Slovakia country overview

Slovakia country overview

Map of Slovakia

About NFP: 

The national focal point is located within the Department of Drug Strategy Coordination and Monitoring of Drugs, which is based within the Ministry of Health. Under the responsibility of the Health Ministry’s State Secretary, the Department functions as the Government Council for Drug Policy’s secretariat and oversees the coordination and implementation of the national drugs strategy.

The Department’s Director is also the Secretary of the Council and ex officio National Drug Coordinator. The department consists of two sections. The National Drugs Strategy section is tasked with national coordination and implementation of the National Anti-Drugs Strategy. It also contains a unit dealing with institutional and international relations and information transfers related to drug issues. The National Monitoring Centre for Drugs section functions as the Slovak Republic’s national focal point. It is responsible for monitoring the drug situation and managing national drug information systems.

E-mail addresses have been inserted in a way discouraging spam. Please replace [a] by @ before actually using any of the e-mail addresses.

National statistics and key statistics about the country

Drug use among the general population and young people

Content for prevalence: 

Seven general population surveys have been conducted in Slovakia to date. The most recent general population survey was carried out in 2010 by the National Monitoring Centre for Drugs among a sample of 4 055 respondents aged 15–64.

Cannabis remained the most prevalent illicit substance used, with lifetime prevalence at 10.5 % among all respondents, followed by ecstasy at 1.9 % and cocaine at 0.6 %. Around 3.6 % reported last year cannabis use, while 1.4 % reported last month cannabis use. Illicit drug use continued to be more common among young people aged 15–34, and among males. Thus 18.8 % of young adults (aged 15–34) reported ever using cannabis, 7.3 % had used it in the last 12 months, and 2.8 % in the last 30 days. The prevalence of cannabis use had almost halved in 2010 compared to the rates reported from a similar study in 2006.

As in many other central and eastern European countries, the European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs (ESPAD), conducted in Slovakia since 1995, showed an increase in illicit drug consumption among secondary school students aged 15–16. Although lifetime prevalence rates for cannabis more than tripled from 9 % in 1995 to 32 % in 2007, the results of the 2011 survey showed a decline to 27 %. In terms of gender, 31 % of males and 23 % of females reported ever having used cannabis. Last year prevalence of cannabis use was 19 % and last month prevalence was 9 %. Lifetime prevalence for ecstasy use was 0 % in 1995; 6 % in 2007; and 4 % in 2011. Lifetime prevalence for amphetamines and LSD remained unchanged between 2007 and 2011 at 2 % for amphetamines and 4 % for LSD, while lifetime prevalence of inhalants fell from 13 % in 2007 to 10 % in 2011.

A national school survey on tobacco, alcohol and drugs among 11- to 19-year-old students has been carried out in Slovakia every four years since 1994, with the most recent in 2014 (only those aged 15 or older are asked questions on illicit substance use). Among 16-year-olds, 27.4 % had used cannabis in their lifetime, which indicates a stable trend when compared to 2010 data.

Slovakia also participates in the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) project, which covers young people aged 11, 13 and 15, for which the latest data collection was performed in 2013/14. In the latest survey 14 % of 15-year-old girls and 20 % of boys of the same age had tried cannabis in their lifetime.

The 2010 general population survey (GPS) and the 2011 ESPAD studies explored the use of new psychoactive substances. The GPS results indicate that less than 3 % of 15- to 24-year-olds had used these substances, while the ESPAD results indicated that about 4 % of 15- to 19-year-olds had used synthetic cannabinoids, and less than 2 % had used synthetic cathinones.

In 2013/14 studies were carried out on the prevalence of illicit drug use based on testing the wastewaters in 16 municipalities, including the capital Bratislava. The study indicated that in the Bratislava region methamphetamine and cannabis metabolites prevail in wastewater, followed by cocaine. The most prevalent substance in wastewater was the medicinal opioid tramadol, which is misused for its psychoactive effects.

Look for Prevalence of drug use in the Statistical bulletin for more information. 

