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Awareness of Community Projects

User Information
The scale below is adapted from evaluations of a number of community projects that sought to establish the extent to which people were aware of/participated in community programmes. Such campaigns often involve information/advertising with a view to creating a level of awareness around some aspect of substance use, e.g. parental responsibility for children' drug use. It is assumed that the items here would be part of a public opinion survey which might be in either an interview or questionnaire format. The target of the items below is referred to for convenience as the Substance Abuse Prevention project (SAP).
Relevant studies
Community Health Promotion
Duignan, P., & Casswell, S. (1988). Evaluating community health programmes for health promotion: Problems illustrated by a new Zealand example. Community Health Studies, 12, 74-81.

This study considers a number of evaluation issues involved in community settings based on New Zealand health promotion campaign. Process evaluation activities carried out by researchers including interviewing people connected with the programme, monitoring meeting attendance, analysis of programme documents, and monitoring media coverage. A number of problems associated with the design and implementation of community studies were identified and recommendations put forward for the planning of future initiatives.

Explaining Outcomes Through Process Data
McGraw, S.A., Sellers, D.E., Stone, E.J., Bebchuk, J., Edmunsdon, E.W., Johnson, C.C., Bachman, K.J., & Luepker, R.V. (1996). Using process data to explain outcomes: An illustration from the Child and Adolescent trial for Cardiovascular Health (CATCH). Evaluation Review, 20, 291-312.

The prevention programme CATCH (Child and Adolescent Trial for Cardiovascular Health) features only some minor aspects of substance use in its aims. However, one of the major evaluations of the programme ( McGraw et al., 1996) used measures of level of implementation of curriculum which are of value. The two measures were (i) percentage of classroom activities completed out of the total expected during each session, based on an observation schedule and (ii) Percentage of observed sessions modified as a percentage of the total number of lessons. As an indication of the validity of this work, it was found that the teachers' self-reports were highly correlated with these observational measures. This study was concerned with the use of process evaluation in order to understand study outcomes. The data are from a large school based field trial involving over 4,000 children in over four states in the US Teacher characteristics, measures of curriculum implementation and competing influences were linked to changes in targeted outcomes. Multiple regression analyses showed that teacher characteristics did not predict program implementation. However, from the present perspective it is of interest to find that program fidelity (that is the number of modifications made to the classroom curriculum during implementation, had direct effects on student outcomes.

Getting Through to the Audience in a Community Programme
Murray, P., Shelley, E., Daly, L., Collins, C., Conroy, R., & Graham, I. (1995). Target audience penetration by a Healthy Lifestyle Promotion Programme: Results from the Kilkenny Health Project. The Economic and Social Review, 26, 261-282.

This study analyses the effects of a community health promotion programme in Ireland between 1985 and 1992. The study examined awareness of the project, ranging from having heard of the project to being involved in meetings that were supportive of the project. The results, based on a random survey of the general population showed that there are different levels of awareness of particular features of the campaign. In turn, this awareness is influenced by gender and socio-economic background of respondents. The study has implications for the study of awareness and implementation of media campaigns.

Effects of Programme Implementation
Pentz, M.A., Trebow, E.A., Hansen, W.B., MacKinnon, D.P., Dwyer, J.H., Johnson, C.A., Flay, B.R., Daniels, S., & Cormack, C. (1990). Effects of program implementation on adolescent drug use behaviour: The Midwestern prevention project (MPP). Evaluation Review, 14, 264-289.

This study evaluated the relationship between level of programme implementation and changes in adolescent drug use the American Midwest Prevention Project (MPP). Implementation was measured by teacher self-report and by research staff reports. Drug use was measured by student self-report and an expired air measure was used to increase the accuracy of self-reported drug use. Items in the measurement of implementation included measures of (i) adherence (whether the programme was implemented, (ii) exposure (length of time x number of sessions), and (iii) reinvention (extent of deviation from the programme as designed. A global rating of how well the programme was implemented was also made by teachers. In addition, observers rated class participation, interest and teacher completion as well as an overall rating of implementation.

Page last updated: Thursday, 15 July 2004