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Prevention profiles

What are countries in Europe doing to prevent illicit drug use? These drug 'Prevention profiles' try to answer this question by providing information based on expert appraisal of the level of provision of different prevention interventions in Europe.

The latest update (April 2016) contains additional entries for family based approaches in universal prevention (family to family peer approaches, family or parents meetings and evenings, trainings for family, manualised parenting programmes) and in selective prevention (targeting substance abuse in family, socially disadvantaged parents, family conflict and neglect, criminal justice problems in family, families with mental health problems, ethnic families in marginalisation). These newly added items have been created in a pilot project, which involved a panel of experts from different societal sectors in each country. Therefore the information is not available for all EU countries. We have also added the detailed sub-categories of the Alcohol Control Score (only in the Country-by-country tab).

 

 
 

Prevention profile: United Kingdom

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Environmental strategies [?]

Tobacco and alcohol policies
OptionScore
Gini inequality index:32.8 (EU-27 average: 30.6)
Tobacco Control Scale:74 (EU average: 46.2)
Alcohol Control Score:75.5 (EU average: 71.2)
Breakdown of Alcohol Control Score
Control of production, retail sale and distribution of alcoholic beverages:14
Age limits and personal control:18
Control of drunk driving:2
Control of advertising, marketing and sponsorship of alcoholic beverages:1.5
Public policy:4
Alcohol taxation and price:36
Level of provision (based on expert ratings) as reported in 2015
OptionScore
School setting
School policies:Full provision
Expert's comments:In England advice for schools includes having clear written policies for dealing with drug related incidents. Schools are expected to be closely linked to Targeted Youth Support or wider children���s services for young people who need them. In Scotland, individual schools have their own policies regarding both legal and illegal substances. In Wales, revised guidance for Substance Misuse Education (SME) was published in early summer 2013. The guidance covers all organisations in the statutory, voluntary and independent sectors that offer educational opportunities to children and young people under the age of 19. It provides detailed information in areas relating to the delivery of appropriate SME according to curriculum requirements and specific need; substance misuse incident management including support; legislation and good practice.
Total smoking ban in schools:Full provision
Expert's comments:Smoking in all indoor public and work places is banned throughout the UK since 2007.
Community setting
Development of community plans:Full provision
Expert's comments:The 2010 Drug Strategy has, as one of its three strands, reducing demand, which covers a range of prevention activities. The new local Health and Wellbeing Boards will develop Joint Health and Wellbeing Strategies (JHWS), which will be informed by Joint Strategic Needs Assessments (JSNAs). Statutory guidance on JSNAs and JHWSs will emphasise that these must include the health and social care needs of all children and young people. There is also statutory guidance, which sets out expectations for providing a range of positive activities for young people at the local level. At a national level, Government is providing evidence of what works in the field of prevention through the Centre for Analysis of Youth Transitions (CAYT) repository and the Early Intervention Foundation. In Scotland, there are 30 local Alcohol & Drug Partnerships (ADPs) responsible for formulating and implementing local alcohol and drug strategies to address substance misuse in local areas and this includes the funding of drug treatment and drug prevention services.
Interagency work at community level:Full provision
Expert's comments:Drug Action Teams are local strategic partnerships working to deliver the drug strategy at local level. A similar approach is found in NI, Scotland and Wales. In Scotland, each ADP has a local alcohol and drugs strategy which aims to ensure all relevant partners can contribute to the identification of local needs and focus investment. In England, Health and Wellbeing Boards aim to ensure multi-agency working between health, education and wider services to meet the needs of young people and 98% of Local Authorities have Targeted Youth Support (TYS) in place in some form which aims to link different agencies and specialisms and to provide early interventions with drug or alcohol use. In Wales, from April 2013 the planning and commissioning of services will move predominantly to the Area Planning Boards (APBs) which operate on a regional (Health Board) basis. The membership of the APBs includes representatives from all the responsible authorities which comprise Community Safety Partnerships to enable statutory responsibilities in respect to substance misuse to be discharged at a regional level. APBs are required to work with local authority/CSP areas in their area to ensure that a robust substance misuse commissioning strategy is developed.
Community support, involvement and empowerment systems:Extensive provision
Expert's comments:The Department for Communities and Local Government has a Troubled Families Unit which works with, amongst other things, substance misusing parents. The Frank drug information and advice service was updated last year to contain more information for parents and direct them to other sites for support. The Department for Education are currently contracting for a new drug and alcohol information and advice service for practitioners which will support teachers and other professionals who work with young people and substance misuse. In NI DACT teams support community services. In Scotland ADPs are embedded within wider arrangements for community planning and have a strategic role in co-ordinating efforts to tackle problem drug and alcohol misuse in the local area. The Scottish Recovery Consortium received funding to help develop recovery communities in Scotland and promote recovery. In Scotland, a number of local recovery communities, including recovery cafes, are emerging offering peer support. In Wales a national Peer Mentoring Scheme offers support to assist with the successful transition from treatment to employment, education or training. New child protection legislation has introduced Integrated Family Support for families affected by substance misuse and is currently being piloted.
Training for community groups:Limited provision
Youth centres or youth counselling centres:Extensive provision
Expert's comments:It is a priority in NI, Wales and Scotland, mentioned in England. In England, within the context of local partnership, local authorities have specific strategic responsibility for co-ordinating the overall local offer to young people (which includes all available provision not just that funded by LAs) and for making best use of public resources. They need to do this working with young people, communities and local partners including the voluntary sector, and other agencies such as health and police. In Scotland, the Scottish Government funded (Young Scot) to develop the capacity of substance misuse peer educators across Scotland, by establishing Youth Investigation Teams to investigate substance misuse in their area and prevention
Mobile teams for young people:Rare provision
Expert's comments:Mobile teams for youth would not be organised nationally but commissioned through local Children���s Services, Drug Action Teams (and by Alcohol and Drug Partnerships in Scotland) etc. to address local needs. They are mainly offered by independent drug charities. Detached youth workers and street-based teams are a central part of activity to prevent youth crime and associated problem behaviours. These teams have identified alcohol and, to a lesser extent, drug use as common issues they come into contact with and, under multi-agency working arrangements, have sought to address these. Though some of this work could be considered ���outreach��� with more high risk groups these teams are also used to deliver more universal education and information services and come into contact with a wide range of young people with varying need.
Offer of alternatives to drugs:Extensive provision
Expert's comments:In Scotland the CashBack for Communities scheme includes in range of partnerships with Scottish sporting, arts and youth work organisations to deliver a programme of diversionary activities for young people. The programme is funded using monies recovered from criminals under the Proceeds of Crime Act. In England there is a statutory duty on Local Authorities to make provision for young people in local areas on positive activities. Positive Futures projects are targeted at the most deprived areas and under the ���Aiming High��� scheme 2.5 million young people have benefitted from new provision of positive activities over the past three years and over two thirds of young people aged 11 to 15 benefitting from cultural activities for five hours a week or more. In Wales diversionary activities are planned and commissioned locally by Community Safety Partnerships based upon locally identified need. In Wales, diversionary activities are planned and commissioned locally based upon locally identified need by Community Safety Partnerships in conjunction with Young People Drug and Alcohol teams and Youth Justice Services.
Published studies
OptionScore
Number of published studies:0 (EU average: 0)

Universal prevention [?]