Prevention

Content for prevention: 

The implementation of drug prevention in Slovakia falls under the responsibility the Ministry of Education in close cooperation with the Ministry of Health, Ministry of Labour, Social Affairs and Family, and Ministry of Interior. The main objectives and framework for drug prevention are defined in the National Anti-Drug Strategy for 2013–20, and drug demand reduction is one of the two policy priorities of the strategy. Most prevention interventions are now centrally monitored, while evaluations of their effectiveness remain rare. Universal drug prevention programmes in schools focus on alcohol, smoking, illicit drugs and risk behaviour. Several manualised programmes are now in place, including The Way to Emotional Maturity, a long-term national prevention programme for pupils aged 12–15 (the sixth to ninth years of elementary school or the first year of secondary school) that develops and strengthens the psychological and social skills that can act as protective factors. Educational and Psychological Counselling and Prevention Centres also provide prevention interventions, the majority of which focus on elementary school pupils. In the school year 2012–13 these centres ran 1 240 prevention programmes for children and young people aged 3–19, and programmes for teachers and parents. In 2012 a pilot of the Unplugged programme was initiated in a number of schools across the country. The assessment of the programme’s impact (against the control group) indicates a reduction in smoking among girls, increased awareness of the consequences of alcohol use and increased self-esteem among its participants. The programme was not included in routine practice, and in 2014 it remained at the academic/research level. Primary and secondary schools have a drug prevention coordinator, usually a school psychologist or a teacher, forming a country-wide network, although integrated training or education programmes are rare.

Prevention targeting for families is limited and focuses mainly on information exchange and discussions. Community prevention programmes are targeted at recreational activities, such as organising summer camps and sports activities for young people and children within leisure centres. The website of the National Monitoring Centre for Drugs provides online information and consultation services.

Selective prevention interventions are organised by health and social welfare services and non-governmental organisations (NGOs) in recreational settings such as festivals, for children and young people in disadvantaged and Roma communities, for marginalised families and young offenders. Educational and Psychological Counselling and Prevention Centres provide counselling services to pupils with learning, personality, psychological or behavioural problems. Several innovative prevention activities for adolescents with substance abuse experience were piloted in Slovakia. For indicated prevention, specialised psychological counselling is also provided for families with drug addiction problems and for disruptive children in school settings.

See the Prevention profile for Slovakia for more information. 

Problem drug use

Content for problem drug use: 

Up to 2012 the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA) defined problem drug use as injecting drug use or long duration/regular use of opiates, cocaine and/or amphetamines. However, in 2012 a new definition of ‘high-risk drug use’ was adopted. The new definition includes ‘problem drug use’, but is broader (mainly in its inclusion of high-risk use of more substances). Details are available here.

In 2008 the estimated number of high-risk opioids users, based on the multiplier method applied to data from harm reduction agencies, was 4 888 (range: 3 966–9 782). This corresponds to a rate of 1.25 per 1 000 inhabitants aged 15–64 (range: 1.01–2.49).

In 2008, using the same method, the estimated number of methamphetamine (pervitin) users was 3 263 (range: 2 523–9 854), at a rate of 0.83 per 1 000 inhabitants aged 15–64 (range: 0.64–2.51).

In 2008 it was estimated that around 10 519 people (range: 8 182–33 489) were high-risk drug users, or 2.7 per 1 000 inhabitants aged 15–64 (range: 2.1–8.5).

Based on general population survey data from 2010, the prevalence of 15- to 64-year-olds using cannabis daily or almost daily is extremely low at 0.05 %; however, treatment data indicate some increase in cannabis-related treatment demands.

Look for High-risk drug use in the Statistical bulletin for more information. 

Treatment demand

Content for treatment demand: 

In Slovakia treatment demand data are collected through a national reporting system managed by the National Centre of Health Informatio.n The reporting covers all existing types of centres providing drug treatment. Individual treatment providers send their report in a standardised unified form (paper or electronic) to the National Centre of Health Information (NCHI) quarterly, following methodological guidelines. These reports are transformed to a database of individual electronic records. Annually, the NCHI processes the data, avoiding double counting, and provides cleaned data to the national focal point, either as an anonymised database or in a form of standardised predefined output tables (following the Fonte structure). Data collection is carried out separately for medical facilities and prisons.

