Our partner in Romania
National Anti-drug Agency
37th Unirii Boulevard, Bl. A4
Tel. +40 213164797
Fax +40 213164797
Head of focal point: Ms Ruxanda Iliescu
The Romanian national focal point is a unit within the National Antidrug Agency under the remit of the Ministry of Internal Affairs. The director of the Agency acts as the national coordinator on drugs in Romania. The director is responsible for coordinating the drafting of the national drugs strategy and related action plans and acts for their application. The director also has the responsibility of ensuring compliance with the international conventions and agreements to which Romania is party and proposes to the Government, through the Ministry of Internal Affairs, measures regarding the fulfilment of the obligations arising from these international documents.
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Drug use among the general population and young people
The fourth general population survey was conducted in Romania in November–December 2013 with a sample of 7 200 respondents and using the standard methodology recommended by the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA). The results of this survey were not available at the time of writing. The 2010 survey had a sample of 5 100 people aged 15–64. The first survey, in 2004, revealed low lifetime prevalence rates for illicit drug use; however, subsequent studies indicated an increase in the lifetime use of all types of illicit drugs (including new psychoactive substances) from 1.7 % in 2007 to 4.3 % in 2010. Lifetime prevalence rates for cannabis use have remained relatively stable at 1.7 % in 2004; 1.5 % in 2007; and 1.6 % in 2010. Lifetime prevalence for other illicit substances was below 0.7 %, while for new psychoactive substances it was 2 %. The prevalence of illicit drug use was higher in younger age groups. Among young adults aged 15–34 lifetime prevalence of cannabis use remained relatively stable across all three studies: 2.9 % in 2004 and 2007, and 3.0 % in 2010. However, last year cannabis use declined slightly in 2010 compared to 2007 (0.6 % in 2010 and 0.9 % in 2007), with last month prevalence remaining stable at 0.2 % in 2010 and 0.3 % in 2007.
National school surveys were conducted in Romania in 1999, 2003, 2007 and 2011 among a representative sample of students aged 15–16, as part of the European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs (ESPAD). Generally, the data showed that the prevalence of illicit drug use is low in Romania compared to other European Union (EU) Member States, but the trends for drug use seem to be increasing for most drugs. To date, these surveys have indicated that cannabis is the most prevalent drug among students and that lifetime prevalence increased from 1 % in 1999 to 7 % in 2011. Lifetime prevalence of inhalants was reported by 6 %, and cocaine and hallucinogens by 2 %. Last year prevalence of cannabis use was reported by 6 % and last month prevalence by 2 %.
Look for Prevalence of drug use in the 'Statistical bulletin' for more information
Prevention activities are primarily implemented by the Ministry of National Education and a territorial network of 47 drug prevention, evaluation and counselling centres set up by the National Anti-Drug Agency, while non-governmental organisations (NGOs) are key partners in the implementation of projects at the local level.
Schools are the primary settings for universal prevention activities. Standard information programmes continue to play a significant part in drug-use prevention; however, personal skills development and peer-based training modalities are being increasingly incorporated within universal prevention activities. For example, the project Unplugged, focusing on the attitudes and skills of 12- to 14-year-old schoolchildren, was implemented in a district of Bucharest, and in 2012 it was scaled up to the national level. In addition, around 70 local school-based projects were implemented in Romania in 2013; some provided information and were designed to raise awareness about the consequences of drug use, while others promoted alternative leisure activities for pupils. Family prevention initiatives have been implemented mainly at the local level and aim to increase parents’ awareness of substance use risks and strengthen the protective role of the family; however, although the number of projects in this field shows a constant increase, participation in these activities remains low. Community-based prevention is mainly oriented towards information provision about licit and illicit drugs.