MUSTAP programmes in 2015
OptionScore
Number of MUSTAP programmes:0
Main component:
Delivery mode:
Duration (months):
Coverage (pupils per year):
SCHOOLS: Level of provision (based on expert ratings) as reported in 2015
OptionExistence/availability
Beneficial
Personal and social skills:Limited provision
Expert's comments:PSHE could be seen as a standardised approach. There is also the Social and Emotional Aspects of Learning (SEAL) approach and the ���whole school approach��� to health and wellbeing which focuses on building children���s general life skills. These cut across risk areas such as drug misuse or sexual health and are embedded in national strategies and the expectations on schools.
Likely to be beneficial
Interventions specifically for girls:Rare provision
Expert's comments:Gender and other personal characteristics should be considered in planning sessions and programmes of prevention.
Interventions specifically for boys:Rare provision
Tradeoff between benefits and harm
Events for parents:Extensive provision
Expert's comments:Extensively offered, take up may be variable can be difficult to engage parents. Locally determined to address need.
Non-programme-based peer to peer approaches:Rare provision
Expert's comments:In England Peer to peer programmes are locally determined. Also, in Scotland there is a pilot scheme underway known as ASSIST, although this mainly deals with smoking prevention, there is potential to extend its use to other substances
Unlikely to be beneficial
Creative extracurricular activities:Rare provision
Testing pupils for drugs:Rare provision
Expert's comments:No national policy but it is an option that an individual school may use. The joint DfE /ACPO drug advice to schools does not advocate the use of drug testing. Although no figures are available, it is likely that few, if any, schools actually do this (e.g. perhaps in response to one off events or a drugs incident in school).
Information days about drugs:Limited provision
Visits of law enforcement agents to schools:Limited provision
Expert's comments:ACPO's guidance in England (ACPO 2006) and Safer Schools Partnerships in high crime areas are aimed at early intervention and prevention include a partnership role for community police officers who are based in schools. Elsewhere there is a more structured approach. In NI there is a police education programme e.g. solvent education with strong lay support . See comments above on the delivery of Choices for Life in Scotland ��� SCDEA is a police agency in Scotland and is now part of Police Services Scotland. These events aim to re-enforce classroom teachings avilable to all children in the final year of primary schools. The All Wales School Liaison programme is run by police officers. This serves to enhance relationships between Police and young people subsequently impacting on cultural views.
Other external lecturers:Limited provision
Expert's comments:Few standards and criteria for external providers in England. In Scotland a wide variety of organisations and individuals will be invited into schools. In Wales provision is locally developed and delivered
Only information on drugs (no social skills etc.):Extensive provision
Expert's comments:All schools in England should deliver PSHE and are encouraged to make links to wider subjects where appropriate. Scotland���s Curriculum for Excellence embeds substance misuse education to develop understanding of the use and misuse of a variety of substances, including drugs, prescribed medicines and solvents, and develops understanding of long-term consequences of life-choices.
Non programme-based approach:Limited provision
Expert's comments:In England Government are encouraging the use of evidence-based life skills programmes which cover a range of risky behaviours. In Scotland the Schools (Health Promotion and Nutrition (Scotland ) Act 2007 is supported by guidance on a whole-school approach to promoting the physical, social, mental and emotional health and well being of pupils and staff.
FAMILY: Level of provision (based on expert ratings) as reported in 2015
OptionExistence/availability
Family to family peer approaches:Limited provision
Expert's comments:Primarily delivered through charities and NGOs. Some provision through national organisations is available, such as those provided by Adfam. Adfam is the only national umbrella organisation working specifically with and for families affected by drugs and alcohol. As well as providing support materials and training specifically for families and professionals, Adfam informs policy development and campaigns both locally and nationally for improved family support services. Some locally commissioned substance misuse specific carer/family services are available, but not consistently across the country. Broader provision may also be available through mainstream Carers Centres, although the degree to which their services recognise the specific needs of family members around substance misuse is inconsistent. Usually provided by private organizations (NGOs and charities).
Family or parents meetings and evenings:Extensive provision
Expert's comments:Parents evenings are provided extensively in schools. Family support groups - as a separate concept - may be delivered by a range of other services, including charities or NHS health services or local authority funded social services. Usually provided by public administration/agency.
Trainings (intensive and repeated coaching) for family:Limited provision
Expert's comments:In England there is increasing support for parents and families through schools, including school-based parenting support advisors who provide support to parents in developing their parenting skills. This is delivered according to local need and in the context of wider services. Usually provided by public administration/agency
Manualised parenting programmes:No information
Expert's comments:There are a number of manualised parenting and family programmes offered in the UK. Some of this aim to prevent substance misuse, but not all of them are framed in this way, even though they address know protective factors against substance misuse. Examples include the Strengthening Families Program 10-14 and Triple P.
Published studies
OptionScore
Number of published studies:4 (EU average: 0.8)

Selective prevention [?]