In 2014 treatment demand data were gathered from 460 outpatient treatment units, 80 inpatient treatment units and 38 treatment units in prisons. A total of 2 483 clients entered treatment at these units, of which 1 158 were new clients entering treatment for the first time. The share of persons admitted to treatment in prison health facilities is increasing continuously, and for the majority of those who start treatment in prison settings it was ordered by court.

Most clients in Slovakia enter treatment due to stimulant use (mainly methamphetamine or pervitin). In 2014, among all treatment clients, 43 % used stimulants (98 % of them pervitin), followed by opioids (22 %, heroin for 16 %) and cannabis (20 %). Among new treatment clients, stimulants were reported as the primary drug by 48 %, followed by cannabis at 29 % and opioids at 13 %. The number of patients admitted to treatment for cannabis-related problems was, for the third consecutive year, higher than number of the patients who were seeking treatment for heroin dependence. A decline in the number of heroin clients has been reported in the last four years.

The treatment demand data from the last decade indicate that stimulants are now more commonly reported as the primary drug than opioids; nevertheless, opioids remain the most frequently injected substance (69 % of all and 55 % of new treatment clients who reported opioids as their primary drug injected it), while injecting of stimulants was less prevalent (33 % of all and 26 % of new treatment clients who reported methamphetamine as their primary drug injected it).

In 2014 the mean age of all treatment clients was 29, while new treatment clients were on average 27. Patients receiving treatment for drug-related problems are slowly but steadily getting older, particularly heroin users. With regard to gender distribution, among all clients entering treatment 82 % were male and 18 % were female. A similar distribution was reported among new treatment clients, with 83 % male and 17 % female.

Look for Treatment demand indicator in the Statistical bulletin for more information. 

Drug-related infectious diseases

Content for drug-related infectious diseases: 

The National Centre for Reference of HIV/AIDS collects human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) notifications nationwide. In addition, a specific sentinel monitoring study at the Centre for the Treatment of Drug Dependencies in Bratislava is being carried out, targeting people who inject drugs (PWID) and who are in treatment. Voluntary HIV testing is offered to everyone entering healthcare settings. Long-term data indicate that HIV/AIDS infection among PWID in Slovakia is one of the lowest in the world. In 2014 one HIV positive case among PWID was reported.

The percentage of cases reporting with antibodies to the hepatitis C virus (HCV) among new treatment clients at the Centre for the Treatment of Drug Dependencies in Bratislava remained fairly stable at 37.8 % in 2012; 36.2 % in 2013; and 37.1 % in 2014. HCV was more common among those who reported opioid as their primary injecting substance (48 %) than among those who inject other substances (mainly pervitin) 29 %. At the same time, 21 % of new treatment clients were positive for hepatitis B virus (HBV — anti-HBc) in 2014 and half of them were opioid injectors.

Look for Drug-related infectious diseases in the Statistical bulletin for more information. 

Drug-induced deaths and mortality

Content for drug-induced deaths: 

Since 2009 data on drug-related death cases have been collected through a nationwide database of autopsy protocols, so-called ‘e-autopsies’, under the Healthcare Supervision Authority. Data extraction and reporting is in line with EMCDDA definitions and recommendations for Selection D.

In 2014 the total number of drug-related deaths was 28. Of these, 26 were male. The mean age of victims was 37.3 years. Twenty-five cases were toxicologically confirmed and nine of them were linked to opioids.

The drug-induced mortality rate among adults (aged 15–64) was 20 deaths per million in 2014, comparable with the most recent European average of 19.2 deaths per million.

Look for Drug-related deaths in the Statistical bulletin for more information. 

Treatment responses

Content for treatment responses: 

Implementation of drug treatment is the responsibility of the Ministry of Health, while the Ministry of Justice plays a role in the provision of treatment in prisons, but the Ministry of Social Labour, Social Affairs and Family is responsible for social reintegration and aftercare of children and young adults with drug-related problems.

Within the health sector, treatment is delivered through four public specialised Centres for the Treatment of Drug Dependencies, mental outpatient clinics, psychiatric hospitals, and psychiatric wards at university hospitals and general hospitals. Private providers also deliver drug treatment. The distinctive features of the Slovak drug treatment services are close links to mental health services and integration with treatment services for alcohol addiction, which allows mental health issues among drug users and consequences related to polydrug use to be addressed. Inpatient and outpatient drug treatment is funded by public health insurance, while residential care outside the healthcare sector is funded through local or regional budgets, with variable degrees of clients’ co-financing.

