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The 2016 Europe-wide study included over 50 cities in 20 countries and revealed a picture of distinct geographical and temporal patterns of drug use across European cities. There are two ways to visualise the data from this study, either viewing the data on a map or using a specially-developed charting tool. You can switch between the two views at any point.

map view screenshot
map view screenshot

How to use the charting tool? To explore the findings of the study, select the 'city' of choice and the 'target drug'. You can compare sites or explore daily and yearly trends. Weekend means refer to the mean loads detected on Friday, Saturday, Sunday and Monday. Weekday means refer to mean loads detected on the other days of the week. The findings from 2011-2016 are included in this tool. Wastewater samples are analysed for the urinary biomarkers of the parent drug for amphetamine, methamphetamine and mdma and for the main metabolite of cocaine (benzoylecgonine) (for more information: consult Analysis section).

Filter sites

Filter results by selecting which sites to display from the list below. Note that not all sites have data entries for all possible drug, year and day values.

Select target drug*:

Select something to visualise:

 
 

Select a year:

Select target drug*:

Explore daily patterns:

Click anywhere on the map to zoom out

Click on a location to zoom in

 
 
 
 
 

How to use this map? By scrolling over the bubbles, the city name and data become visible. By zooming in on your country of interest, additional cities will show allowing further exploration of the city level data in your country of interest. To further explore the findings of the study, select the ‘target drug’ and the ‘temporal pattern’ of choice. Weekend means refer to the mean loads detected on Friday, Saturday, Sunday and Monday. Weekday means refer to mean loads detected on the other days of the week. The findings from the 2011-2016 period are included in this map. Bubble sizes are not comparable between different target drugs, but are comparable within one substance. Wastewater samples are analysed for the urinary biomarkers of the parent drug for amphetamine, methamphetamine and mdma and for the main metabolite of cocaine (benzoylecgonine) (for more information: consult Analysis section)

Additional notes:

The graphical tool was fully updated December 2016; Krakow, Stockholm and Bristol data was added in May 2017

MDMA - 2012/2013: Eindhoven exhibited abnormal high values for MDMA in 2012, 2013 and 2014, which might be due to the release of unconsumed MDMA into the sewer system.

Amphetamine 2013: Eindhoven exhibited abnormal high values for amphetamine in 2013 (Ort et al., 2014).

Reijkjavik/Stockholm:: comparison across years need to be made with caution as in 2016 two treatment plants were sampled (1 treatment plant in previous years)

Supported browsers

Please note that this interactive feature requires a recent browser. Older browsers, in particular versions of Internet Explorer prior to 10, may not function correctly.

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Page last updated: Friday, 02 June 2017