Level of provision (based on expert ratings) as reported in 2015
OptionLevel of intervention
Early school leavers:Extensive provision
Expert's comments:In England the Government���s intention is to reduce the need for exclusion by supporting schools to manage behaviour and to intervene earlier to address any underlying causes of poor behaviour. The Government is currently trialling a new approach to exclusion in a number of local authorities whereby schools retain responsibility for permanently excluded pupils and work in partnership to secure better outcomes for pupils at risk of exclusion. The Department has consulted on a package of reforms of alternative provision (AP), based on the recommendations in Charlie Taylor���s report on AP, and is now taking these forward. They should lead to a sector where those responsible for commissioning provision can choose between a range of high quality providers to find the best way to meet a child's needs. PRUs will have the autonomy to make best use of their resources, and most will in time have converted to AP Academies. AP Free Schools will have introduced diverse provision into areas where it is needed, and other voluntary sector and independent providers will offer services to meet needs that cannot be met elsewhere. In Scotland the ���More Choices, More Chances��� strategy aims to reduce the number of young people not in education, employment or training (NEET). Locally, LA-led MCMC Partnerships are driving a multi-agency approach to ensure the learning and wider support systems deliver better outcomes for those most at risk of moving into a negative destination beyond school. Activity focuses on early identification and on-going tracking and monitoring of those at risk; early intervention to keep them engaged in learning; and re-engaging those who have disengaged to get them back into the system. Every authority has a Youth Employment Action Plan to focus activity. This activity includes delivery of Activity Agreements which are a first step engagement model for many young people aged 16-18 (focusing on 16-17 year-olds) who have disengaged from learning or training and who have multiple barriers to employment. Opportunities for All, introduced in the Scottish Government���s Programme for Government in 2012 ensures a commitment to an offer of a place in learning or training for those 16-19 year-olds not already engaged.
Pupils with social, academic problems:Extensive provision
Expert's comments:In England the Common Assessment Framework (CAF) should help identify pupils needs at an early stage. Service commissioning is determined locally, on the basis of a local needs assessment. In Scotland, the Additional Support for Learning Act places education authorities under duties to identify, make provision for and review the additional support needs of children and young people for whose education they are responsible. Barriers to learning may arise for any reason including due to health, or as a result of substance misuse. Education authorities can request support from other agencies including health and social work services in carrying out their duties.
Immigrants:Rare provision
Expert's comments:The new local Health and Wellbeing Boards will develop Joint Health and Wellbeing Strategies (JHWS) which will be informed by Joint Strategic Needs Assessments (JSNAs). Statutory guidance on JSNAs and JHWSs will emphasise that these must include the health and social care needs of all children and young people. These should be responsive to the patterns in drug use and misuse amongst these groups. While immigrants are not explicitly mentioned within national drug policies there is a clear expectation that local agencies base their service provision on the JSNA.
Ethnic groups:Extensive provision
Expert's comments:Different answer between countries in the UK with some answering At services or statutory bodies (when the target groups visit them) "come-structures Local authorities are expected to consider the needs of different ethnic groups within their Health and Wellbeing Strategies In Scotland several small research and action research projects have been carried out to illustrate the nature and extent of BME communities��� knowledge and use of illegal drugs, their issues and needs and access to services in order to increase knowledge, capacity and skills in this area.
Homeless young people:Extensive provision
Expert's comments:Homeless young people up to the age of 18 should receive an assessment under the provisions of the Children���s Act. This should take into account the wider needs that they may have, including substance misuse. In addition, young people at risk of homelessness can also be assessed using the Common Assessment Framework. . In Scotland, all unintentionally homeless households are entitled to settled accommodation and a new housing support duty to certain households in this category by local authorities will come into force in June 2013. There is statutory guidance for local authorities on preventing homelessness including those at risk of homelessness due to substance misuse. The Welsh Government���s 3 Year Delivery Plan has a commitment to reduce homelessness and help people with substance misuse problems sustain tenancies. Homeless children, young people and adults experience poor physical and mental health and poor access to health services. The Welsh Government acknowledges these issues and aims to tackle them through improved partnership working via the Standard for Improving Health and Wellbeing of Homeless People and Specific Vulnerable Groups.
Young offenders:Extensive provision
Expert's comments:Dedicated substance misuse workers within every youth offending team (YOT) are able to assess the levels of need that individual offenders have and either refer on to other services or deliver some prevention/early intervention work within the YOT itself. There are additional programmes for young people in custody aimed at tackling existing use and preventing further use. In Scotland the Preventing Offending by Young People Framework focuses effort on young people between the ages of 8 and 16 it recognises the need to start prevention work earlier and sustain effort on the transition to adulthood. Through the whole system approach to young people who offend, currently being rolled out nationally, we ensure that a holistic response to dealing with young people is used, where all factors, including any drug misuse issues are addressed in conjunction with other needs. Throughcare Addiction Service (TAS) provides continuity of care for those leaving custody who are not subject to statutory supervision and wish to go on to receive addiction services in the community. This is a national service provided through local authority groupings as the lead agency working alongside SPS, the Alcohol and Drug Partnerships and other stakeholders. The objective is that TAS achieves a seamless transition from substance misuse work undertaken during the custodial period through the immediate post-release period onto the provision of continuing substance misuse work in the community. Substance misuse is one of the primary predictors of future offending behaviour among children and young people. The joint Youth Justice Board (YJB) and Welsh Government youth offending strategy aims to support YOTs and other partners to understake work to prevent and divert children and young people from substance misuse. The Welsh Assembly Government established the Safer Communities Fund during the period of the previous substance misuse strategy to support CSPs and YOTs in this work. Every young person who enters a YOT in Wales, including those released from custodial sentences, is assessed to determine levels of need in relation to substance misuse.
Young people in care institutions:Limited provision
Expert's comments:Getting it Right for Every Child is the Scottish Government���s approach to working with all children and young people and has an acute focus on improving outcomes. GIRFEC concentrates on the child���s individual needs and wellbeing, and seeks to build an appropriate response to these needs and risks. The Looked After Children (Scotland) Regulations provide the legislative framework for the planning and care of children once they have been identified as needing to be looked after, CEL 16 (2009) instructed all Scottish Health Boards to undertake health assessments for all looked after children within 4 weeks of becoming looked after, This will enable any identified needs to be included and addressed in the child���s plan.
Young people in socially disadvantaged neighbourhoods:Extensive provision
Expert's comments:In England in the 2011 Positive for Youth strategy. In Scotland, local authorities, police, health services and third sector organisations in each local Local Authority Area, work together as Community Learning and Development (CLD) Partnerships. Each CLD partnership is required to develop a Community Learning and Development Strategy that is relevant to the priorities and needs of their local area. Where drug misuse is identified as a problem, CLD partners are able to work with other agencies and community representatives to develop strategies using the CLD approach ie that are relevant and centred on the needs and aspirations of the people involved in them. CLD work can effectively deliver drug education, diversionary work and support for communities.
Substance abuse in family:Extensive provision
Expert's comments:As set out in the Think Families programme and particularly the Family Intervention Projects above. Examples: Respect, Social Exclusion Unit, Families at risk report, Hidden Harm. The VCS organisation, Addaction, work with young people in schools who have substance misusing parents. Few service examples available e.g. Families First, Strengthening Families Programme 10-14 in Wales. Getting it right for every child is the Scottish Government���s approach to working with all children and young people and has an acute focus on improving outcomes for children and concentrates on the individual needs and well-being of the child, and seeks to build an appropriate response to these needs and risks. The Scottish Government currently match fund the Partnership Drugs Initiative with the Lloyds TSB Foundation for Scotland. This provides support to Third Sector organisations working directly with and supporting, children and families at risk.
Socially disadvantaged parents:Rare provision
Expert's comments:Not a UK concept in terms of drug policies
Family conflict and neglect:Limited provision
Expert's comments:Though not explicitly mentioned in policy. The programmes described under Think Family target a broad range of complex needs. As the questionnaire is asking specifically for drug prevention programmes in this context this information has not been included as the focus is on supporting and strengthening the family and safeguarding rather than drug prevention per se.
Criminal justice problems in family:Rare provision
Expert's comments:Not within context of drug strategy. Addressed in wider social policies e.g. Think Family. Mentioned in NI policy. The Scottish Government is currently engaging with all 32 of Scotland���s Community Planning Partnerships (CPPs) to roll out GIRFEC across the country. Our team of specialist Implementation Officers, all leaders or Senior Practitioners from agencies delivering front line services to children are playing a key role in supporting the process. Through the GIRFEC Programme Board and its subordinate Working Groups the SG works closely with representatives of an even wider range of external and internal stakeholders to drive forward the process. (Addition by GIRFEC March 2013)
Families with mental health problems:Rare provision
Expert's comments:As above points on Think Family
Ethnic families in marginalisation:No provision
Published studies
OptionScore
Number of published studies:3 (EU average: 0.6)