Centres for the Treatment of Drug Dependencies are the main providers of all types of specialised drug treatment, while mental outpatient clinics, available nationwide, offer outpatient diagnostic services, detoxification and long-term opioid substitution treatment (OST). In general, there is continuity between these two forms of the treatment, as clients who have initiated their treatment journey in an inpatient facility frequently continue their treatment programmes in outpatient settings. Physicians, psychologists, nurses and psychotherapists provide outpatient treatment as a systematic therapeutic service.

Drug-free treatment can be divided into two stages: detoxification and relapse prevention. Detoxification treatment is available in outpatient and inpatient treatment centres. Motivational enhancement therapy, cognitive behavioural therapy and structured relapse prevention are the main elements of psychosocial interventions. Residential drug treatment is delivered in inpatient departments, at specialised dependency treatment departments of psychiatric hospitals, and in Centres for the Treatment of Drug Dependencies, which are specialised psychiatric institutes. Aftercare and social reintegration services for people who are drug-dependent are provided by NGOs outside the healthcare sector, in residential facilities or through self-help groups. There are 20 recognised socialisation centres accredited by the Ministry of Labour, Social Affairs and Family.

A legal provision exists in Slovakia to order compulsory drug treatment in a prison environment, and in public healthcare facilities after a sentence is completed; however, the rationale for this and the effectiveness of the measure is being widely debated among professionals.

Methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) has been available since 1997 and buprenorphine since 1999. In 2008 the buprenorphine/naloxone combination was introduced; it can be prescribed by psychiatrists who hold an additional licence to treat drug dependencies or by psychiatrists working at highly specialised Centres for the Treatment of Drug Dependencies. Nevertheless, MMT dominates in the Centres for the Treatment of Drug Dependencies, while buprenorphine-based medication is provided on prescription by psychiatrists with a drug dependence treatment licence in outpatient psychiatric clinics. There is no complete reporting mechanism covering all OST providers and the prescription of both substitutive medications; however, MMT is easy to monitor (administration of methadone is only available only in two Centres for the Treatment of Drug Dependencies, in Bratislava and Banska Bystrica). The conservative assessment of the number of OST beneficiaries indicates that in 2014 a total of 375 clients were in MMT.

OST is not available in prisons. Taking into account high co-dependence from amphetamine-type stimulants, alcohol and cannabis among opioid users in Slovakia, the OST programmes offer psychological and psychosocial services that aim to decrease and stop the use of other illicit and licit substances in addition to opioids.

See the Treatment profile for Slovakia for additional information. 

Harm reduction responses

Content for harm reduction responses: 

The National Anti-Drug Strategy for 2013–20 endorses the provision of effective risk reduction measures for people who use drugs.

In 2014 four NGOs operated fixed-location and mobile outreach needle and syringe programmes (NSPs) in five towns (Bratislava, Sereď, Nitra, Trnava, Košice) with both types of services available in Bratislava and Košice. While these programmes are licensed by the Ministry of Labour, Social Affairs and Family, they are mainly funded by grants from the Ministry of Health or from local governments. In addition to the dedicated non-governmental harm reduction service providers, three public drug treatment centres (Bratislava, Banská Bystrica and Košice) also provide needle and syringe exchange programmes. However, they contribute less than 10 % of distributed needles and syringes in Slovakia. In addition to access to clean injecting equipment, harm reduction programmes also provide counselling and information on safer drug use, screening for infectious diseases and other support services. The coverage of low-threshold services is likely to be limited — only 21 % of the estimated number of problem drug users are reached by existing low-threshold services. Because of this, public pharmacies remain the main source of clean needles and syringes in Slovakia.

According to data from independent exchange programmes provided by field services and treatment institutions, a total of 275 000 syringes were provided in 2014. The majority of harm reduction programme clients were methamphetamine (pervitin) users, while the proportion of those who inject heroin has declined.

See the Harm reduction overview for Slovakia for additional information. 