Selective prevention is mostly targeted at Roma groups, the prison population, former drug users, victims of family violence and young adults leaving care. Following a successful pilot of the EU-wide project FreD Goes Net, an early intervention project with young people who have come to the attention of police, work or school because of drug use, the initiative is now carried out nationwide in collaboration with local drug prevention, evaluation and counselling centres. Indicated prevention interventions remain isolated and rare. It should be noted that implementation of indicated prevention activities in 2011–13 was affected by a lack of financial and managerial resources at the national level.
In 2012 minimum standards for drug use prevention programmes, from an EU-funded project, were translated and it has been proposed that they will become a legally binding document in Romania. Romania is no longer participating in the second phase of the European Drug Prevention Quality Standards Project.
See the Prevention profile for Romania for more information.
High-risk drug use
Up to 2012 the EMCDDA defined problem drug use as injecting drug use (IDU) or long duration/regular use of opiates, cocaine and/or amphetamines. However, in 2012 a new definition of ‘high-risk drug use’ was adopted. The new definition includes ‘problem drug use’, but is broader (mainly in its inclusion of the high-risk use of more substances). Details are available here.
Injecting drug use estimates based on the treatment multiplier method are available annually from 2008 for Bucharest only. It was estimated that in 2013 there were about 6 288 injecting drug users (sensitivity interval: 4 703–8 492), or 5.3 per 1 000 inhabitants aged 18–49. Estimates indicate a decline in the injecting drug use population in Bucharest over the observation period, which is attributed to a reduction in the number of injecting drug users admitted to treatment programmes in recent years and the increase in their intake in harm reduction (i.e. it might be an artefact to some extent), as well as to changes in drug use patterns and probably also to legal measures to limit access to new psychoactive substances. Based on data from needle and syringe programmes, it is estimated that about 52.5 % of this group use heroin, while 28 % use new psychoactive substances (mainly synthetic cathinones). The lack of a nationwide estimate is explained by the lack of availability of suitable data sources, including the lack of availability of treatment outside the capital city.
Look for High risk drug-use in the Statistical bulletin for more information.
In Romania, treatment is provided by the medical units within the Ministry of Health, integrated care services through the Drug Prevention, Evaluation and Counselling Centres within the National Anti-Drug Agency, and by treatment units in prisons and in specialised treatment centres. The treatment data reporting system in Romania is based on the TDI Standard European Protocol version 3.0, for which data have been collected since 2011. In 2013 some 37 outpatient units, 19 inpatient units and 14 units in prisons provided data on treatment demand. A total of 1 645 clients who entered treatment, of which 715 were new clients entering treatment for the first time. The majority of clients entered treatment through inpatient treatment centres, but the proportion of those entering treatment through inpatient care has decreased in recent years.
In 2013, opioids were reported as the primary drug by 49 % of all treatment clients, followed by 19 % for other substances (mainly new psychoactive substances) and 17 % for cannabis. Among new treatment clients, 34 % reported opioids (mainly heroin) as their main drug, followed by 27 % for cannabis and 24 % for other substances. In 2013, a significant decrease in the proportion of those who were admitted to the treatment due to other substances was noted, when compared to 2012. Thus in 2012, half of all (49 %) and new treatment clients (54 %) reported using other substance, mainly hypnotics and sedatives or new psychoactive substances, as their main drug of use. About one-third of all treatment clients reported polydrug use. In 2013, around 83 % of all and 80 % of new treatment clients reported that they currently injected a primary substance (mainly heroin or other opiates). Around 30 % of clients entering treatment for the main use of new psychoactive substances reported that they injected the drug.
In 2013, the mean age of all clients entering treatment was 32 years old, while new treatment clients were slightly younger with an average age of 29. With regard to gender distribution, among all clients entering treatment 77 % were male and 23 % were female. The proportion of females was slightly smaller among the new treatment clients, at 21 %.
Look for Treatment demand indicator in the Statistical bulletin for more information.