List of published studies

Environmental strategies

  • Currently no published studies to display

Universal prevention

  •  Stead, M., Stradling, R., MacNeil, M., MacKintosh, A.M., Minty, S., McDermott, L. and Eadie, D. (2010). Bridging the gap between evidence and practice: A multi-perspective examination of real-world drug education Drugs: Education, Prevention, and Policy, 17.
  • Flint, J., Crawford, J., Parr, J. and Powell, R. (2010). A Process Evaluation of Celtic Against Drugs and Rangers Positive Choices. Scottish Government, Edinburgh. http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Publications/2010/01/07144803/0
  • Munro, A. and Bloor, M. (2009). A feasibility study for a schools-based,peer-led, drugs prevention programme, based on the ASSIST programme: the results Centre for Drug Misuse occasional paper. University of Glasgow Centre for Drug Misuse Research, Glasgow. http://www.gla.ac.uk/media/media_135833_en.pdf
  • Welsh, S. (2009). Preventing Smoking and Cannabis use in Secondary Schools: the CASE and CASE+ programme. University of Glasgow Centre for Drug Misuse Research, Glasgow. http://www.gla.ac.uk/media/media_135834_en.pdf

Selective prevention

Indicated prevention

  • Conrod, P.J., Castellanos-Ryan, N. and Strang, J. (2010). Brief, personality-targeted coping skills interventions and survival as a non-drug user over a 2-year period during adolescence. Archives of General Psychiatry 67(1) 85-93. 

 

Glossary of terms used

Definitions and further explanations for many of the terms used in the 'prevention profiles' are given below.

Alcohol Control Score (ACS)

The values for the alcohol control score are taken from Lindeman, M., Karlsson, T. & Österberg, E. (2015) 'Addiction and Lifestyles in Contemporary Europe Reframing Addictions Project', ALICERAP Area 5, Workpackage 14.1. In constructing the scale, the Bridging the Gap(BtG) scale and its weights were used as a starting point. These weights were adjusted and validated by referring to state of the art research on evidence-based practice in the field of alcohol policy to measure the strictness and comprehensiveness of alcohol policies. Maximum 160 points, composed of sub-scores for:

  • control of production, retail sale and distribution of alcoholic beverages (max. 40);
  • age limits and personal control (max. 24);
  • control of drunk driving (max. 24);
  • control of advertising, marketing and sponsorship of alcoholic beverages (max. 24);
  • public policy (max. 8) and;
  • alcohol taxation and price (max. 40).
Beneficial

Beneficial interventions are defined as those interventions for which precise measures of the effects in favour of the treatment were found in the systematic review of randomised controlled trials (RCTs).

Come-structures

The target group is expected to contact existing services by their own initiative: the user comes to the service.

Community support, involvement and empowerment systems

The informal and personal support and reference systems (the 'significant others') of community members: the involvement of family members, mentors, teachers, peers and others respected by the target groups.

Level of provision information provided here is based on the opinion of an expert (or panel of experts) in each country. Key for ratings (key and corresponding response in questionnaire): 'None or 'No provision: 'doesn't exist'; Rare provision: 'exists in just a few relevant locations'; Limited provision: 'exists in more than a few relevant locations (but not in a majority of them)'; Extensive provision: 'exists in a majority of relevant location (but not in nearly all of them)'; Full provision: 'exists in nearly all relevant locations'.

Creative extracurricular activities

Activities organised by schools, mainly for the purposes of drug prevention, usually at the school premises, but outside the school syllabus, such as workshops, sports, photography, art, drama, etc. Unlikely to be beneficial.

Level of provision information provided here is based on the opinion of an expert (or panel of experts) in each country. Key for ratings (key and corresponding response in questionnaire): 'None or 'No provision: 'doesn't exist'; Rare provision: 'exists in just a few relevant locations'; Limited provision: 'exists in more than a few relevant locations (but not in a majority of them)'; Extensive provision: 'exists in a majority of relevant location (but not in nearly all of them)'; Full provision: 'exists in nearly all relevant locations'.

Criminal justice problems in family

Families where parents or offspring have criminal record problems.

Level of provision information provided here is based on the opinion of an expert (or panel of experts) in each country. Key for ratings (key and corresponding response in questionnaire): 'None or 'No provision: 'doesn't exist'; Rare provision: 'exists in just a few relevant locations'; Limited provision: 'exists in more than a few relevant locations (but not in a majority of them)'; Extensive provision: 'exists in a majority of relevant location (but not in nearly all of them)'; Full provision: 'exists in nearly all relevant locations'.

Development of community plans

Community plans that include a (drug) prevention strategy.

Level of provision information provided here is based on the opinion of an expert (or panel of experts) in each country. Key for ratings (key and corresponding response in questionnaire): 'None or 'No provision: 'doesn't exist'; Rare provision: 'exists in just a few relevant locations'; Limited provision: 'exists in more than a few relevant locations (but not in a majority of them)'; Extensive provision: 'exists in a majority of relevant location (but not in nearly all of them)'; Full provision: 'exists in nearly all relevant locations'.

Early detection mechanisms in school

Early identification mechanisms for intervention in pupils with risk behaviours related to drug use, an initiative where with universal and indicated prevention overlap. Often, universal programmes that address, for instance, school climate and social interactions include techniques to identify vulnerable pupils to be then catered for in more targeted interventions.

Level of provision information provided here is based on the opinion of an expert (or panel of experts) in each country. Key for ratings (key and corresponding response in questionnaire): 'None or 'No provision: 'doesn't exist'; Rare provision: 'exists in just a few relevant locations'; Limited provision: 'exists in more than a few relevant locations (but not in a majority of them)'; Extensive provision: 'exists in a majority of relevant location (but not in nearly all of them)'; Full provision: 'exists in nearly all relevant locations'.

Early school leavers

Young people who have left school or are not attending regularly (not necessarily because of drug use).

Level of provision information provided here is based on the opinion of an expert (or panel of experts) in each country. Key for ratings (key and corresponding response in questionnaire): 'None or 'No provision: 'doesn't exist'; Rare provision: 'exists in just a few relevant locations'; Limited provision: 'exists in more than a few relevant locations (but not in a majority of them)'; Extensive provision: 'exists in a majority of relevant location (but not in nearly all of them)'; Full provision: 'exists in nearly all relevant locations'.

Evaluation activity

Evaluation is defined here as the systematic and scientific collection, processing and analysis of data related to the implementation of an intervention, in order to assess whether the objectives of an intervention have been achieved. The evaluation activity is based on entries in the Exchange on Drug Demand Reduction Action (EDDRA) database, an online archive of evaluated interventions in drug demand reduction implemented in EMCDDA member countries. Entries are submitted to the database by focal points within each country.