Drug markets and drug-law offences

Content for Drug markets and drug-law offences: 

After 1989 Slovakia gradually became a transit point on the routes through which several drugs are illegally transported. Heroin is primarily imported from Afghanistan by Albanian criminal groups. In 2010–11 there were indications that fentanyl had replaced heroin in the drug market, but this has not been observed in the following years. A clandestine fentanyl laboratory was dismantled in August 2011.

Herbal cannabis is increasingly supplied by domestic growers of Vietnamese ethnic origin. The most recent trend indicates that it is intended for distribution not only in Slovakia but also in neighbouring countries such as Hungary. An increase in smuggling herbal cannabis from the Czech Republic was also noted. Methamphetamine (pervitin) has been increasingly available in the Slovak drug market since 2006, originating from domestic production. It is produced primarily in small ‘kitchen laboratories’ from ephedrine or from over-the-counter medications containing pseudoephedrine. In 2013 there were some indications that ephedrine was being imported from Asian countries. Mobile laboratories and laboratories with a high production capacity, producing high-quality pervitin, have also been registered. Commonly available pervitin produced in these laboratories reaches an active substance concentration of over 65 %. Some cases of pervitin smuggling from the Czech Republic have been registered. The purity of seized pervitin originating from the Czech Republic may in some cases be above 70 %.

Cocaine is increasingly smuggled into Slovakia via land transport through the Schengen area, and, as with heroin, by Albanian criminal groups. Ecstasy is mainly imported from the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Austria or the Netherlands; however, tablets containing MDMA have almost completely disappeared from the drug scene, and have been substituted by tablets containing mCPP.

In 2014 the total number of drug seizures was the lowest in recent years (1 974 cases). The overwhelming majority of seizures involve cannabis (1 093) or methamphetamine (668). The number of seizures involving heroin, ecstasy and methamphetamine slightly increased in 2014 when compared to 2013. The number of heroin seizures increased marginally from 73 in 2013 to 78 in 2014, but the amounts seized remained extremely low (0.05 kg). In 2014 the law enforcement agencies reported seizing a total of 6.22 kg of methamphetamine, which is twice the amount seized in 2013 (3.8 kg), but remains below a record amount of 11 kg seized in 2012. In 2014 a total of 419 tablets of ecstasy were seized, which is 10 times more than in 2012, but significantly below the levels seized before 2009.

In 2014 a total of 113.46 kg of herbal cannabis was seized, more than the 81 kg seized in 2013, but less than the 177 kg reported in 2012. The quantity of cannabis resin seized in 2014 remained small (0.12 kg), while the number of cannabis plants seized (496 plants) declined almost twenty times in comparison to 2011 (10 045). Around 0.02 kg of cocaine was seized in Slovakia during 2014.

In 2014 Slovakia reported a total of 1 147offenders convicted according to the Penal Code. The number of persons sentenced for possession of drugs for their own use is slightly higher than the number of offenders sanctioned for supply-related offences. More than half of all convictions were related to cannabis, followed by methamphetamine and amphetamine, and heroin.

Look for Drug-law offences in the Statistical bulletin for additional data. 

National drug laws

Content for National drug laws: 

In 2005 Section 171 of the Penal Code changed the offence of unauthorised possession for personal use, according to the amount of drug possessed: up to three years’ imprisonment may be imposed for personal possession of an amount corresponding to a maximum of three times the usual single dose for personal use; and up to five years may be imposed for personal possession of an amount corresponding to a maximum of 10 times the usual single dose for personal use. New penalties such as home imprisonment and community service may apply, although sentences of immediate imprisonment remain available as the ‘ultimum remedium’. Possession of any amount above 10 doses must be charged under Section 172.

Section 172 of the Penal Code lays down a penalty of 3–10 years’ imprisonment for drug trafficking, supply or production. The minimum was reduced from four to three years in 2013 to enable alternatives to prison to be given. The penalty increases to a range of 10–15 years or 15–20 years, depending on the value involved and aggravating circumstances (repeated offence, involvement of minors) and up to 25 years if the crime was committed in the context of an organised group. Three convictions for certain serious offences may result in automatic imprisonment of 25 years or even life. The lower age limit of criminal liability is now set at 14.

