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European Drug Abuse Prevention Trial - Outcome

User information

This questionnaire has been designed for the evaluation of the DAP (Drug Abuse Prevention Trial), a multi-centre randomised controlled evaluation study of a school-based prevention programme. The programme is based on life-skills concepts and includes a strong element on normative beliefs. It is implemented in Belgium, Germany, Spain, Greece, Italy, Austria and Sweden. More information on the study, its design, protocol, participating centres and history at www.eudap.net/studyinstruments.html

The DAP questionnaire is a compilation of several items from other research and evaluation questionnaires, many of them from the Evaluation Instruments Bank.

The first sheet: code generation

For the protection of student data all the procedures of the data gathering, analysis and publication are protected by a rigorous anonymousness. To deal with this, the data from the questionnaire can be anonymous-linked as follows:

-         all the questionnaires are anonymous: they are identified by a self-generated code based on personal and parental data, not available to the researcher and usually not available to the schools, and on an algorithm unknown to the school;

-         the self-generated code is used to link data from baseline and follow-up questionnaires;

-         the names and addresses of participating students are collected because they are essential for the follow-up purposes. They are accurately kept by centres with due confidentiality;

-         all procedures of the study will be driven by the self-generated code. The linkage between the names of the list of participants and the codes of the questionnaires will never be performed.

The code is based on stable personal and parental data to allow identical code generation for any questionnaire filled in at any time. The code will be generated by participant at any questionnaire completion and for this reason the first sheet of all questionnaire contains instructions to generate it. The common procedures for the completion of codes are the following:

-         the enquirer explain the principles of the self code generation;

-         the questionnaires are distributed to participants;

-         the participants fill in the personal code under the surveillance of the inquirer;

-         the enquirer invite the participants to tear off the frontal sheet of the questionnaire and to deliver it to enquirer;

-         the enquirer ensure that al the frontal sheet has been collected and then can destroy them.

Content of the questionnaire

The prevalence of initial and regular use before and after the interventions represents the study outcome. Theoretically, the comparison before-after is not essential because of the homogeneity of the randomised populations, but, because of the allocation process is done at a group level, it could be useful to estimate the size of the changes within groups.

For this reason a pre-test evaluation was done to measure the main confounding factors and to test the success of the randomisation. A self-completed questionnaire was distributed during the first month of the scholar year 2003-2004 to evaluate the use of the substances under study and to collect socio-demographic and other data.

The main sections of the questionnaire are:

-         Social environment;

-         Own substance use;

-         Knowledge & opinions about substances

-         Substance use in the nearest environment;

-         Family and social environment;

-         School environment and school climate

-         Problems and skills

With the aim to include already validated questions in the questionnaire, many questions have been taken from the EMCDDA evaluation instruments bank data bank (http://eib.emcdda.europa.eu/). The complete list of the sources of the questionnaire is shown in following table.

Question #







HBSC 1986, 1990, 1994, 1998 REVISED (modified)


EMCDDA (1) (modified)


ESPAD 03 (modified)


HBSC 1986, 1990, 1994,1998 (C15) (modified)


EMCDDA (11) (modified)


HBSC 1986, 1990,1994,1998 (C17-C19) (modified)


ESPAD 1995 (modified)


EMCDDA (11) (modified)


ESPAD 03 (modified)


ESPAD 03 (modified)


ESPAD 03 (modified)


ESPAD 2003 (modified)


EMCDDA (11) (modified)


EMCDDA (10) (modified)


EMCDDA (8) (modified)


First two statements:  Rating (Swedish cohort, the BROMS study – Galanti et al. 2001). The others have been "created" ad hoc for this study, and they have undergone translation, back-translation and peer review, but have not been field-tested


Created ad hoc for this study, with the process described above.


ESPAD 03 qu34


HBSC/Control of Adolescent Smoking (EC Biomed Programme project) 1998


HBSC 1998 Canadian national questionnaire (modified)


ESPAD 03 qu39






ESPAD 03 (A1) (modified)


ESPAD 03 (A1) d


HBSC 1986, 1990, 1994, 1998 (C10), the original HSBC question has been modified, as were the response alternatives


New Item


HBSC 1986, 1990, 1994, 1998 (C11)


HBSC 1994, 1998 (F10-F12) REVISED


ESPAD 03 qu37 (modified)




Created ad hoc for this study, with the process described above.






Fit 5-6 Stell dir vor. (Germany)



ESPAD (European School Surveys Project) (2001), Alcohol and other drug use    among students in 30 European countries (B. Hibbell, B. Andersson, S. Ahlström, O. Balakireva, et al., the Swedish Council for Information on Alcohol and Other Drugs (CAN), the Pompidou Group of the Council of Europe, December 2000).

HBSC: Health Behaviour in school-aged Children: a World Health     Organization cross-nations study. Edinburgh, Child and Adolescent Health Research Unit, University of Edinburgh, 2002 (Http://www.hbsc.org)

Galanti MR, Rosendahl I, Post A, Gilljam H. Early gender specific patterns of tobacco use: the experience of a Swedish cohort. Scand J Publ Health 2001; 29(4):314-317



Page last updated: Thursday, 20 November 2008