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Slovakia country overview — a summary of the national drug situation

 

 

Slovakia country overview
A summary of the national drug situation

Map of Slovakia

Our partner in Slovakia

The national focal point is located within the Department of Drug Strategy Coordination and Monitoring of Drugs which is based within the Ministry of Health. Under the responsibility of the Health Ministry’s State Secretary, the Department functions as the Council’s secretariat and oversees the coordination and implementation of the national drugs strategy.Read more »

Our partner in Slovakia

Národné monitorovacie centrum pre drogy (National monitoring centre for drugs)
Ministerstvo zdravotníctva Slovenskej republiky (Ministry of Health of the Slovak Republic)

Limbova 2, P.O.Box 52
SK-83752 Bratislava
Slovakia
Tel. +421 259373167
Fax +421 257295819

Head of focal point: Mr Imrich Steliar

The national focal point is located within the Department of Drug Strategy Coordination and Monitoring of Drugs which is based within the Ministry of Health. Under the responsibility of the Health Ministry’s State Secretary, the Department functions as the Council’s secretariat and oversees the coordination and implementation of the national drugs strategy.
The Department’s Director is also the Secretary of the Council, which has two sections. The National Drugs Strategy Section is tasked with national coordination and implementation of the National Anti-Drugs Strategy. It also contains a unit dealing with institutional and international relations and information transfers related to drug issues.
The National Monitoring Centre for Drugs Section functions as the Slovak Republic focal point. It is responsible for monitoring the drug situation and managing national drug information systems./p>

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Drug use among the general population and young people

Seven general population surveys have been conducted in Slovakia to date. The most recent general population survey was carried out in 2010 by the National Monitoring Centre for Drugs (NMCD) among a sample of 4 055 respondents aged 15–64.

Cannabis remained the most prevalent illicit substance used, with lifetime prevalence at 10.5 % among all respondents, followed by ecstasy at 1.9 % and cocaine at 0.6 %. Around 3.6 % reported last year cannabis use, while 1.4 % reported last month cannabis use. Illicit drug use continued to be more common among young people aged 15–34, and among males. Thus 18.8 % of young adults (aged 15–34) reported ever using cannabis, 7.3 % had used it in the last 12 months, and 2.8 % in the last 30 days. The prevalence of cannabis use had almost halved in 2010 compared to the rates reported from a similar study in 2006.

As in many other central and eastern European countries, the European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs (ESPAD), conducted in Slovakia since 1995, showed an increase in illicit drug consumption among secondary school students aged 15–16. Although lifetime prevalence rates for cannabis more than tripled from 9 % in 1995 to 32 % in 2007, the results of the latest survey (2011) showed a decline to 27 %. In terms of gender, 31 % of males and 23 % of females reported ever having used cannabis. Last year prevalence of cannabis use was 19 % and last month prevalence was 9 %. Lifetime prevalence for ecstasy use was 0 % in 1995; 6 % in 2007; and 4 % in 2011. Lifetime prevalence for amphetamines and LSD remained unchanged between 2007 and 2011 at 2 % for amphetamines and 4 % for LSD, while lifetime prevalence of inhalants fell from 13 % in 2007 to 10 % in 2011.

A national school survey on tobacco, alcohol and drugs (TAD) among 11- to 19-year-old students has been carried out in Slovakia every four years since 1994, with the most recent in 2010. Slovakia also participates in the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) project, which covers young people aged 11, 13 and 15, for which the latest data collection was performed in 2009/2010.

In 2013 a study was carried out on the prevalence of illicit drug use based on testing the wastewaters in ten cities, including the capital Bratislava. The study indicated that in the Bratislava region methamphetamine and cannabis metabolites prevail in wastewater.

Look for Prevalence of drug use in the 'Statistical bulletin' for more information  

High-risk drug use

Up to 2012 the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA) defined problem drug use as injecting drug use (IDU) or long duration/regular use of opiates, cocaine and/or amphetamines. However, in 2012 a new definition of ‘high-risk drug use’ was adopted. The new definition includes ‘problem drug use’, but is broader (mainly in its inclusion of high-risk use of more substances). Details are available here.

In 2008 the estimated number of high-risk opioids users, based on the multiplier method applied to data from harm-reduction agencies, was 4 888 (range: 3 966–9 782). This corresponds to a rate of 1.25 per 1 000 inhabitants aged 15–64 (range: 1.01–2.49).