From April 2013 the new §16a of the Drug Control Act, Act no. 139/1998 Coll, established the list of hazardous substances, classed as such for up to three years, and limited their supply and distribution.

Go to the European Legal Database on Drugs (ELDD) for additional information. 

National drug strategy

Content for National drug strategy: 

The National Anti-Drug Strategy for 2013–20 was established through resolution No. 380 of 10 July 2013 by the Slovak Government. The country’s fifth drug strategy takes a comprehensive and balanced approach. It is built around two pillars addressing (i) demand and (ii) supply reduction, and three cross-cutting themes focused on (i) coordination, (ii) international cooperation and (iii) research, information, monitoring and evaluation. In this respect, it mirrors the strategic approach taken at the European Union level. The strategy builds on an awareness of current drug problems, including poly-substance use, stimulant (including methamphetamine) use, the need to control medications containing psychoactive or drug precursor ingredients, the challenges posed by blood-borne viruses (HIV, HCV), the need for improved treatment service coverage and the changing dynamics of the drug markets. The overall aim is to contribute to drug demand reduction and drug supply reduction, as well as the reduction of health and social risks and harms caused by drugs. These issues are addressed through the strategy’s objectives:

  • To contribute to a measurable reduction of drug demand, drug dependence and drug-related health and social risks and harms.
  • To contribute to combating drug-related crimes and illicit markets and to reduce the availability of illicit drugs and new psychoactive substances.
  • To encourage multilevel coordination through active discussion and analysis of developments and challenges in the field of drugs at the national and regional level.
  • To contribute to a better dissemination of monitoring, research and evaluation results and a better understanding of all aspects of the drug phenomenon and the impact of interventions in order to provide a comprehensive evidence base for policy and action.
  • To further strengthen dialogue and cooperation between the European Union and third countries and international organisations in the field of drug demand and supply reduction.

Related downloads

Coordination mechanism in the field of drugs

Content for Coordination mechanism in the field of drugs: 

The Government Council for Drug Policy is responsible for inter-ministerial coordination in the Slovak Republic. It has been chaired by the Minister for Health since 2013. It is comprised of ministers from several policy areas. The Council has a wide brief, addressing a range of issues. It functions as an advisory body for the Government, and is tasked with submitting the national drugs strategy to the Government, implementing and coordinating the strategy, proposing financial arrangements for drug policy issues, and suggesting responses to serious drug problems. The Council is also involved in the drafting of drug-related legislation, coordinating the Slovak Republic’s obligations under international drug control treaties, and liaising with international organisations.

The Department of Drug Strategy Coordination and Monitoring of Drugs is based within the Ministry of Health. It functions as the Council’s secretariat and oversees the coordination and implementation of the national drugs strategy. The Department is the responsibility of the Director General of the Health Section at the Ministry of Health. The Department’s Director also functions as the Secretary of the Council. It consists of two sections. The National Drugs Strategy section is tasked with national coordination and implementation of the National Anti-Drugs Strategy. It also contains a unit dealing with institutional and international relations and information transfers related to drug issues. The National Monitoring Centre for Drugs section functions as the Slovak Republic’s national focal point. It is responsible for monitoring the drug situation and managing national drug information systems.

Changes were made to the system of coordination at the regional and local levels in the Slovak Republic in late 2007, following the decommissioning of the Regional Offices, which were coordinated by the Ministry of Interior. As a result, both the local level coordinators and regional committees for the prevention of drug addiction ceased operations. The regional coordinators for the prevention of criminality have been appointed, however, following the passing of the 2008 Act on the Prevention of Criminality and other Anti-Social Activity.

Public expenditure

Content for Public expenditure: 

Drug policy documents in Slovakia have no associated budgets and there is no review of executed expenditure. A study estimating total drug-related expenditure in 2006 has been published (1). In 2009 the Government created an inter-ministerial programme, ‘Drug policy’, to set drug-related budgets, as requested in the National Anti Drug Strategy 2009–12. A complete picture of drug-related expenditure has not been provided and this programme was discontinued in 2014.