Evaluation activity score

The evaluation activity score for a given type of prevention is derived from the share of projects entered by a country into EDDRA since 2000 for that type of prevention. Projects in EDDRA are rated by a quality level, which assesses the quality of the intervention evaluation (see the EDDRA quality levels page for more information). The different quality levels of the entries are weighted in the score (1 lowest) to 3 (highest). Therefore the number of prevention interventions in EDDRA is a proxy for the activity level in systematically designing and evaluating interventions in a country's prevention culture, and does not reflect the overall number of existing prevention projects.

Environmental strategies

Environmental strategies are prevention strategies aimed at altering the immediate cultural, social, physical and economic environments in which people make their choices about drug use. This perspective takes into account that individuals do not become involved with substances solely on the basis of personal characteristics but are rather influenced by perceived norms, values and informal rules in their communities. See Environmental strategies for more information.

Ethnic families in marginalisation

Families whose migration background obstructs social integration into local community.

Level of provision information provided here is based on the opinion of an expert (or panel of experts) in each country. Key for ratings (key and corresponding response in questionnaire): 'None or 'No provision: 'doesn't exist'; Rare provision: 'exists in just a few relevant locations'; Limited provision: 'exists in more than a few relevant locations (but not in a majority of them)'; Extensive provision: 'exists in a majority of relevant location (but not in nearly all of them)'; Full provision: 'exists in nearly all relevant locations'.

Ethnic groups

Groups that have lived for more than one generation (or much longer) in a country while preserving their own identity, norms, values and language.

Level of provision information provided here is based on the opinion of an expert (or panel of experts) in each country. Key for ratings (key and corresponding response in questionnaire): 'None or 'No provision: 'doesn't exist'; Rare provision: 'exists in just a few relevant locations'; Limited provision: 'exists in more than a few relevant locations (but not in a majority of them)'; Extensive provision: 'exists in a majority of relevant location (but not in nearly all of them)'; Full provision: 'exists in nearly all relevant locations'.

Events for parents

Activities for parents organised by schools and usually at the school premises, but outside the school syllabus. Tradeoff between benefits and harm.

Level of provision information provided here is based on the opinion of an expert (or panel of experts) in each country. Key for ratings (key and corresponding response in questionnaire): 'None or 'No provision: 'doesn't exist'; Rare provision: 'exists in just a few relevant locations'; Limited provision: 'exists in more than a few relevant locations (but not in a majority of them)'; Extensive provision: 'exists in a majority of relevant location (but not in nearly all of them)'; Full provision: 'exists in nearly all relevant locations'.

Family conflict and neglect

Conflictive or dysfunctional families where neglect might occur.

Level of provision information provided here is based on the opinion of an expert (or panel of experts) in each country. Key for ratings (key and corresponding response in questionnaire): 'None or 'No provision: 'doesn't exist'; Rare provision: 'exists in just a few relevant locations'; Limited provision: 'exists in more than a few relevant locations (but not in a majority of them)'; Extensive provision: 'exists in a majority of relevant location (but not in nearly all of them)'; Full provision: 'exists in nearly all relevant locations'.

Families with mental health problems

Families where parents or offspring have mental health, e.g. depression.

Level of provision information provided here is based on the opinion of an expert (or panel of experts) in each country. Key for ratings (key and corresponding response in questionnaire): 'None or 'No provision: 'doesn't exist'; Rare provision: 'exists in just a few relevant locations'; Limited provision: 'exists in more than a few relevant locations (but not in a majority of them)'; Extensive provision: 'exists in a majority of relevant location (but not in nearly all of them)'; Full provision: 'exists in nearly all relevant locations'.

Family or parents meetings and evenings

Organization of events for parents or th entire family.

Level of provision information provided here is based on the opinion of an expert (or panel of experts) in each country. Key for ratings (key and corresponding response in questionnaire): 'None or 'No provision: 'doesn't exist'; Rare provision: 'exists in just a few relevant locations'; Limited provision: 'exists in more than a few relevant locations (but not in a majority of them)'; Extensive provision: 'exists in a majority of relevant location (but not in nearly all of them)'; Full provision: 'exists in nearly all relevant locations'.

Family to family peer approaches

Family to family peer approaches are techniques aiming to involve families in prevention activities or networks through other families, with a snowbolling effect.

Level of provision information provided here is based on the opinion of an expert (or panel of experts) in each country. Key for ratings (key and corresponding response in questionnaire): 'None or 'No provision: 'doesn't exist'; Rare provision: 'exists in just a few relevant locations'; Limited provision: 'exists in more than a few relevant locations (but not in a majority of them)'; Extensive provision: 'exists in a majority of relevant location (but not in nearly all of them)'; Full provision: 'exists in nearly all relevant locations'.

Gini inequality index

The Gini inequality index measures income inequality between the richest decile of a population and the poorest. It ranges from 0 (everyone has the same income) to 100 (one person has all the income) and is a good proxy for social inequality. Most countries range between 25 and 60.

The impact of social inequality on health gained attention with the controversy over Pickett and Wilkinson’s (2010) assertion that problems like substance use, teenage pregnancies, violence etc. are higher in more unequal societies because of the increased competition for status and positional goods affects people’s physiological and physical well-being. A WHO (CSDH, 2008) report and the Marmot Review (2010) for the UK confirmed that inequalities in health including substance use problems are related to social inequality.

We have included the Gini inequality index for three reasons:

  1. Social inequality seems to be a crucial environmental condition that affects people's health choices (including substance use) and is — together with alcohol and tobacco policies — a framework condition that can act against or in support of prevention interventions. Prevention efforts and their overall effects need to be viewed in the context of these determinants.
  2. It puts into plausible context why some more equal societies, e.g. the Scandinavian countries and particularly Finland, focus less on single programmes to curb the emergence of problems but rather rely on social inclusion policies at all relevant levels: family, school, community and society.
  3. More unequal countries might need more sophisticated prevention programmes. There is evidence that such prevention programmes can reduce the effects of social inequality on behavioural outcomes. For instance: some universal programmes  have selectively (differentially) better effects on the more vulnerable, within the children exposed (Ialongo et al. 1999; Kellam et al. 2008); selective family-based programmes are more effective the more vulnerable the families are (Kumpfer et al. 2008; Webster-Stratton 2001); and also indicated programme  can bring the most behaviourally difficult children to better social functioning (see the EMCDDA thematic paper 'Preventing later substance use disorders in at-risk children and adolescents', 2009).
Go-structures

The target group is proactively approached and involved, for example at home or on the street: the service goes to the user.

Homeless young people

Young people who have fled their families or care institutions.

Level of provision information provided here is based on the opinion of an expert (or panel of experts) in each country. Key for ratings (key and corresponding response in questionnaire): 'None or 'No provision: 'doesn't exist'; Rare provision: 'exists in just a few relevant locations'; Limited provision: 'exists in more than a few relevant locations (but not in a majority of them)'; Extensive provision: 'exists in a majority of relevant location (but not in nearly all of them)'; Full provision: 'exists in nearly all relevant locations'.

Immigrants

Groups that have recently arrived in a country and may be striving to adapt culturally and economically.