Drug-related infectious diseases
Only a limited amount of data on the prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) is available at the national level. However, the available data indicates an alarming increase in drug-related infectious diseases among people who inject drugs (PWID). Thus, a total of 116 new HIV cases linked to injecting drug use were reported in Romania in 2011; 170 in 2012; and 149 in 2013, while prior to that a maximum of nine new HIV cases had been reported annually (according to the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control). Data based on self-reported testing results among users seeking medical assistance in 2013 suggest a tenfold increase in HIV prevalence rates among this group within the last four years: around 4.2 % (12 positive cases of 288 PWID tested) were recorded in 2010; while the rate increased to 11.6 % (25 of 216 PWID tested) in 2011, to 24.9 % (89 of 358 PWID tested) in 2012, and to 49.2 % in 2013 (398 of 809 PWID tested). Since 2010 HIV prevalence has continued to increase at an alarming rate among treatment clients with around 10 years of injecting drug use experience, while in 2013 a rapid increase in HIV prevalence rates was also observed among the subgroups of PWID with shorter history of drug injecting. In 2012, about 15.6 % of all HIV positive PWID had an injecting history of less than two years, while no HIV cases were reported in 2012 among this subgroup, but in 2013 the prevalence of HIV increased to 46.2 %. In the previous reporting period the high rates in the latter group were explained by an emerging trend of using new psychoactive substances, which has significantly altered the existing drug use models in recent years, while subsequently the diffusion of phenomenon within entire PWID populations and structural factors such as the limited availability of adequate prevention measures have also sustained the outbreak. In the meantime, intensified testing of PWID has also contributed to higher detection rates in the most recent years. Based on the rapid increase in HIV cases, the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control and the EMCDDA carried out rapid risk assessments of the situation in the country in 2011 and 2013.
Data from those who seek medical treatment indicate a constant upwards trend in HBV prevalence rates among treatment clients between 2009–13, mainly due to an increase in the prevalence among female drug users. Up to 2012 HBV prevalence constantly increased among those who have injected drugs for fewer than two years, but this trend seemed to come to an end in 2013.
With regard to HCV infection, the available data indicate an increasing trend in HCV prevalence from 63.9 % to 82.4 % among PWID admitted to treatment over the period 2008–12, with a peak in 2012. In 2013, the prevalence of HCV among this population reduced slightly to 74.2 %, while the highest rates are among those with an injecting drug history of five years and more. A possible reduction in HCV prevalence rates among PWID is also indicated by the 2012 study among a sample of PWID in Bucharest, where the reported HCV prevalence was at 79.3 %, which is lower than was reported in similar studies from 2007 and 2009.
Look for Drug-related infectious diseases in the Statistical bulletin for more information.
Drug-induced deaths and mortality among drug users
The data on drug-induced deaths in Romania was reported by the nationwide Special Mortality Register of the Forensic Medicine Network, which is comprised of 53 forensic medicine units nationwide. However, most data on drug-induced deaths originate from the National Legal Medicine Institute in Bucharest, and almost half of the network members do not report any drug-induced deaths, which indicates the very significant partial coverage and subsequent underreporting and underestimation of the number of drug-induced deaths in the whole country. Apart from that, data extraction and reporting is in line with the EMCDDA definitions and recommendations.
In 2013 there were 30 directly drug-induced deaths reported, which is twice as many as in 2011 (15 cases), indicating a return to the numbers reported in the period 2006–10. The sharp decline in the number of drug-induced deaths reported in 2011 was explained by an increase in the use of new psychoactive substances and the replacement of heroin by these substances. With regard to distribution by gender and age in 2013, the majority of cases were male (25 case), and the mean age of victims was 30.2 years. All cases were toxicologically confirmed, and 25 were attributed to overdose by opioids. In all these cases the presence of methadone was detected, which indicates an alarming increase since 2007, while heroin was only detected in two cases. In addition, two or more psychoactive substances were present in the overwhelming majority of cases.
The drug-induced mortality rate among adults (aged 15–64) was reportedly 2.2 deaths per million in 2013, lower than the European average of 17.2 deaths per million, but this rate is an underestimate (see above).