In 2008, using the same method, the estimated number of methamphetamine (pervitin) users was 3 263 (range: 2 523–9 854), at a rate of 0.83 per 1 000 inhabitants aged 15–64 (range: 0.64–2.51).

In 2008, it was estimated that around 10 519 people (range: 8 182–33 489) were high-risk drug users, or 2.7 per 1 000 inhabitants aged 15–64 (range: 2.1–8.5).

Based on general population survey data from 2010, the prevalence of 15- to 64-year-olds using cannabis daily or almost daily is extremely low at 0.05 %; however, treatment data indicate some increase in cannabis-related treatment demands.

Look for High risk drug-use in the Statistical bulletin for more information.  

Treatment demand

In Slovakia treatment demand data are collected through a national reporting system managed by the National Health Information Centre. The reporting covers all existing types of centres providing drug treatment. In 2013 treatment demand data were gathered from 284 outpatient treatment units (around 60 % of all units), 23 inpatient treatment units (around 30 % of all units) and 40 treatment units in prisons (100 %). A total of 2 484 clients entered treatment at these units, of which 1 238 were new clients entering treatment for the first time.

Most clients in Slovakia are polydrug users. When looking at the primary drug for which they enter treatment in 2013, among all treatment clients 43 % used stimulants (mainly methamphetamine or ‘pervitin’), followed by opioids and cannabis, both at 25 %. Among new treatment clients, stimulants were reported as the primary drug by 47 %, followed by cannabis at 32 % and opioids at 16 %. The number of patients admitted to treatment for cannabis-related problems was, for the second consecutive year, higher than number of the patients who were seeking treatment for heroin dependence. A decline in the number of heroin clients has been reported in the last three years.

The treatment demand data indicate that stimulants are now more commonly reported as the primary drug than opioids in the last decade; nevertheless, opioids remain the most frequently injected substance (67 % of all and 48 % of new treatment clients who reported opioids as their primary drug injected it), while injecting of stimulants was less prevalent (32 % of all and 27 % of new treatment clients who reported stimulants as their primary drug injected it). It should be noted that slightly less than two-thirds of clients entering treatment were dependent on two or more illicit or licit substances.

In 2013, the mean age of all treatment clients was 29 years, while new treatment clients were on average 27 years old. Patients receiving treatment for drug-related problems are slowly but steadily getting older. With regard to gender distribution, among all clients entering treatment 83 % were male and 17 % were female. A similar distribution was reported among new treatment clients, with 84 % male and 15 % female.

Look for Treatment demand indicator in the Statistical bulletin for more information.  

Drug-related infectious diseases

The National Centre for Reference of HIV/AIDS collects human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) notifications nationwide. In addition, a specific sentinel monitoring study at the Centre for Treatment and Drug Dependencies in Bratislava is being carried out, targeting people who inject drugs (PWID) and who are in treatment. Voluntary HIV testing is offered to everyone entering healthcare settings. Long-term data indicate that HIV/AIDS infection among PWID in Slovakia is one of the lowest in the world. In 2013 no HIV positive cases among PWID were reported. In 2012–13 about 0.2 % of HIV testing samples collected from 570 drug users in different care settings were reported as HIV positive.

The percentage of cases reporting with antibodies to the hepatitis C virus (HCV) among new treatment clients at the Centre for the Treatment of Drug Dependency in Bratislava remained fairly stable at 37.8 % in 2012 and 36.2 % in 2013. About 17.1 % of the same group were reported with hepatitis B virus (HBV — anti-HBc) in 2013. HCV was more common among those who have injected drugs for more than two years or report opioid as their primary injecting substance than among those who inject other substances (mainly pervitin), while no association was identified for HBV.

Look for Drug-related infectious diseases in the Statistical bulletin for more information.  

Drug-induced deaths and mortality among drug users

Since 2009 data on drug-related death cases have been collected through a nationwide database of autopsy protocols, so-called ‘e-autopsies’, under the Healthcare Supervision Authority. Data extraction and reporting is in line with the EMCDDA definitions and recommendations for Selection D.

In 2013 the total number of drug-related deaths was 27. Of these, 21 were male. The mean age of victims was 43.1 years. All cases were toxicologically confirmed and 23 of them were linked to opioids.

The drug-induced mortality rate among adults (aged 15–64) was 6.5 deaths per million in 2013, lower than the European average of 17.2 deaths per million.

