Implementation of a School Programme: Fidelity to Plan
|The rating schedule below is adapted and modified from a number of sources to reflect the most important dimensions in the formative evaluation of a schools programme. It is assumed that this instrument will be used by a independent observer who can verify the information.|
This survey is of particular relevance to implementation since it deals with the delivery and credibility of programmes. A survey of drug education in Norwegian lower secondary schools showed that almost one fourth of the programmes were based on the two-step model, which is described in this article. The intensive courses were socially successful and created motivation, enthusiasm and changes of attitude. More than 90% of the participants carried out the second step of the teaching. There were important differences from one school to another with regard to how the pilot pupils and their teaching programme were received. They found it difficult to find sufficient time for their programmes and sometimes found it difficult to keep their classmates in order. Most of the classmates found the teaching in the second step interesting, but they had little belief in the preventive effort.
This is a qualitative study of the process of implementing a prevention programme in two rural high schools. Information was collected on perception of training, obstacles encountered and types of programme implemented. The results indicated that (i) a solid knowledge base was necessary in prevention programmes, (ii) commitment of time, energy and financial resources as well as support from decision makers were essential, (iii) the communities concerned condoned the use of legal drugs at all ages, and (iv) schools were charged with the responsibility for prevention efforts.
The paper considers the challenges encountered in evaluating community based drug abuse prevention programmes for children and adolescents in school. The requirements for large numbers, diversity and follow-up makes it very difficult to recruit and retain the schools participants. Schools and districts usually approve prevention evaluation when they fulfil their organisational objectives and do not impose heavy burdens or costs on school personnel and students. Thus, crucial challenges to successful evaluation are: (i) conflicts with educational priorities and routines, (ii) resentment of burdensome demands on school personnel, (iii) concerns about respondent burden, and (iv) concerns about negative publicity or parental complaints.