Look for Drug-related deaths in the Statistical bulletin for more information.
The healthcare of drug users is coordinated and managed by the National Centre for Mental Health and the Fight Against Drugs within the Ministry of Health, and provided through national health programmes with therapeutic and social reintegration components. Since 2005 the National Anti-Drug Agency has coordinated activities in the drugs field at both national and local levels. Drug treatment is predominately delivered in public medical units (18 units in 2013), which are financed from the public budget and are operated under the coordination of the Ministry of Health, and in 28 Drug Prevention, Evaluation and Counselling Centres (in 2012), including three Addiction Integrated Care Centres under the coordination of the National Anti-Drug Agency. Three private practices and three centres managed by an NGO also provide drug treatment, including counselling and methadone maintenance treatment. There are two treatment centres within prisons (in addition, 12 outpatient centres provide in-reach treatment to prisoners), and two aftercare treatment centres. In general, drug treatment is funded by the national health programmes through a special budget line in the public authority budget.
The drug treatment system in Romania has three levels of assistance and care. The first level is the main access path to integrated care for drug users and provides treatment at primary medical assistance units and emergency rooms, together with general social services; it is delivered by public, private and non-governmental organisations. The second level is called the integrated care services. These are referral centres, operated exclusively by public treatment services, which provide psychiatric units for primary or specialised care, or for mental health treatment. The third level relates to highly specialised care, and consists of inpatient detoxification treatment and residential therapeutic communities. Aftercare services are poorly developed, with one day-care centre in the public network (near Bucharest) and several foundations and NGOs offering assistance in other Romanian cities.
Methadone was introduced in 1998, buprenorphine in 2007, and the combination buprenorphine/naloxone in 2008. The legal procedures for entering into opioid substitution treatment (OST) were revised in 2005 in order to simplify access to treatment.
The coverage rate for OST is estimated to be low, with a total of 371 clients in OST in 2013, of which 338 received methadone maintenance treatment.
See the Treatment profile for Romania for additional information.
Harm reduction responses
Up to 2010 prevention activities targeting drug-related infectious diseases related to injecting were mainly financed under the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria, and were implemented by NGOs. In 2007 needle and syringe programmes funded by the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) were also set up. However, the technical support programmes ended in 2010–11, and in order to address the potential ending of service provision the National Anti-Drug Agency took measures to provide clean needles and syringes through the National Programme of Medical, Psychological and Social Care of Drug Users 2009–12 (syringes were procured for supply in 2012 and 2013). In addition, a decision on further project-based support to NGOs involved in harm reduction service provision was taken. Resources from the structural funds were also allocated in 2011–12, to close the funding gap of the services. In addition, the General Council of Bucharest approved the financial support for harm reduction services. These resources helped fund an NGO-led project providing harm reduction and reintegration programmes for people who inject drugs in 2012–13. Despite all these efforts, further sustainability and funding of harm reduction responses in Romania remains a challenge, although the government made a commitment to step up and expand harm reduction responses in the new National Strategy on Narcotics 2013–20 and its first Action Plan (2013–16).
Needle and syringe programmes are implemented in Bucharest, which is considered to have the most serious problems related to injecting drug use, and also in two counties. However, the demand for such services outside the capital remains low. The 2013 HIV risk assessment confirmed an ongoing lack of prevention coverage in Romania. Two NGOs run outreach programmes for people who inject drugs, and provide needle and syringe exchange programmes, in fixed locations (five units) and via street workers and mobile teams (114 outreach sites), and a needle and syringe programme is available in two prisons. In 2013 NGOs provided services to 5 148 drug users and distributed around two million syringes, nearly doubling the 2012 level of provision. In addition to clean needles and syringes, the programmes also provide free voluntary counselling and testing, free hepatitis A virus and HBV vaccinations, support and information, risk reduction counselling, condoms and referrals to other services. Treatment of drug-related infectious diseases is considered relatively accessible in cases of HIV infection, and difficult in cases of HCV infection.