In 2006 total drug-related public expenditure (2) represented 0.05 % of gross domestic product (GDP), with 63.3 % for public order and safety, 14.8 % for treatment, 7.6 % for prevention, 1.8 % for coordination, 1.3 % for education, 0.9 % for harm reduction and 10.3 % for other areas (Table 1).

The available information does not allow trends in drug-related public expenditure in Slovakia to be reported.

Table 1: Total drug-related expenditure, 2006 (a)

Sector

Expenditure (thousand EUR)

% of total (b)

Public order and safety

13 494 

63.3

Treatment

3 158 

14.8

Prevention

1 628

7.6

Coordination

375

1.8

Education (science and research)

266

1.3

Harm reduction

185

0.9

Other

2 200

10.3

Total

21 306 (b)

100.0

% of GDP

0.05 %

 

(a) Central government expenditures only.
(b) EMCDDA calculations.
Source: National report of Slovakia (2007)

(1) C. Fazey (2006), Sociálne a ekonomické náklady užívania drog v SR [The social and economic costs of illicit drugs used in the Slovak Republic], Final Report, ECO, January (unpublished).

(2) Some of the funds allocated by governments for expenditure on tasks related to drugs are identified as such in the budget (‘labelled’). Often, however, the bulk of drug-related expenditure is not identified (‘unlabelled’) and must be estimated by modelling approaches. The total budget is the sum of labelled and unlabelled drug-related expenditures.

Drug-related research

Content for Drug-related research: 

The role of drug-related research and the use of research findings and best practices in the formulation and implementation of interventions are formally defined in the current National Anti-Drug Strategy. Funding is provided from the state budget, through the Ministry of Education, in the form of grants that may be intended for a specific research track, or may be provided to the research institution itself. Drug-related research is conducted mainly by governmental agencies, university departments and hospitals, and also by the Slovak Academy of Sciences. The national focal point has organised a database on research, including bibliographic references, which is available on its website. National scientific journals also play an important role in disseminating drug-related research findings. Recent drug-related studies mainly focused on aspects related to the consequences of drug use, but studies on responses to the drug situation, prevalence of drug use and supply and markets have also been mentioned. Current drug research in Slovakia is affected by the very limited resources allocated to it in a regular way, which is a consequence of general restrictions on public expenditure. Human resources in the drug field are being continuously reduced, either as a consequence of weak economic conditions or due to a reduction in interest in the issue.

See Drug-related research for more detailed information. 

Key national figures and statistics

Content for Key national figures and statistics: 

b Break in time series.

e Estimated.

p Eurostat provisional value.

: Not available.

1 Gross domestic product (GDP) is a measure of economic activity. It is defined as the value of all goods and services produced less the value of any goods or services used in their creation. The volume index of GDP per capita in Purchasing Power Standards (PPS) is expressed in relation to the European Union (EU-27) average set to equal 100. If the index of a country is higher than 100, this country's level of GDP per head is higher than the EU average and vice versa.

2  Expenditure on social protection contains: benefits, which consist of transfers in cash or in kind to households and individuals to relieve them of the burden of a defined set of risks or needs.

3 Unemployment rates represent unemployed persons as a percentage of the labour force. Unemployed persons comprise persons aged 15 to 74 who were: (a) without work during the reference week; (b) currently available for work; (c) actively seeking work.

4 Situation of penal institutions on 1 September, 2014.

5 Share of persons aged 0+ with an equivalent disposable income below the at-risk-of-poverty threshold, which is set at 60 % of the national median equivalised disposable income (after social transfers).

  Year   EU (28 countries) Source
Population  2014 5 415 949 506 944 075 bep Eurostat
Population by age classes 15–24  2014 12.6 % 11.3 % bep Eurostat
25–49 38.2 % 34.7 % bep
50–64 20.3 % 19.9 % bep
GDP per capita in PPS (Purchasing Power Standards) 1  2014 77 100 Eurostat
Total expenditure on social protection (% of GDP) 2  2013 18.4 p : Eurostat
Unemployment rate 3  2015 11.5 % 9.4 % Eurostat
Unemployment rate of population aged under 25 years  2015 26.5 % 20.3 % Eurostat
Prison population rate (per 100 000 of national population) 4  2014 187.9  : Council of Europe, SPACE I-2014.1
At risk of poverty rate 5  2014 12.5 % 17.2 %  SILC