Look for Drug-related deaths in the Statistical bulletin for more information.  

Treatment responses

Implementation of drug treatment is the responsibility of the Ministry of Health, while the Ministry of Justice plays a role in the provision of treatment in prisons, but the Ministry of Social Welfare and Family is responsible for social reintegration and aftercare of children and young adults with drug-related problems.

Within the health sector, treatment is delivered through five public specialised Centres for the Treatment of Drug Dependencies, mental outpatient clinics, psychiatric hospitals, and psychiatric wards at university hospitals and general hospitals. Private providers also deliver drug treatment. The distinctive features of the Slovak drug treatment services are close links to mental health services and integration with treatment services for alcohol addiction, which allows mental health issues among drug users and consequences related to polydrug use to be addressed. Inpatient and outpatient drug treatment is funded by public health insurance, while residential care outside the healthcare sector is funded through local or regional budgets, with variable degrees of clients’ co-financing.

Centres for the Treatment of Drug Dependencies are the main providers of all types of specialised drug treatment, while mental outpatient clinics, available nationwide, offer outpatient diagnostic services, detoxification and long-term opioid substitution treatment (OST). In general, there is continuity between these two forms of the treatment, as clients who have initiated their treatment journey in an inpatient facility frequently continue their treatment programmes in outpatient settings. Physicians, psychologists, nurses and psychotherapists provide outpatient treatment as a systematic therapeutic service.

Drug-free treatment can be divided into two stages: detoxification and relapse prevention. Detoxification treatment is available in outpatient and inpatient treatment centres, and as a rule is pharmacologically assisted. Motivational enhancement therapy, cognitive behavioural therapy and structured relapse prevention are the main elements of psychosocial interventions. Residential drug treatment is delivered in inpatient departments, at specialised dependency treatment departments of psychiatric hospitals, and in Centres for the Treatment of Drug Dependencies, which are specialised psychiatric institutes. Aftercare and social reintegration services for people who are drug-dependent are provided by NGOs outside the healthcare sector, in residential facilities or through self-help groups.

A legal provision exists in Slovakia to order compulsory drug treatment in a prison environment, and in public healthcare facilities after a sentence is completed; however, the rationale for this and the effectiveness of the measure is being widely debated among professionals and several studies on the topic were reported in the 2012 National report. Moreover, the treatment monitoring data indicate that the majority of clients enter treatment on voluntary basis.

Specialised drug addiction treatment facilities provide OST. Methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) has been available since 1997 and buprenorphine since 1999. In 2008 the buprenorphine/naloxone combination was introduced; it can be prescribed by psychiatrists who hold an additional licence to treat drug dependencies or by psychiatrists working at Centres for the Treatment of Drug Dependencies. OST is not available in prisons. Taking into account high co-dependence from amphetamine-type stimulants, alcohol and cannabis among opioid users in Slovakia, the OST programmes offer psychological and psychosocial services that aim to decrease and stop the use of other illicit and licit substances in addition to opioids.

In 2013 a total of 408 clients were in OST, and almost all of them received methadone.

See the Treatment profile for Slovakia for additional information.  

Harm reduction responses

Low-threshold services and outreach harm reduction programmes in Slovakia provide access to clean needles and syringes (mainly through exchange) and information on safer drug use, although coverage is limited — an estimated 21 % of problem drug users could be reached by existing low-threshold services. Because of this, public pharmacies remain the main source of clean needles and syringes in Slovakia. In 2013 five organisations ran outreach needle, and needle and syringe, exchange programmes (NSPs), in five towns. Three towns — Bratislava, Banská Bystrica and Košice — had both mobile/outreach and stationary syringe exchange programmes. According to data from independent exchange programmes provided by field services and treatment institutions, a total of 321 000 syringes were provided in 2013. The majority of harm reduction programme clients were methamphetamine (pervitin) users, while the proportion of those who inject heroin has declined. Testing for infectious diseases among drug users who are not in contact with healthcare units (in treatment) is not regularly available, and most harm reduction organisations provide testing only occasionally.

See the Harm reduction overview for Slovakia for additional information.  

Drug markets and drug-law offences

After 1989 Slovakia gradually became a transit point on the routes through which several drugs are illegally transported. Heroin is primarily imported from Afghanistan and usually passes through Slovakia to other European Union (EU) countries. In 2010–11 there were indications that fentanyl had replaced heroin in the drug market; however, after a clandestine fentanyl laboratory was dismantled in August 2011 the trend did not continue in 2012.

