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This study assessed risk behavior and preventive measures for hepatitis C among injecting drug users in Rotterdam, the Netherlands (452 participants, 2002-2003) and Stockholm, Sweden (310 participants, 2004-2006), two cities with contrasting drug policies. Uni- and multivariate logistic regression models were used. We found that the prevalence of hepatitis C was almost two times higher in participants from Stockholm than in participants from Rotterdam, even after adjustment for sex sharing paraphernalia (adjusted relative risk: 1.92, 95% confidence interval: 1.60-2.29). Follow-up comparative studies are needed to determine if policies with structured health programs can decrease transmission of hepatitis C.