Data sheet — key statistics on the drug situation

Content for Data sheet: 






        EU range      
  Year   Country data Min. Max.      
Opioids                
Problem opioid use (rate/1 000) 2008   1.3 0.2 10.7      
All clients entering treatment (%) 2014   21.9% 4% 90%      
New clients entering treatment (%) 2014   12.7% 2% 89%      
Purity — heroin brown (%) 2014 1 6.7% 7% 52%      
Price per gram — heroin brown (EUR) 2014   EUR 61 EUR 23 EUR 140      
                 
Cocaine                
Prevalence of drug use — schools (%) 2011   2.0% 1% 5%      
Prevalence of drug use — young adults (%) 2010   0.4% 0% 4%      
Prevalence of drug use — all adults (%) 2010   0.2% 0% 2%      
All clients entering treatment (%) 2014   0.9% 0% 38%      
New clients entering treatment (%) 2014   1.4% 0% 40%      
Purity (%) 2014   39.0% 20% 64%      
Price per gram (EUR) 2014   EUR 91 EUR 47 EUR 107      
                 
Amphetamines                
Prevalence of drug use — schools (%) 2011   2.0% 1% 7%      
Prevalence of drug use — young adults (%) 2010   0.3% 0% 3%      
Prevalence of drug use — all adults (%) 2010   0.1% 0% 1%      
All clients entering treatment (%) 2014   42.7% 0% 70%      
New clients entering treatment (%) 2014   47.8% 0% 75%      
Purity (%) 2014   22.5% 1% 49%      
Price per gram (EUR) 2014   EUR 37 EUR 3 EUR 63      
                 
Ecstasy                
Prevalence of drug use — schools (%) 2011   4.0% 1% 4%      
Prevalence of drug use — young adults (%) 2010   0.9% 0% 6%      
Prevalence of drug use — all adults (%) 2010   0.5% 0% 2%      
All clients entering treatment (%) 2014   0.1% 0% 2%      
New clients entering treatment (%) 2014   0.1% 0% 2%      
Purity (mg of MDMA base per unit) 2014   88 mg 27 mg 131 mg      
Price per tablet (EUR) 2011   EUR 9 EUR 4 EUR 16      
                 
Cannabis                
Prevalence of drug use — schools (%) 2011   27.0% 5% 42%      
Prevalence of drug use — young adults (%) 2010   7.3% 0% 24%      
Prevalence of drug use — all adults (%) 2010   3.6% 0% 11%      
All clients entering treatment (%) 2014   20.5% 3% 63%      
New clients entering treatment (%) 2014   28.6% 7% 77%      
Potency — herbal (%) 2014   9.0% 3% 15%      
Potency — resin (%) 2014   14.5% 3% 29%      
Price per gram — herbal (EUR) 2014   EUR 10 EUR 3 EUR 23      
Price per gram — resin (EUR) 2014   EUR 12 EUR 3 EUR 22      
                 
Prevalence of problem drug use                
Problem drug use (rate/1 000) 2008   2.68 2.7 10.0      
Injecting drug use (rate/1 000) :   : 0.2 9.2      
                 
Drug-related infectious diseases/deaths                
HIV infections newly diagnosed (cases / million) 2014   0.2 0.0 50.9      
HIV prevalence (%) 2013-14   1.6% 0% 31%      
HCV prevalence (%) :   : 15% 84%      
Drug-related deaths (rate/million) 2014   3.1 2.4 113.2      
                 
Health and social responses                
Syringes distributed 2014   274 942 382 7 199 660      
Clients in substitution treatment 2014   375 178 161 388      
                 
Treatment demand                
All clients 2014   2 483 271 100 456      
New clients 2014   1 158 28 35 007      
All clients with known primary drug 2014   2 483 271 97 068      
New clients with known primary drug 2014   1 158 28 34 088      
                 
Drug law offences                
Number of reports of offences 2014 2 1 147 537 282 177      
Offences for use/possession 2014   565 13 398 422      

Additional sources of national information

Contact information for our focal point

Address and contact: 

E-mail addresses have been inserted in a way discouraging spam. Please replace [a] by @ before actually using any of the e-mail addresses