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Drug treatment overview for Turkey

Map of Turkey

1. National context

The implementation of drug-related treatment in Turkey falls under the responsibility of the Ministry of Health, and the Science Committee for Substance Addiction is responsible for its national coordination, while since the end of 2013 Provincial Healthcare Directorates have been authorised to license and supervise substance abuse treatment centres.

The treatment is provided through the Alcohol-Substance Addiction Research, Therapy and Education Centres (AMATEMs), psychiatric clinics of public hospitals under the Ministry of Health, and university-based treatment units. In 2013 there were 26 active inpatient and outpatient treatment units, and there are plans to increase the number of units in the future. The majority of drug-related treatment services take place in inpatient settings. Funding for drug-treatment services is mainly provided by the state through social or health insurance funds.

The majority of treatment services for drug users treat addiction in general, providing treatment for both alcohol and illicit drugs. The primary approach of treatment programmes is to help clients achieving a drug-free state. An essential part of the treatment is detoxification, usually in the inpatient setting, which is complemented with other interventions consisting of motivational interviewing techniques and cognitive therapies that aim to prevent relapse.

In 2009 a combined buprenorphine/naloxone medication was licensed in Turkey, and it has been used in drug addiction treatment for detoxification and substitution since 2010. Opioid substitution treatment (OST) was initially prescribed by psychiatrists within AMATEMs, but since 2014 all addiction centres licensed by the Ministry of Health have been able to implement OST. The latest available data from 2012 indicate that about 28 656 clients in Turkey receive OST with a buprenorphine-based medication.

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2. Treatment registries and monitoring systems

No info.

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3. Treatment demand

Table 1: Number of clients entering treatment in Turkey by year
Clients in treatment 2009 2010 2012 2013
Number of all clients entering treatment 2594 2900 4720 7265
Number of all clients entering treatment with known primary drug     4720 7265
% of which for opioid use 58.2 69.1 75 76.3
% of which for cocaine use 2.3 2.2 2 1.1
% of which for cannabis use 25.6 18.2 16 12.7
% of which for stimulants use (other than cocaine) 1.2 0.8 N.Av. 0.9
Number of new clients entering treatment 1480 1657 2519 3738
Number of new clients entering treatment with known primary drug     2519 3738
% of which for opioid use 52.1 65.4 67 68.0
% of which for cocaine use 2.6 1.6 2 1.1
% of which for cannabis use 30.1 21.2 22 17.5
% of which for stimulants use (other than cocaine) 1.5 0.9 0 1.3
Notes:
The variation across time, in particular with regard to the absolute numbers of clients in treatment, should be interpreted with caution as coverage data may have changed over time. For further information on coverage details please refer to the relevant EMCDDA Statistical Bulletin.
For an explanation of terms used, see the definitions of terms.
Sources:

Reitox national reports 2014 and TDI tables.
EMCDDA Statistical Bulletin  2015.

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4. Treatment provision

Table 2: Opioid substitution treatment provision in Turkey
Opioid substitution treatment 2009 2010 2012 2013
Number of clients in opioid substitution treatment N.Av. N.Av. 28656 N.Av.
of which with methadone N.Av. N.Av. 0  
of which with buprenorphine N.Av. N.Av. 28256  
Notes:
For a detailed European overview please see the EMCDDA Statistical Bulletin 2015 (HSR section).
‘N. Av.’ stands for ‘No information available’.
For an explanation of terms used, see the definitions of terms.
Sources:
Standard Table 24 (ST24) on 'Treatment availability' submitted in 2014.
Table 3: Year of official introduction of opioid substitution treatment substances in Turkey
Applied substances in opioid substitution treatment Officially introduced in
Methadone (MMT) N.App.
Buprenorphine (HDBT) N.App.
Heroin assisted treatment,including as trials N.App.
Slow-release morphine N.App.
Buprenorphine/naloxone combination 2009
Notes:
For a detailed European overview please see the EMCDDA Statistical Bulletin 2015 (HSR section).
‘N. App.’ stands for ‘Not applicable’.
For an explanation of terms used, see the definitions of terms.
Sources:
Reitox national reports.
Table 4: Legal framework of opioid substitution treatment in Turkey
Legal framework of opioid substitution treatment Methadone Buprenorphine
Do office-based medical doctors have the right to initiate the prescription of substitution treatment? N.App. N.App.
Do specialised medical doctors have the right to initiate the prescription of substitution treatment? N.App. N.App.
Notes:
For a detailed European overview please see the EMCDDA Statistical Bulletin 2015 (HSR section).
For an explanation of terms used, see the definitions of terms.
'Specialised medical doctors' refers to specifically trained or accredited office-based medical doctors.
Sources:
Structured Questionnaire on 'Treatment programmes'(SQ27P1), submitted in 2014.

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5. References and links

Related EMCDDA resources

For a comprehensive overview on drug treatment systems, availability and utilisation in Europe, please consult the 2008 online report on ‘Quality of treatment services in Europe — drug treatment — situation and exchange of good practice’ published by the Directorate General for Health and Consumers.

External links

Treatment inventories

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Page last updated: Friday, 22 May 2015