Herbal cannabis is increasingly supplied by domestic growers of Vietnamese ethnic origin. The most recent trend indicates that it is intended for distribution not only in Slovakia but also in neighbouring countries such as Hungary and Austria. An increase in smuggling herbal cannabis from the Czech Republic was also noted. Methamphetamine (pervitin) has been increasingly available in the Slovak drug market since 2006, originating from domestic production. It is produced primarily in small ‘kitchen laboratories’ from ephedrine or from over-the-counter medications containing pseudoephedrine. However, mobile laboratories and laboratories with a high production capacity, producing high-quality pervitin, have also been registered. Commonly available pervitin produced in these laboratories reaches an active substance concentration of over 65 %. Some cases of pervitin smuggling from the Czech Republic have been registered. The purity of seized pervitin originating from the Czech Republic may in some cases be above 70 %.

Cocaine is increasingly smuggled into Slovakia via land transport through the Schengen area, and, as with heroin, is intended for other EU countries. Ecstasy is mainly imported from the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Austria or the Netherlands; however, tablets containing MDMA have almost completely disappeared from the drug scene, and have been substituted by tablets containing mCPP.

The total number of drug seizures slightly increased in 2013 when compared to 2012, but remained below the number of seizures reported for 2011. The overwhelming majority of seizures involve cannabis and methamphetamine. The number of seizures involving cannabis resin, herbal cannabis and methamphetamine increased in 2013 when compared to 2012. However, the quantities seized were smaller than in 2012. A total of 81 kg of herbal cannabis was seized, less than the 177 kg reported in 2012. The quantity of cannabis resin seized remained small, while the number of cannabis plants seized declined almost tenfold in comparison to 2011. In 2013, following a record amount of 11 kg methamphetamine seized in 2012, only 3.8 kg of the substance was seized. Around 1.5 kg of cocaine was seized in Slovakia during 2013. The number of heroin seizures decreased from 82 in 2012 to 73 in 2013, while the amounts seized remained extremely low, at same level as previous years (0.2 kg).

In 2013, Slovakia reported a total of 1 191offenders convicted according to the criminal code. For the first time since the new Criminal Code entered into force (in 2006), supply-related convictions exceed use-related convictions. More than half of all convictions were related to cannabis, followed by methamphetamine and amphetamine, and heroin.

Look for Drug law offences in the Statistical bulletin for additional data.  

National drug laws

In 2005 Section 171 of the Penal Code changed the offence of unauthorised possession for personal use, according to the amount of drug possessed: up to three years’ imprisonment may be imposed for personal possession of an amount corresponding to a maximum of three times the usual single dose for personal use; and up to five years may be imposed for personal possession of an amount corresponding to a maximum of 10 times the usual single dose for personal use. New penalties such as home imprisonment and community service may apply, although sentences of immediate imprisonment remain available as the ‘ultimum remedium’. Possession of any amount above 10 doses must be charged under Section 172.

Section 172 of the Penal Code lays down a penalty of 3–10 years’ imprisonment for drug trafficking, supply or production. The minimum was reduced from four to three years in 2013 to enable alternatives to prison to be given. The penalty increases to a range of 10–15 years or 15–20 years, depending on the value involved and aggravating circumstances (repeated offence, involvement of minors) and up to 25 years if the crime was committed in the context of an organised group. Three convictions for certain serious offences may result in automatic imprisonment of 25 years or even life. The lower age limit of criminal liability is now set at 14.

From April 2013 the new §16a of the drug control act, Act no. 139/1998 Coll, established the list of ‘hazardous substances’, classed as such for up to three years, and limited their supply and distribution.

Go to the European Legal Database on Drugs (ELDD) for additional information.  

National drug strategy

The National Drug Strategy of the Slovak Republic for the Period 2013–20 was established through resolution No. 380 of 10 July 2013 by the Slovak Government. The country’s fifth drug strategy takes a comprehensive and balanced approach. It is built around two pillars addressing (i) demand and (ii) supply reduction, and three cross-cutting themes focused on (i) coordination, (ii) international cooperation and (iii) research, information, monitoring and evaluation. In this respect, it mirrors the strategic approach taken at the EU level. The strategy builds on an awareness of current drug problems, including poly-substance use, stimulant (including methamphetamine) use, the need to control medications containing psychoactive or drug precursor ingredients, the challenges posed by blood-borne viruses (HIV, HCV), the need for improved treatment service coverage and the changing dynamics of the drug markets. The overall aim is to contribute to drug demand reduction and drug supply reduction, as well as the reduction of health and social risks and harms caused by drugs. These issues are addressed through the strategy’s objectives:

  • To contribute to a measurable reduction of drug demand, drug dependence and drug-related health and social risks and harms.
  • To contribute to combating drug-related crimes and illicit markets and to reduce the availability of illicit drugs and new psychoactive substances.
  • To encourage multilevel coordination through active discussion and analysis of developments and challenges in the field of drugs at the national and regional level.
  • To contribute to a better dissemination of monitoring, research and evaluation results and a better understanding of all aspects of the drug phenomenon and the impact of interventions in order to provide a comprehensive evidence base for policy and action.
  • To further strengthen dialogue and cooperation between the EU and third countries and international organisations in the field of drug demand and supply reduction.

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Coordination mechanism in the field of drugs

The Government Council for Drug Policy is responsible for inter-ministerial coordination in the Slovak Republic. Chaired by the Minister for Health, it is comprised of ministers from several policy areas. The Council has a wide brief addressing a range of issues. It functions as an advisory body for the government, and is tasked with submitting the national drugs strategy to the government, implementing and coordinating the strategy, proposing financial arrangements for drug policy issues, and suggesting responses to serious drug problems. The Council is also involved in the drafting of drug-related legislation, coordinating the Slovak Republic’s obligations under international drug control treaties, and liaising with international organisations.

The Department of Drug Strategy Coordination and Monitoring of Drugs is based within the Ministry of Health. It functions as the Council’s secretariat and oversees the coordination and implementation of the national drugs strategy. The Department is the responsibility of the Director General of the Health Section at the Ministry of Health. The Department’s Director also functions as the Secretary of the Council. It consists of two sub-sections. The National Drugs Strategy Section is tasked with national coordination and implementation of the National Anti-Drugs Strategy. It also contains a section dealing with institutional and international relations and information transfers related to drug issues. The National Monitoring Centre for Drugs Section functions as the Slovak Republic Reitox National Focal Point. It is responsible for monitoring the drug situation and managing national drug information systems.

Changes were made to the system of coordination at the regional and local levels in the Slovak Republic in late 2007, following the decommissioning of the Regional Offices, which were coordinated by the Ministry of Interior. As a result, both the local level coordinators and regional committees for the prevention of drug addiction ceased operations. The regional coordinators for the prevention of criminality have been appointed, however, following the passing of the 2008 Act on the Prevention of Criminality and other Anti-Social Activity.

Public expenditure

In Slovakia drug policy documents have no associated budgets and there is no review of executed expenditure. A study estimating total drug-related expenditure in 2006 has been published (1). In 2009, the government created an inter-ministerial programme, ‘Drug policy’, to set drug-related budgets, as requested in the National Anti Drug Strategy 2009–12. A complete picture of drug-related expenditure has not been provided and this programme was discontinued in 2014.

In 2006, total drug-related public expenditure (2) represented 0.05 % of gross domestic product (GDP), with 63.3 % for public order and safety, 14.8 % for treatment, 7.6 % for prevention, 1.8 % for coordination, 1.3 % for education, 0.9 % for harm reduction and 10.3 % for other areas (Table 1).

The available information does not allow trends in drug-related public expenditure in Slovakia to be reported.

Table 1: Total drug-related expenditure, 2006 (a)
Sector Expenditure (thousand EUR) % of total(b)

(a) Central government expenditures only.
(b) EMCDDA calculations.
Source: National annual report of Slovakia (2007)

Public order and safety 13 494  63.3

Treatment

3 158  14.8
Prevention  1 628 7.6
Coordination 375 1.8
Education (science and research) 266 1.3
Harm reduction 185 0.9
Other 2 200 10.3
Total
21 306 (b) 100.0
% of GDP
0.05 %     
  • (1) C. Fazey (2006), Sociálne a ekonomické náklady užívania drog v SR [The social and economic costs of illicit drugs used in the Slovak Republic], Final Report, ECO, January (unpublished).
  • (2) Some of the funds allocated by governments for expenditure on tasks related to drugs are identified as such in the budget (‘labelled’). Often, however, the bulk of drug-related expenditure is not identified (‘unlabelled’) and must be estimated by modelling approaches. The total budget is the sum of labelled and unlabelled drug-related expenditures.