Level of provision information provided here is based on the opinion of an expert (or panel of experts) in each country. Key for ratings (key and corresponding response in questionnaire): 'None or 'No provision: 'doesn't exist'; Rare provision: 'exists in just a few relevant locations'; Limited provision: 'exists in more than a few relevant locations (but not in a majority of them)'; Extensive provision: 'exists in a majority of relevant location (but not in nearly all of them)'; Full provision: 'exists in nearly all relevant locations'.

Indicated prevention

Indicated prevention aims to identify individuals who are exhibiting behaviours that are highly correlated with an individual risk of developing substance abuse later in their lives (such as psychiatric disorder, school failure, dissocial behaviour, etc.) or, displaying early signs of problematic substance use, and to target them with special interventions. See Indicated prevention for more information.

Information days about drugs

Organisation of drug information days and activities. Also project weeks, competitions, exhibitions, etc., organised on the theme of drug information. Full days (not just a lesson). Unlikely to be beneficial.

Level of provision information provided here is based on the opinion of an expert (or panel of experts) in each country. Key for ratings (key and corresponding response in questionnaire): 'None or 'No provision: 'doesn't exist'; Rare provision: 'exists in just a few relevant locations'; Limited provision: 'exists in more than a few relevant locations (but not in a majority of them)'; Extensive provision: 'exists in a majority of relevant location (but not in nearly all of them)'; Full provision: 'exists in nearly all relevant locations'.

Interangency work at community level

Interagency work refers to the formal and institutional networks and support systems within a community. It offers community members a broad and coordinated network system including services for needs of the individual, e.g. social welfare, housing, family mediation etc.

Level of provision information provided here is based on the opinion of an expert (or panel of experts) in each country. Key for ratings (key and corresponding response in questionnaire): 'None or 'No provision: 'doesn't exist'; Rare provision: 'exists in just a few relevant locations'; Limited provision: 'exists in more than a few relevant locations (but not in a majority of them)'; Extensive provision: 'exists in a majority of relevant location (but not in nearly all of them)'; Full provision: 'exists in nearly all relevant locations'.

Interventions specifically for boys

Boy-specific risk profiles are considered and/or gender-specific cognitive, developmental and emotional aspects are differentially addressed, often in specific interventions. Likely to be beneficial.

Level of provision information provided here is based on the opinion of an expert (or panel of experts) in each country. Key for ratings (key and corresponding response in questionnaire): 'None or 'No provision: 'doesn't exist'; Rare provision: 'exists in just a few relevant locations'; Limited provision: 'exists in more than a few relevant locations (but not in a majority of them)'; Extensive provision: 'exists in a majority of relevant location (but not in nearly all of them)'; Full provision: 'exists in nearly all relevant locations'.

Interventions specifically for girls

Girl-specific risk profiles are considered and/or gender-specific cognitive, developmental and emotional aspects are differentially addressed, often in specific interventions. Likely to be beneficial.

Level of provision information provided here is based on the opinion of an expert (or panel of experts) in each country. Key for ratings (key and corresponding response in questionnaire): 'None or 'No provision: 'doesn't exist'; Rare provision: 'exists in just a few relevant locations'; Limited provision: 'exists in more than a few relevant locations (but not in a majority of them)'; Extensive provision: 'exists in a majority of relevant location (but not in nearly all of them)'; Full provision: 'exists in nearly all relevant locations'.

Likely to be beneficial

Interventions which are likely to be beneifical are interventions that were shown to have limited measures of effect, that are likely to be effective but for which evidence is limited.

Level of provision (based on expert opinion) in reporting year

Level of provision information is based on information provided to the EMCDDA through structured questionnaires from the Reitox national focal point in the country in question. These questionnaires are filled in by an expert, or panel of experts, in each country, submitted to the EMCDDA over the Internet, and the responses form the basis of the 'level of provision' data provided in the prevention profiles. The 'About "prevention profiles"' page provides further information, including access to the structured questionnaires.

Level of provision ratings

For readability purposes, the level of provision (based on expert opinion) ratings may be used in a shortened form in a country's prevention profile. The shortened form and the corresponding full term (as it appeared in the questionnaire are given here). 'None or 'No provision: 'doesn't exist'; Rare provision: 'exists in just a few relevant locations'; Limited provision: 'exists in more than a few relevant locations (but not in a majority of them)'; Extensive provision: 'exists in a majority of relevant location (but not in nearly all of them)'; Full provision: 'exists in nearly all relevant locations'.

Manualised parenting programmes

Programmes that are implemented in a modular structured format with defined contents and respective lessons.

Level of provision information provided here is based on the opinion of an expert (or panel of experts) in each country. Key for ratings (key and corresponding response in questionnaire): 'None or 'No provision: 'doesn't exist'; Rare provision: 'exists in just a few relevant locations'; Limited provision: 'exists in more than a few relevant locations (but not in a majority of them)'; Extensive provision: 'exists in a majority of relevant location (but not in nearly all of them)'; Full provision: 'exists in nearly all relevant locations'.

Mobile teams for young people

Prevention teams (but not mobile teams for IDUs, nor outreach teams for high risk groups). They are popular in the Nordic countries.

Level of provision information provided here is based on the opinion of an expert (or panel of experts) in each country. Key for ratings (key and corresponding response in questionnaire): 'None or 'No provision: 'doesn't exist'; Rare provision: 'exists in just a few relevant locations'; Limited provision: 'exists in more than a few relevant locations (but not in a majority of them)'; Extensive provision: 'exists in a majority of relevant location (but not in nearly all of them)'; Full provision: 'exists in nearly all relevant locations'.

MUSTAP programmes

MUSTAP programmes are defined as structured, standardised and multi-session interventions with detailed material and manuals and concrete contents for each lesson.

MUSTAP: Coverage (pupils per year)

The total number of students who participated in the MUSTAP programmes in the reporting year.

MUSTAP: delivery mode

The delivery mode can be:

  • Interactive: More than 50 % of the sessions consist of role play, discussions, group work, etc. Increases effectiveness.
  • Didactic/frontal: Delivery of interventions is through frontal teaching. Reduces effectiveness.
MUSTAP: duration (months)

The mean duration of the programmes in months.

MUSTAP: main component

There are five possible components for MUSTAP programmes:

  • Personal skills: Increase goal setting, coping (deal with hardship), motivation and decision making (identifying problems, creating solutions and making choices among alternatives).
  • Social skills: Increase assertiveness, communication skills (listening, flirting, making compliments), empathy and expression of feelings and sometimes to resist peer pressure.
  • Normative beliefs: Correct the very widespread belief of young people that drug consumption among their peers is normal, accepted and frequent. An effective component.
  • Affective education: Aim to increase self-esteem by developing individual feelings of self-worth and value. Students are taught to accept and play down failings and difficulties. Self-labelling of failure is discouraged. No proof of effectiveness.
  • Information provision : Provide information about drugs, their effects and dangers. No proof of effectiveness when delivered alone.
Number of MUSTAP programmes

Total number of MUSTAP programmes implemented in the reporting year.