See the Harm reduction overview for Romania for additional information.
Drug markets and drug-law offences
Due to its geographical location, Romania forms part of the Balkan route for heroin smuggling. The available data indicate that heroin originates in Afghanistan and is trafficked through Turkey and other Balkan countries into Romania towards central and western Europe. Cocaine is shipped from South America in larger quantities through the ports on the Black sea, and is mainly intended for markets outside the country. Cannabis comes from Spain, Greece, Bulgaria, Italy, the Czech Republic or Albania, transits Hungary and Bulgaria, and enters Romania from Hungary. In 2013 a total of 68 cannabis plantations were seized, which is an increase from 48 plantations seized in 2012. While small-scale domestic cultivation of cannabis predominates, an industrial crop of cannabis was discovered in Romania in 2013, aiming to supply markets in Germany and the Czech Republic. Ecstasy and amphetamines originate in west European countries (the Netherlands) and are trafficked to Romania. In 2013 four illicit laboratories were seized in Romania.
Cannabis products remain the primary drugs seized in Romania. In 2013 there was an increase in the number of cannabis plants and in the quantity of heroin and ecstasy seized, while for other drugs the same amounts or less were seized as in the previous year. In 2013, some 8 835 plants and 110 kg of cannabis were seized (compared to 3 125 plants and 300 kg in 2012). The number of heroin seizures slightly increased in 2013 when compared to 2011–12, but remained far below the levels reported before 2010. In 2013, the amount of heroin seized increased almost threefold when compared to 2012 (45 kg in 2012; 111.6 kg in 2013). A decline was reported in the quantity of cocaine seized, from 161 kg in 2011 to 53.3 kg in 2013. Furthermore, 27 506 ecstasy tablets were seized in Romania in 2013.
In 2013, some 913 people were convicted by a court under the national drug legislation (1 096 in 2012; 853 in 2011), the majority (more than 90 %) due to drug trafficking charges.
Look for Drug law offences in the Statistical bulletin for additional data.
National drug laws
Since 2004 penalties have been linked to the type of drug — ‘risk’ or ‘high risk’ — and there are new separate concepts of user and addict, according to diagnosis. The latest changes in the Criminal Code that entered into force on 1 February 2014 reduced several penalty ranges for supply offences.
Drug consumption per se is forbidden, but no punishment is specified. The court can impose a sentence of between three months and two years in prison or a fine in cases of possession for personal use of ‘risk’ drugs, or between six months and three years for ‘high risk’ drugs. When a drug user is convicted of any of these offences, on imprisonment he or she can choose an integrated assistance programme instead; the consent of the drug user is a prerequisite for inclusion in such a programme. This has been enabled by, and clearly defined in, the new Criminal Code.
All actions related to the production and sale of ‘risk’ drugs are punishable by 2–7 years’ imprisonment, while for ‘high risk’ drugs the range is 5–12 years. Import or export of ‘risk’ drugs is punishable by 3–10 years’ imprisonment, but in cases of ‘high risk’ drugs the range is 7–15 years.
In the period 2009–10 some 44 new psychoactive substances were placed under control in Romania. A number of other initiatives were undertaken in 2011–12 to increase monitoring and control of new psychoactive substances, enforcing various existing laws such as consumer safety laws, to counteract their trade and use. At the end of 2011 a new law counteracting the supply of any products with potentially psychoactive effects, regardless of their intended use, was adopted. It defines the characteristics as well as the procedure for how the supply of such products shall be authorised. Violations of the law are crimes punishable by prison sentences of six months to three years (less if the psychoactive effects were not actually known to the seller).
Go to the European Legal Database on Drugs (ELDD) for additional information.
