EMCDDA Home
  • EN
Search

Use of Combinations of Legal and Illegal Drugs

User Information
Considerable attention has been given to the measurement of combinations of legal and illegal drugs which are used on the same occasion. The CORE SCALE below has been abstracted from studies which have measurement such use as one aspect of drug use.
Relevant Studies
Reducing the risk of drug involvement
Harrmon, M.A. (1993). Reducing the risk of drug involvement among early adolescents: An evaluation of drug abuse resistance education (DARE). Evaluation Review, 17, 221 - 239.

The study by Harmon (1993) examined the effectiveness of the DARE programme in South Carolina, by comparing 341 fifth grade students to a comparable control group. Significant differences were found for belief in pro-social norms, association with drug using peers, positive peer association, attitudes to substance use and assertiveness. No differences were found however, on tobacco and alcohol use, in the last year or during the last month. The You and Your School Questionnaire were used to measure DARE objectives, and other factors associated with drug use. The questionnaire consists of 10 scales including Belief in pro-social norms, Social Integration, Commitment to school, Rebellious behaviour, Peer drug modelling, Attitudes against substance use, Attachment to school, Self-esteem, Assertiveness and Positive peer modelling.

Availability of different substances
Klepp, K., Jones-Webb, R., Wagenaar, A.C., & Short, B. (1996). Measure of alcohol and tobacco availability to underage students. Addictive Behaviours, 21, 585 - 595.

This study is of particular relevance in the design of items on measurement of perception of availability. The test-retest reliability and the internal consistency of perceived availability measures used in the CMCA (Communities Mobilising for Changes on Alcohol) and the TPOP(Tobacco Policy Options for Prevention) student surveys. 111 9th grade students completed the CMCA and 70 8th graders completed the TPOP questionnaire. Each population completed its respective measure twice 26 apart. No statistically significant differences in the distribution of demographic variables, alcohol or tobacco use variables across administration was found. The scales assessing perceived access to alcohol and tobacco had high internal consistency but moderate to low retest correlations. Single item measures of sources of alcohol and tobacco and reported buy attempts also had low to moderate test-retest correlates.

Print

Page last updated: Wednesday, 21 July 2004