Flemish, Dutch, Portuguese, Spanish, Russian, Croatian, Greek, Lithuanian, Polish, Turkish, Dutch.|
The ZTPI is a public domain research instrument and may be used free of charge for not-for-profit applications, but not for commercial use.
|Practicability / usefulness:||As the test is easy to understand and fill in, it can be used for research among the student population or in large population surveys. The ZTPI can be also included in other questionnaires and a shorter form is available on request to Dr. Nicolas Fieulaine. References to studies on time perspective as measured by ZTPI as a predictor of substance use and abuse, and of numerous other risky or health behaviors, please see below.|
- Apostolidis, T., Fieulaine, N., Simonin, L., Rolland, G. (2006). Cannabis use, time perspective and risk perception: Evidence of a moderating effect. Psychology and Health, 21(5), 571-592.
- Boyd, J.N., & Zimbardo, P.G. (2005). Time Perspective, Health, and Risk Taking, in A. Strathman and J. Joireman (eds) Understanding Behavior in the Context of Time: Theory, Research, and Application (pp.85-107).
- Drake, L., Duncan, E., Abernethy, C., & Henry, C. (2008). Time Perspective and Correlates of Wellbeing. Time & Society, 17(1),46-61.
- Epel, E.S., Bandura, A., & Zimbardo, P.G. (1999). Escaping homelessness: The influences of self-efficacy and time perspective on coping with homelessness. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 29, 575596.
- Hamilton, J.M., Kives, K.D., Micevski, V., & Grace, S.L. (2003). Time perspective and health promoting behavior in a cardiac rehabilitation population. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 28,130139.
- Hensen, J.M., Carey, M.P., & Maisto, S.A. (2006). Associations Among Health Behaviors and Time Perspective in Young Adults: Model Testing with Boot-Strapping Replication. Journal of Behavioral Medecine, 29(2), 127–137.
- Hodgins, D., & Engel, A. (2002). Future Time Perspective in Pathological Gambling. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 190(11), 775-780.
- Keough, K.A., Zimbardo, P.G., & Boyd, J.N. (2001). Who’s smoking, drinking, and using drugs? Time perspective as a predictor of substance use. Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 29: 3164.
- Préau, M., Apostolidis, T., Francois, C., Raffi, F. & Spire, B. (2007). Time perspective and quality of life among HIV-infected patients in the context of HAART. AIDS Care, 19(4), 449-458.
- Robbins, R., & Bryan, A. (2004). Relationships between future orientation, impulsive sensation seeking, and the risk behavior of adjudicated adolescents. Journal of Adolescent Research, 19, 428-445.
- Zimbardo, P. G., Keough, K. A., & Boyd, J. N. (1997). Present time perspective as a predictor of risky driving. Personality and Individual Differences, 23,1007- 1023.