National drug strategy
Romania’s National Anti-Drug Strategy 2013–20 was adopted by the government on 9 October 2013. It was designed following consultations with stakeholders and takes into account the EU Drugs Strategy 2013–20. Reflecting a balanced approach, the National Anti-Drug Strategy is structured around the two pillars of drug demand reduction and drug supply reduction. It also contains three cross-cutting (or transversal) themes: (i) coordination; (ii) international cooperation; and (iii) research, evaluation and information. The National Strategy has five overarching objectives:
- To reduce the demand for drugs by strengthening the national integrated prevention and support system, consistent with scientific findings, to include all prevention programmes, projects and interventions, both general and selective, implemented by the school, family and community, and interventions to identify, attract and motivate drug users with the aim of providing specialised support services targeting social integration.
- To reduce the supply of drugs by identifying and dismantling drug trafficking networks, reducing the availability of drugs on the market and making efficient use of the law enforcement system, together with the development of monitoring and control institutional mechanisms coordinated and adapted to current needs and to the realities of the drugs phenomenon that are able to support in a reliable manner the anti-drug actions.
- To coordinate anti-drug efforts, to ensure a consistent line of action in the field of drugs and drug precursors, to monitor and ensure efficient use of resources and optimisation of intervention results.
- In the field of international cooperation, to reiterate Romania’s commitment, assumed through the international and bilateral agreements it has signed, and to strengthen Romania’s position as an active partner in the global efforts to reduce drug demand, drug supply and drug precursor trafficking.
- To improve awareness of the drugs phenomenon at the national level, based on scientific findings, through monitoring, research and information.
The National Strategy is being implemented through two Action Plans, addressing the periods 2013–16 and 2017–20. Evaluation and analysis form an important part of the National Strategy, and evaluation of both Action Plans and the overall strategy is planned.
Coordination mechanism in the field of drugs
Established in December 2002, the National Anti-Drug Agency (NAA) is a specialised legal entity under the coordination of the Ministry of Internal Affairs. The NAA is tasked with the national coordination of Romania’s anti-drug strategy and the authorities involved in implementing it. In consultation with stakeholders, NGOs and the government, the NAA designed Romania’s National Anti-Drug Strategy 2013–20. The NAA is also responsible for international cooperation between Romanian institutions and foreign organisations working in the field. The Romanian Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction is also located within the NAA as one of its four units. The NAA is supported by a Scientific Committee.
The NAA has 47 drug prevention, evaluation and counselling centres at the local level, six of which are in Bucharest.
In Romania, the financing of drug-related activities is decided annually by the entities in charge of their implementation. Estimates on labelled drug-related public expenditure (1) go back to 2004 but their completeness varies over time. Therefore, it is not possible to provide an estimate of Romanian drug-related public expenditure.
The budget of the National Anti-Drug Agency, i.e. of the agency that coordinates national drug policy, is the only budget item consistently reported over time. However, its share of the total drug-related expenditure is unknown. In the period 2009–12, on average the NAA’s budget represented about 0.003 % of gross domestic product. In 2013, Romania benefited from significant funding from European programmes and from foreign help; the funding was geared towards programmes such as opioid substitution treatment, HIV and HCV screening for people from high-risk groups, and teams with dogs trained in drug trafficking detection.
The available information does not allow the total size and trends in drug-related public expenditure in Romania to be reported.
Drug-related research is mainly conducted by public bodies and NGOs, and findings are disseminated through websites and professional journals. Institutional bodies and NGOs may also benefit from external funds from organisations such as the World Bank, the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria, Open Society Institute, the United Nations Children’s Fund and UNODC. Recent drug-related studies mentioned in the 2014 Romanian National report mainly focused on aspects related to the prevalence and consequences of drug use.
See Drug-related research for more detailed information.
Key national figures and statistics
b Break in time series.
p Eurostat provisional value.
1 Gross domestic product (GDP) is a measure of economic activity. It is defined as the value of all goods and services produced less the value of any goods or services used in their creation. The volume index of GDP per capita in Purchasing Power Standards (PPS) is expressed in relation to the European Union (EU-27) average set to equal 100. If the index of a country is higher than 100, this country's level of GDP per head is higher than the EU average and vice versa.
