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Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (SES)

User Information



Author/Developer :

Morris Rosenberg, Ph.D. (deceased) Rosenberg, M. (1965). Society and The Adolescent Self-Image. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press.

For questions about the norwegian version please contact Anthony Slater

Publication dates:


Description / Type of Assessment:

The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale is a 10-item self-report measure of global self-esteem. It consists of 10 statements related to overall feelings of self-worth or self-acceptance. The items are answered on a four-point scale ranging from strongly agree to strongly disagree. The SES has also been administered as an interview.

Primary use / Purpose:

The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale was originally developed to assess self-esteem among adolescents.

Domains measured / Life Areas / Problems Assessed:

Global and unidimensional Self-Esteem.


Adolescents and adults. Clinical and general populations.

Administration / Completion Time:

SES can be completed in less than 5 minutes.

Scoring Procedures:

Scoring: Sum the ratings assigned to all the items after reverse scoring the positively worded items. Scores range from 10 to 40, with higher scores indicating higher self-esteem.

Scoring Time:

One minute.


Not necessary.

Source of Psychometrics:

See relevant study.


English, French and Norwegian

Availability / Inquiries:

The SES is in the public domain.


The SES is in the public domain.

Practicability / usefulness:

Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale is a brief and unidimensional measure of global self-esteem. The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale has demonstrated good reliability and validity across a large number of different sample groups. The SES has been validated for use with substance abusers and other clinical groups, and is regularly used in treatment outcome studies. The scale has been validated for use with both male and female adolescent, adult and elderly populations. It has been used with francophone populations but studies were not found on the use of the SES with other specific cultural groups.



Page last updated: Wednesday, 25 January 2006