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Involvement of Participants

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In the literature on implementation, the involvement of teachers and students has been found to be an absolutely crucial feature of implementation. The five features isolated below are perhaps the most important considerations in such involvement.
Relevant Studies
Community health promotion
Duignan, P., & Casswell, S. (1988). Evaluating community health programmes for health promotion: Problems illustrated by a new Zealand example. Community Health Studies, 12, 74-81.

This study considers a number of evaluation issues involved in community settings based on New Zealand health promotion campaign. Process evaluation activities carried out by researchers including interviewing people connected with the programme, monitoring meeting attendance, analysis of programme documents, and monitoring media coverage. A number of problems associated with the design and implementation of community studies were identified and recommendations put forward for the planning of future initiatives.

Keeping schools in an evaluation
Ellickson, P.L. (1994). Getting and keeping schools and kids in evaluation studies. Journal of Community Psychology, Special Issue, 102-116.

The paper considers the challenges encountered in evaluating community based drug abuse prevention programmes for children and adolescents in school. The requirements for large numbers, diversity and follow-up makes it very difficult to recruit and retain the schools participants. Schools and districts usually approve prevention evaluation when they fulfil their organisational objectives and do not impose heavy burdens or costs on school personnel and students. Thus, crucial challenges to successful evaluation are: (i) conflicts with educational priorities and routines, (ii) resentment of burdensome demands on school personnel, (iii) concerns about respondent burden, and (iv) concerns about negative publicity or parental complaints.

Smoking education programmes in classrooms
Nutbeam, D., Macaskill, P., Smith, C., Simpson, J.M., & Catford, J. (1993). Evaluation of two smoking education programmes under normal classroom conditions. British Medical Journal, 79, 1371-1376.

The importance of the scope and intensity of programmes is illustrated in the context of efforts to prevent cigarette smoking and by this widely quoted study which produced negative results. The study by Nutbeam et al., lasted for a relatively short time and seemed to have no additional support features. Thus, it is hardly surprising that the results were negative. It would have been remarkable had the results been different.

Effects of programme implementation
Pentz, M.A., Trebow, E.A., Hansen, W.B., MacKinnon, D.P., Dwyer, J.H., Johnson, C.A., Flay, B.R., Daniels, S., & Cormack, C. (1990). Effects of program implementation on adolescent drug use behaviour: The Midwestern prevention project (MPP). Evaluation Review, 14, 264-289.

This study evaluated the relationship between level of programme implementation and changes in adolescent drug use the American Midwest Prevention Project (MPP). Implementation was measured by teacher self-report and by research staff reports. Drug use was measured by student self-report and an expired air measure was used to increase the accuracy of self-reported drug use. Items in the measurement of implementation included measures of (i) adherence (whether the programme was implemented, (ii) exposure (length of time x number of sessions), and (iii) reinvention (extent of deviation from the programme as designed. A global rating of how well the programme was implemented was also made by teachers. In addition, observers rated class participation, interest and teacher completion as well as an overall rating of implementation.

Page last updated: Thursday, 15 July 2004