2 Expenditure on social protection contains: benefits, which consist of transfers, in cash or in kind to households and individuals to relieve them of the burden of a defined set of risks or needs.
3 Unemployment rates represent unemployed persons as a percentage of the labour force. Unemployed persons comprise persons aged 15 to 74 who were: (a) without work during the reference week; (b) currently available for work; (c) actively seeking work.
4 Situation of penal institutions on 1 September, 2012.
5 Share of persons aged 0+ with an equivalent disposable income below the at-risk-of-poverty threshold, which is set at 60 % of the national median equivalised disposable income (after social transfers).
| ||Year || ||EU (28 countries) ||Source |
|Population || 2014 ||19 947 311 e ||506 824 509 ep |
|Population by age classes ||15–24 || 2014 ||11.4 % e ||11.3 % bep |
|25–49 ||36.8 % e ||34.7 % bep |
|50–64 ||19.8 % e ||19.9 % bep |
|GDP per capita in PPS (Purchasing Power Standards) 1 || 2013 ||50 ||100 ||Eurostat |
|Total expenditure on social protection (% of GDP) 2 || 2012 ||15.6 % ||29.5 % p ||Eurostat |
|Unemployment rate 3 || 2014 ||6.8 % ||10.2 % ||Eurostat |
|Unemployment rate of population aged under 25 years || 2014 ||24.0 % ||22.2 % ||Eurostat |
|Prison population rate (per 100 000 of national population) 4 || 2013 ||165.4 || : ||Council of Europe, SPACE I-2013 |
|At risk of poverty rate 5 || 2013 ||22.4 % ||16.6 % ||SILC |
Data sheet — key statistics on the drug situation
| || || || ||EU range || || || |
| ||Year || ||Country data ||Min. ||Max. ||Average ||Rank ||Reporting Countries |
|Opioids || || || || || || || || |
|Problem opioid use (rate/1 000) ||: || ||: ||0.2 ||10.7 || || || |
|All clients entering treatment (%) ||2013 || ||48.8% ||6% ||93% || || || |
|New clients entering treatment (%) ||2013 || ||33.6% ||2% ||81% || || || |
|Purity — heroin brown (%) ||2013 ||1 ||23.4% ||6% ||42% || ||19 ||24 |
|Price per gram — heroin brown (EUR) ||2013 || ||EUR 34 - EUR 45 ||EUR 25 ||EUR 158 || || || |
| || || || || || || || || |
|Cocaine || || || || || || || || |
|Prevalence of drug use — schools (%) ||2011 || ||2.0% ||1% ||5% || || || |
|Prevalence of drug use — young adults (%) ||2010 || ||0.2% ||0% ||4% ||2% || || |
|Prevalence of drug use — all adults (%) ||2010 || ||0.1% ||0% ||2% ||1% ||1 ||26 |
|All clients entering treatment (%) ||2013 || ||0.7% ||0% ||39% || || || |
|New clients entering treatment (%) ||2013 || ||1.3% ||0% ||40% || || || |
|Purity (%) ||2013 || ||41.2% ||20% ||75% || ||16 ||27 |
|Price per gram (EUR) ||2013 ||2 ||EUR 80 - EUR 120 ||EUR 47 ||EUR 103 || || || |
| || || || || || || || || |
|Amphetamines || || || || || || || || |
|Prevalence of drug use — schools (%) ||2011 || ||2.0% ||1% ||7% || || || |
|Prevalence of drug use — young adults (%) ||2010 || ||0.0% ||0% ||3% ||1% || || |
|Prevalence of drug use — all adults (%) ||2010 || ||0.0% ||0% ||1% ||1% ||1 ||25 |
|All clients entering treatment (%) ||2013 || ||0.5% ||0% ||70% || || || |