Number of published studies

The number of published studies is defined as the total number of studies evaluating interventions relating to this type of prevention within the country, published in scientific journals, (mostly) as reported through the Reitox network in the previous 2 years.

Offer of alternatives to drugs

The involvement of 'participants' in sport, outdoor pursuits, creative writing, photography, art, etc.

Level of provision information provided here is based on the opinion of an expert (or panel of experts) in each country. Key for ratings (key and corresponding response in questionnaire): 'None or 'No provision: 'doesn't exist'; Rare provision: 'exists in just a few relevant locations'; Limited provision: 'exists in more than a few relevant locations (but not in a majority of them)'; Extensive provision: 'exists in a majority of relevant location (but not in nearly all of them)'; Full provision: 'exists in nearly all relevant locations'.

Other external lecturers

E.g. ex-users, experts, physicians providing information about drugs and their risks. Unlikely to be beneficial.

Level of provision information provided here is based on the opinion of an expert (or panel of experts) in each country. Key for ratings (key and corresponding response in questionnaire): 'None or 'No provision: 'doesn't exist'; Rare provision: 'exists in just a few relevant locations'; Limited provision: 'exists in more than a few relevant locations (but not in a majority of them)'; Extensive provision: 'exists in a majority of relevant location (but not in nearly all of them)'; Full provision: 'exists in nearly all relevant locations'.

Non programme-based approach:

This approach is in contrast to a programme-based approach in that there is no specific programme or module in the syllabus dealing with prevention. Instead, teachers freely deliver, prevention-related content on an ad hoc or as-needed basis, so that prevention material is spread over different school activities and disciplines. It is often referred to as an 'holistic' or 'ecological' approach. Its scope is much broader than providing just information on drugs as it might also include norms, social competences etc.

Level of provision information provided here is based on the opinion of an expert (or panel of experts) in each country. Key for ratings (key and corresponding response in questionnaire): 'None or 'No provision: 'doesn't exist'; Rare provision: 'exists in just a few relevant locations'; Limited provision: 'exists in more than a few relevant locations (but not in a majority of them)'; Extensive provision: 'exists in a majority of relevant location (but not in nearly all of them)'; Full provision: 'exists in nearly all relevant locations'.

Non-programme-based peer to peer approaches

Peer leaders (often popular pupils) are trained to deliver prevention related content or messages to other pupils. Tradeoff between benefits and harm.

Level of provision information provided here is based on the opinion of an expert (or panel of experts) in each country. Key for ratings (key and corresponding response in questionnaire): 'None or 'No provision: 'doesn't exist'; Rare provision: 'exists in just a few relevant locations'; Limited provision: 'exists in more than a few relevant locations (but not in a majority of them)'; Extensive provision: 'exists in a majority of relevant location (but not in nearly all of them)'; Full provision: 'exists in nearly all relevant locations'.

Only information on drugs (no social skills etc.)

Only the provision of information on drugs (risks associated with drug use, facts, etc.) is included within school curricula or various school subjects. There is no component aimed at developing personal and social skills for example, (e.g through role playing exercises, or by open discussion in the classroom). Unlikely to be beneficial.

Level of provision information provided here is based on the opinion of an expert (or panel of experts) in each country. Key for ratings (key and corresponding response in questionnaire): 'None or 'No provision: 'doesn't exist'; Rare provision: 'exists in just a few relevant locations'; Limited provision: 'exists in more than a few relevant locations (but not in a majority of them)'; Extensive provision: 'exists in a majority of relevant location (but not in nearly all of them)'; Full provision: 'exists in nearly all relevant locations'.

Personal and social skills

Personal and/or social skills training (outside standardised programmes) as a specific intervention method (tools, manuals, trainings). Personal skills include: increase goal setting, coping (deal with hardship), motivation and decision making (identifying problems, creating solutions and making choices among alternatives). Social skills include: Increase assertiveness, communication skills (listening, flirting, making compliments), empathy and expression of feelings and sometimes to resist peer pressure. Beneficial.

Level of provision information provided here is based on the opinion of an expert (or panel of experts) in each country. Key for ratings (key and corresponding response in questionnaire): 'None or 'No provision: 'doesn't exist'; Rare provision: 'exists in just a few relevant locations'; Limited provision: 'exists in more than a few relevant locations (but not in a majority of them)'; Extensive provision: 'exists in a majority of relevant location (but not in nearly all of them)'; Full provision: 'exists in nearly all relevant locations'.

Pupils with social, academic problems

Young people deemed at risk of abandoning school because of low achievement, lack of support from home or other social problems.

Level of provision information provided here is based on the opinion of an expert (or panel of experts) in each country. Key for ratings (key and corresponding response in questionnaire): 'None or 'No provision: 'doesn't exist'; Rare provision: 'exists in just a few relevant locations'; Limited provision: 'exists in more than a few relevant locations (but not in a majority of them)'; Extensive provision: 'exists in a majority of relevant location (but not in nearly all of them)'; Full provision: 'exists in nearly all relevant locations'.

School policies

Norms and agreements regarding illicit drug consumption in a given school, e.g. how to deal with pupils using, or dealing, illegal drugs.

Level of provision information provided here is based on the opinion of an expert (or panel of experts) in each country. Key for ratings (key and corresponding response in questionnaire): 'None or 'No provision: 'doesn't exist'; Rare provision: 'exists in just a few relevant locations'; Limited provision: 'exists in more than a few relevant locations (but not in a majority of them)'; Extensive provision: 'exists in a majority of relevant location (but not in nearly all of them)'; Full provision: 'exists in nearly all relevant locations'.

Selective prevention

Selective prevention specifically addresses the vulnerability of specific sub-populations whose risk of a disorder is significantly higher than average. Often this higher vulnerability to problem drug use stems from social exclusion, e.g. for young offenders, school drop-outs, or students, who are failing academically. See Selective prevention for more information.

Substance abuse in family

Families, where parents or siblings have substance abuse problems (including alcohol).

Level of provision information provided here is based on the opinion of an expert (or panel of experts) in each country. Key for ratings (key and corresponding response in questionnaire): 'None or 'No provision: 'doesn't exist'; Rare provision: 'exists in just a few relevant locations'; Limited provision: 'exists in more than a few relevant locations (but not in a majority of them)'; Extensive provision: 'exists in a majority of relevant location (but not in nearly all of them)'; Full provision: 'exists in nearly all relevant locations'.

Socially disadvantaged parents

Families with low socio-economic level including unemployment.

Level of provision information provided here is based on the opinion of an expert (or panel of experts) in each country. Key for ratings (key and corresponding response in questionnaire): 'None or 'No provision: 'doesn't exist'; Rare provision: 'exists in just a few relevant locations'; Limited provision: 'exists in more than a few relevant locations (but not in a majority of them)'; Extensive provision: 'exists in a majority of relevant location (but not in nearly all of them)'; Full provision: 'exists in nearly all relevant locations'.