Drug-related research

The role of drug-related research and the use of research findings and best practices in the formulation and implementation of interventions are formally defined in the current National Anti-Drug Strategy. Funding is provided from the state budget, through the Ministry of Education, in the form of grants that may be intended for a specific research track, or may be provided to the research institution itself. Drug-related research is conducted mainly by governmental agencies, university departments and hospitals, and also by the Slovak Academy of Sciences. The national focal point has organised a database on research, including bibliographic references, which is available on its website. National scientific journals also play an important role in disseminating drug-related research findings. Recent drug-related studies mentioned in the 2014 Slovakian National report mainly focused on aspects related to the consequences of drug use, but studies on responses to the drug situation, the prevalence of drug use and supply and markets were also mentioned. Current drug research in Slovakia is affected by the very limited resources allocated to it in a regular way, which is a consequence of general restrictions on public expenditure. Human resources in the drugs field are being continuously reduced, either as a consequence of weak economic conditions or due to a reduction in interest in the drugs field.

See Drug-related research for more detailed information. 

Key national figures and statistics

b Break in time series.

e Estimated.

p Eurostat provisional value.

1 Gross domestic product (GDP) is a measure of economic activity. It is defined as the value of all goods and services produced less the value of any goods or services used in their creation. The volume index of GDP per capita in Purchasing Power Standards (PPS) is expressed in relation to the European Union (EU-27) average set to equal 100. If the index of a country is higher than 100, this country's level of GDP per head is higher than the EU average and vice versa.

2  Expenditure on social protection contains: benefits, which consist of transfers, in cash or in kind to households and individuals to relieve them of the burden of a defined set of risks or needs.

3 Unemployment rates represent unemployed persons as a percentage of the labour force. Unemployed persons comprise persons aged 15 to 74 who were: (a) without work during the reference week; (b) currently available for work; (c) actively seeking work.

4 Situation of penal institutions on 1 September, 2012.

5 Share of persons aged 0+ with an equivalent disposable income below the at-risk-of-poverty threshold, which is set at 60 % of the national median equivalised disposable income (after social transfers).

  Year   EU (28 countries) Source
Population  2014 5 415 949 506 824 509 ep Eurostat
Population by age classes 15–24  2014 12.6 % 11.3 % bep
Eurostat
25–49 38.2 % 34.7 % bep
50–64 20.3 % 19.9 % bep
GDP per capita in PPS (Purchasing Power Standards) 1  2013 75 100 Eurostat
Total expenditure on social protection (% of GDP) 2  2012 18.4 p 29.5 % p Eurostat
Unemployment rate 3  2014 13.2 % 10.2 % Eurostat
Unemployment rate of population aged under 25 years  2014 29.7 % 22.2 % Eurostat
Prison population rate (per 100 000 of national population) 4  2013 187.6  : Council of Europe, SPACE I-2013
At risk of poverty rate 5  2013 12.8 % 16.6 %  SILC

p Eurostat provisional value.

e Estimated.

1 Gross domestic product (GDP) is a measure of economic activity. It is defined as the value of all goods and services produced less the value of any goods or services used in their creation. The volume index of GDP per capita in Purchasing Power Standards (PPS) is expressed in relation to the European Union (EU-27) average set to equal 100. If the index of a country is higher than 100, this country's level of GDP per head is higher than the EU average and vice versa.

2  Expenditure on social protection contains: benefits, which consist of transfers, in cash or in kind to households and individuals to relieve them of the burden of a defined set of risks or needs.

3 Unemployment rates represent unemployed persons as a percentage of the labour force. Unemployed persons comprise persons aged 15 to 74 who were: (a) without work during the reference week; (b) currently available for work; (c) actively seeking work.

4 Situation of penal institutions on 1 September, 2012.

5 Share of persons aged 0+ with an equivalent disposable income below the at-risk-of-poverty threshold, which is set at 60 % of the national median equivalised disposable income (after social transfers).