|New clients entering treatment (%) ||2013 || ||0.8% ||0% ||22% || || || |
|Purity (%) ||2013 || ||19.5% ||5% ||71% || ||19 ||25 |
|Price per gram (EUR) ||: || ||: ||EUR 8 ||EUR 63 || || || |
| || || || || || || || || |
|Ecstasy || || || || || || || || |
|Prevalence of drug use — schools (%) ||2011 || ||2.0% ||1% ||4% || || || |
|Prevalence of drug use — young adults (%) ||2010 || ||0.4% ||0% ||3% ||1% || || |
|Prevalence of drug use — all adults (%) ||2010 || ||0.2% ||0% ||2% ||1% ||2 ||25 |
|All clients entering treatment (%) ||2013 || ||0.1% ||0% ||2% || || || |
|New clients entering treatment (%) ||2013 || ||0.1% ||0% ||4% || || || |
|Purity (mg of MDMA base per unit) ||2013 || ||34 mg ||26 mg ||144 mg || ||2 ||23 |
|Price per tablet (EUR) ||2013 || ||EUR 9.1 - EUR 18.1 ||EUR 3 ||EUR 24 || || || |
| || || || || || || || || |
|Cannabis || || || || || || || || |
|Prevalence of drug use — schools (%) ||2011 || ||7.0% ||5% ||42% || || || |
|Prevalence of drug use — young adults (%) ||2010 || ||0.6% ||0% ||22% ||12% || || |
|Prevalence of drug use — all adults (%) ||2010 || ||0.3% ||0% ||11% ||6% ||1 ||27 |
|All clients entering treatment (%) ||2013 || ||17.0% ||3% ||63% || || || |
|New clients entering treatment (%) ||2013 || ||27.3% ||5% ||80% || || || |
|Potency — herbal (%) ||2013 || ||9.5% ||2% ||13% || ||13 ||22 |
|Potency — resin (%) ||2013 || ||8.9% ||3% ||22% || ||4 ||20 |
|Price per gram — herbal (EUR) ||2013 ||2 ||#REF! ||EUR 4 ||EUR 25 || || || |
|Price per gram — resin (EUR) ||2013 ||2 ||EUR 13.6 - EUR 18.1 ||EUR 3 ||EUR 21 || || || |
| || || || || || || || || |
|Prevalence of problem drug use || || || || || || || || |
|Problem drug use (rate/1 000) ||: || ||: ||2.0 ||10.0 || || || |
|Injecting drug use (rate/1 000) ||: || ||: ||0.2 ||9.2 || || || |
| || || || || || || || || |
|Drug-related infectious diseases/deaths || || || || || || || || |
|HIV infections newly diagnosed (rate/million) ||2013 ||3 ||7.4 ||0.0 ||54.5 || || || |
|HIV prevalence (%) ||2013 || ||49.2% ||0% ||49% || || || |
|HCV prevalence (%) ||: || ||: ||14% ||84% || || || |
|Drug-related deaths (rate/million) ||2013 || ||1.5 ||1.5 ||84.1 || || || |
| || || || || || || || || |
|Health and social responses || || || || || || || || |
|Syringes distributed ||2013 || ||2 051 770 ||124 406 ||9 457 256 || || || |
|Clients in substitution treatment ||2013 || ||387 ||180 ||172 513 || || || |
| || || || || || || || || |
|Treatment demand || || || || || || || || |
|All clients ||2013 || ||1 645 ||289 ||101 753 || || || |
|New clients ||2013 || ||715 ||19 ||35 229 || || || |
|All clients with known primary drug ||2013 || ||1 645 ||287 ||99 186 || || || |
|New clients with known primary drug ||2013 || ||715 ||19 ||34 524 || || || |
| || || || || || || || || |
|Drug law offences || || || || || || || || |
|Number of reports of offences ||2013 || ||913 ||429 ||426 707 || || || |
|Offences for use/possession ||2013 || ||58 ||58 ||397 713 || || || |