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Drug Avoidance Self-Efficacy Scale (DASES)

User Information



Author/Developer :

Martin, G. W. (1992).
Vie role of self-efficacy in the prediction of treatment outcome for young, multiple drug users.
Unpublished doctoral dissertation,
University of Toronto, Toronto.
Garth Martin, Ph.D.
Addiction Research Foundation
Toronto, OntarioM5S 2S1 Canada

Publication dates:


Description / Type of Assessment:

DASES is a 16-item self-reported questionnaire.

For each of the 16 items, clients are asked to imagine themselves in a particular situation and to rate their level of confidence (self-efficacy) to resist drug use in that situation. Each of the scale items represents a different situation in which a drug abuser might be tempted to use drugs. Responses are rated on a 7-point scale ranging from "certainly yes" to "certainly no" which corresponds to a measure of "strength" of self-efficacy.

Primary use / Purpose:

The DASES was developed to assess a client's self-efficacy (self-efficacy refers to confidence in the ability to successfully cope with risk situations without using drugs).

Domains measured / Life Areas / Problems Assessed:



Young multiple drug users (16-30).

Administration / Completion Time:

Not reported.

Scoring Procedures:

Each item is scored on a 1-7 scale. Some items are recoded prior to scoring. The total score is obtained by summing across the 16 items.

Scoring Time:

Not reported.


Not specified.

Source of Psychometrics:

Addiction Research Foundation.



Availability / Inquiries:

Garth martin, Ph.D.
Addiction Research Foundation.
33 Russell Street,
M5S 2S1


The DASES can be used without charge.

Practicability / usefulness:

The DASES is a relative brief and easy to use measure of self-efficacy. The DASES is useful as an outcome measure because it has demonstrated predictive validity; that is, scores on the scale have been shown to predict subsequent drug use behavior. It provides a measure of treatment progress with regard to coping with risk situations. There is evidence supporting the reliability and validity of the scale, although its use has been restricted to young multiple drug users (aged 16-30).

Relevant Studies
Evidence of psychometric properties of the DASES
Evidence of psychometric properties of the DASES was obtained only in a controlled study. Another limitation of this evidence is that the 16-item of the DASES were embedded within a larger, 55-item scale.

Good internal consistency has been reported for the scale. Self-efficacy scores at assessment were significantly correlated with two measures of drug use severity and a measure of peer support. Self-efficacy scores also increased significantly during each of the treatments but significantly more so in the more intensive residential treatment. Self-efficacy assessed at the completion of treatment was a significant predictor of drug use outcome for both treatments. The DASES has been shown to be sensitive to changes in self-efficacy associated with treatment as well as to post-treatment adaptation to the natural environment following treatment.

Page last updated: Wednesday, 14 July 2004