Data sheet — key statistics on the drug situation

        EU range      
  Year   Country data Min. Max. Average Rank Reporting Countries
Opioids                
Problem opioid use (rate/1 000) 2008 1 1.3 0.2 10.7   5 21
All clients entering treatment (%) 2013   24.7% 6% 93%      
New clients entering treatment (%) 2013   60.6% 2% 81%      
Purity — heroin brown (%) 2013 2 5.9% 6% 42%   1 24
Price per gram — heroin brown (EUR) 2013   EUR 50 EUR 25 EUR 158   11 22
                 
Cocaine                
Prevalence of drug use — schools (%) 2011   2.0% 1% 5%      
Prevalence of drug use — young adults (%) 2010   0.4% 0% 4% 2%    
Prevalence of drug use — all adults (%) 2010   0.2% 0% 2% 1% 3 26
All clients entering treatment (%) 2013   0.6% 0% 39%      
New clients entering treatment (%) 2013   6.4% 0% 40%      
Purity (%) 2013   35.4% 20% 75%   10 27
Price per gram (EUR) 2013 3 EUR 80 EUR 47 EUR 103   19 24
                 
Amphetamines                
Prevalence of drug use — schools (%) 2011   2.0% 1% 7%      
Prevalence of drug use — young adults (%) 2010   0.3% 0% 3% 1%    
Prevalence of drug use — all adults (%) 2010   0.1% 0% 1% 1% 4 25
All clients entering treatment (%) 2013   43.2% 0% 70%      
New clients entering treatment (%) 2013   1.1% 0% 74%      
Purity (%) 2013   7.5% 5% 71%   3 25
Price per gram (EUR) 2013 2 EUR 30 EUR 8 EUR 63   17 21
                 
Ecstasy                
Prevalence of drug use — schools (%) 2011   4.0% 1% 4%      
Prevalence of drug use — young adults (%) 2010   0.9% 0% 3% 1%    
Prevalence of drug use — all adults (%) 2010   0.5% 0% 2% 1% 15 25
All clients entering treatment (%) 2013   0.1% 0% 2%      
New clients entering treatment (%) 2013   : 0% 4%      
Purity (mg of MDMA base per unit) 2013   79 mg 26 mg 144 mg   9 23
Price per tablet (EUR) 2013 2 EUR 7 EUR 3 EUR 24   9 19
                 
Cannabis                
Prevalence of drug use — schools (%) 2011   27.0% 5% 42%      
Prevalence of drug use — young adults (%) 2010   7.3% 0% 22% 12%    
Prevalence of drug use — all adults (%) 2010   3.6% 0% 9% 6% 11 27
All clients entering treatment (%) 2013   24.6% 3% 63%      
New clients entering treatment (%) 2013   31.9% 5% 80%      
Potency — herbal (%) 2013   7.1% 2% 13%   7 22
Potency — resin (%) 2013   20.8% 3% 22%   19 20
Price per gram — herbal (EUR) 2013   EUR 10 EUR 4 EUR 25   13 19
Price per gram — resin (EUR) 2013   EUR 10 EUR 3 EUR 21   12 21
                 
Prevalence of problem drug use                
Problem drug use (rate/1 000) 2008 4 2.68 2.0 10.0      
Injecting drug use (rate/1 000) :   : 0.2 9.2      
                 
Drug-related infectious diseases/deaths                
HIV infections newly diagnosed (rate/million) 2013   0.0 0.0 54.5      
HIV prevalence (%) 2012/2013   0.2% 0% 49%      
HCV prevalence (%) :   : 14% 84%      
Drug-related deaths (rate/million) 2013   5.0 1.5 84.1      
                 
Health and social responses                
Syringes distributed 2013   321 339 124 406 9 239 506      
Clients in substitution treatment 2013   408 180 172 513      
                 
Treatment demand                
All clients 2013   2 484 289 101 753      
New clients 2013   95 19 35 229      
All clients with known primary drug 2013   2 263 287 99 186      
New clients with known primary drug 2013   1 154 19 34 524      
                 
Drug law offences                
Number of reports of offences 2013   1 191 429 426 707      
Offences for use/possession 2013   537 58 397 713      

Notes

See the explanatory notes for further information on the methods and definitions.

Only the most recent data are available for each key statistic. Data before 2006 were excluded.

1 - Significant change in data collection occurred in 2008 causing an artificial decrease in estimated prevalence.

2 - Data is for heroin undistinguished and not heroin brown.

3 - Value is the mode and not the mean.

4 - Problem drug (opioid, ATS) users having used services of harm-reduction organisation at least once. In 2008, there were considerable changes in the number and distribution of those agencies, that resulted to 'irregular' results in comparison with previous years

Additional sources of national information

In addition to the information provided above, you might find the following resources useful sources of national data.

 

Page last updated: Wednesday, 03 June 2015