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Parental Regulation

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In the literature on parental regulation, two aspects of ?strictness and supervision?, are found to be important, viz. strictness in relation to drugs and overall level of supervision. Of the five items, below two are concerned with overall regulation by parents while three focus on perceived parental regulation of use of drugs.
Instrument
Relevant Studies
Family and drug use
Brook, J.S., Brook, D.W., Gordon, A.S., Whiteman, M., & Cohen, P. (1990). The psychosocial etiology of adolescent drug use: A family interactional approach. Genetic, Social and General Psychology Monographs, 116, 111-267.

This paper put forward an explanation of drug use based on 'Family Interaction Theory'. According to this model, the lack of parental supervision and support contributes to weak family attachments, adolescent personality, involvement with substance using peers and actual substance sue. Thus, the model implies that some drug use can be prevented in the long run by teaching parents how to supervise and support their children. In line with this suggestion, their research shows that higher levels of support and encouragement from parent are less likely to become involved in substance use than are those who do no receive such encouragement.

Overview of adolescent drug use
Petraitis, J., Flay, B.R., & Miller, T.Q. (1995). Reviewing theories of adolescent substance use: Organising pieces in the puzzle. Psychological Bulletin, 117, 67-96.

This article reviews several theories of experimental drug use among adolescents include those that emphasise (i) substance-specific cognitions, (ii) social learning processes, (iii) commitment to conventional values and attachment to families, and (iv) interpersonal processes. The paper addressed the similarities and differences between the various explanations and examines the conceptual boundaries of each one. The paper attempts to integrate the existing explanations by organising their central constructs into three distinct types of influence (social, attitudinal and interpersonal) and three distinct levels of influence (viz. proximal, distal and ultimate).

Effects of parenting practices on adolescents
Steinberg, L., Lamborn, S.D., Dornbusch, S.M., & Darling, N. (1992). Impact of parenting practices on adolescent achievement: Authoritative parenting, school involvement, and encouragement to succeed. Child Development, 63, 1266-1281.

This paper describes the relationship between parenting practices and a number of outcomes including success at school and other social outcomes. The major focus is on authoritative parenting and its effects on subsequent development. In this particular study over 6,000 American adolescents reported on their parents child-rearing practices while data was collected on their school achievement and school engagement over the next four years. The results showed that authoritative parenting which involves high acceptance, supervision and psychological autonomy granting leads to better involvement of adolescents in school and to stronger school engagement. While not dealt with specifically in this paper, related research has shown that authoritative parenting is associated with lesser involvement in drug use and is thus a protective factor in drug use.

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Page last updated: Thursday, 15 July 2004