Tobacco and alcohol policies

The Tobacco Control Scale and the Alcohol Control Score indicate to which extent the availability, normality and 'acceptability' of tobacco and alcohol are addressed in countries' policies.

Testing pupils for drugs

Pupils can be tested for drugs in school premises. Unlikely to be beneficial.

Level of provision information provided here is based on the opinion of an expert (or panel of experts) in each country. Key for ratings (key and corresponding response in questionnaire): 'None or 'No provision: 'doesn't exist'; Rare provision: 'exists in just a few relevant locations'; Limited provision: 'exists in more than a few relevant locations (but not in a majority of them)'; Extensive provision: 'exists in a majority of relevant location (but not in nearly all of them)'; Full provision: 'exists in nearly all relevant locations'.

Tobacco Control Scale (TCS)

The Tobacco Control Scale is a scale designed to quantify the implementation of tobacco control policies at country level. Maximum 100 points, composed of sub-scores for:

  • price of cigarettes and other tobacco products (max. 30);
  • smoke free work and other public places (max. 22);
  • spending on public information campaigns (max. 15);
  • comprehensive bans on advertising and promotion (max. 13);
  • large direct health warning labels (max. 10) and;
  • treatment to help dependent smokers stop (max. 10).

For more information see Joossens, L. and Raw M., (2014), 'The Tobacco Control Scale 2013 in Europe' (external link)

Total smoking ban in schools

Smoking is forbidden in the entire school premises, both for pupils and teachers.

Level of provision information provided here is based on the opinion of an expert (or panel of experts) in each country. Key for ratings (key and corresponding response in questionnaire): 'None or 'No provision: 'doesn't exist'; Rare provision: 'exists in just a few relevant locations'; Limited provision: 'exists in more than a few relevant locations (but not in a majority of them)'; Extensive provision: 'exists in a majority of relevant location (but not in nearly all of them)'; Full provision: 'exists in nearly all relevant locations'.

Tradeoff between benefits and harms

Tradeoff between benefits and harms refers to interventions that obtained measures of effects but that have limitations and/or adverse effects and which therefore need to be assessed on a case-by-case basis before implementing them.

Training for community groups

Training in prevention and empowerment for existing groups within communities.

Level of provision information provided here is based on the opinion of an expert (or panel of experts) in each country. Key for ratings (key and corresponding response in questionnaire): 'None or 'No provision: 'doesn't exist'; Rare provision: 'exists in just a few relevant locations'; Limited provision: 'exists in more than a few relevant locations (but not in a majority of them)'; Extensive provision: 'exists in a majority of relevant location (but not in nearly all of them)'; Full provision: 'exists in nearly all relevant locations'.

Trainings (intensive and repeated coaching) for family

Organization of specific training activities with family. It includes coaching sessions.

Level of provision information provided here is based on the opinion of an expert (or panel of experts) in each country. Key for ratings (key and corresponding response in questionnaire): 'None or 'No provision: 'doesn't exist'; Rare provision: 'exists in just a few relevant locations'; Limited provision: 'exists in more than a few relevant locations (but not in a majority of them)'; Extensive provision: 'exists in a majority of relevant location (but not in nearly all of them)'; Full provision: 'exists in nearly all relevant locations'.

Universal prevention

Universal prevention strategies address the entire population (national, local community, school, neighbourhood) with messages and programmes aimed at preventing or delaying the abuse of alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs. See Universal prevention for more information.

Unlikely to be beneficial

Interventions ared defined as 'unlikely to be beneficial' when there are not enough studies or where available studies are of low quality.

Visits of law enforcement agents to schools

In some Member States, police have a role in schools, which can be anything from carrying out prevention interventions to strengthening the law and rules. Often they provide information about drugs. Unlikely to be beneficial.

Level of provision information provided here is based on the opinion of an expert (or panel of experts) in each country. Key for ratings (key and corresponding response in questionnaire): 'None or 'No provision: 'doesn't exist'; Rare provision: 'exists in just a few relevant locations'; Limited provision: 'exists in more than a few relevant locations (but not in a majority of them)'; Extensive provision: 'exists in a majority of relevant location (but not in nearly all of them)'; Full provision: 'exists in nearly all relevant locations'.

Young people in care institutions

Young people who are in state institutions like e.g. shelter houses, orphanages, etc., but not prisons or other incarceration facilities.

Level of provision information provided here is based on the opinion of an expert (or panel of experts) in each country. Key for ratings (key and corresponding response in questionnaire): 'None or 'No provision: 'doesn't exist'; Rare provision: 'exists in just a few relevant locations'; Limited provision: 'exists in more than a few relevant locations (but not in a majority of them)'; Extensive provision: 'exists in a majority of relevant location (but not in nearly all of them)'; Full provision: 'exists in nearly all relevant locations'.

Young offenders

Young people who have been in contact with the criminal justice system, mainly because of possession of illegal drugs.

Level of provision information provided here is based on the opinion of an expert (or panel of experts) in each country. Key for ratings (key and corresponding response in questionnaire): 'None or 'No provision: 'doesn't exist'; Rare provision: 'exists in just a few relevant locations'; Limited provision: 'exists in more than a few relevant locations (but not in a majority of them)'; Extensive provision: 'exists in a majority of relevant location (but not in nearly all of them)'; Full provision: 'exists in nearly all relevant locations'.

Youth centres or youth counselling centres

A youth centre is a dedicated premises within a community, offering a drop-in facility for youth. Youth centres may include sports and other recreational facilities as well as advice and counselling services.

Level of provision information provided here is based on the opinion of an expert (or panel of experts) in each country. Key for ratings (key and corresponding response in questionnaire): 'None or 'No provision: 'doesn't exist'; Rare provision: 'exists in just a few relevant locations'; Limited provision: 'exists in more than a few relevant locations (but not in a majority of them)'; Extensive provision: 'exists in a majority of relevant location (but not in nearly all of them)'; Full provision: 'exists in nearly all relevant locations'.

Young people in socially disadvantaged neighbourhoods

Young people in neighbourhoods with higher use and availability of substances, delinquency and a poor housing, socio-economic and demographic situation.

Level of provision information provided here is based on the opinion of an expert (or panel of experts) in each country. Key for ratings (key and corresponding response in questionnaire): 'None or 'No provision: 'doesn't exist'; Rare provision: 'exists in just a few relevant locations'; Limited provision: 'exists in more than a few relevant locations (but not in a majority of them)'; Extensive provision: 'exists in a majority of relevant location (but not in nearly all of them)'; Full provision: 'exists in nearly all relevant locations'.


About the EMCDDA

The European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA) is the reference point on drugs and drug addiction information in Europe. Inaugurated in Lisbon in 1995, it is one of the EU's decentralised agencies. Read more >>

Contact us

EMCDDA
Praça Europa 1, Cais do Sodré
1249-289 Lisbon
Portugal
Tel. (351) 211 21 02 00
Fax (351) 218 13 17 11

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Page last updated: Friday, 08 April 2016